Patient Advocacy In Nursing Practice Essay Example

Although available scholarship shows that nursing advocacy is a relatively new concept (Kibble, 2012), it is evident that the role of the nurse as an advocate in healthcare settings is not necessary new considering that nurses have historically been involved in identifying patient needs and seeking ways to have these needs met (Maryland & Gonzalez, 2012).

In the recent past, stakeholders in the health sector have been in agreement that patients require advocates for optimal treatment and care outcomes, but are still to agree on whether nursing professionals are in the superlative position to provide such services (Kibble, 2012). In this light, the present paper reviews available nursing literature to provide a well reasoned discussion on the role of the nurse in the continuum of patient advocacy.

Owing to the fact that advocacy basically entails the practice of persuading an individual or an entity to at least consider one’s point of view, it can be argued that a major nursing role in patient advocacy involves representing the patients in the policy-making process at the community and legislative arenas (Maryland & Gonzalez, 2012).

As demonstrated by these authors, nurses are better placed to not only identify prevailing patients care needs and concerns, but also to share these experiences and insights with public and elected administrators due to the high level of trust and respect accorded to them by the community.

Indeed, available evidence demonstrates that nurses all over the world continue to use their positions in society to influence healthcare policies in terms of advocating for enhanced access to immunizations and funding for education, among others (Maryland & Gonzalez, 2012).

Patient advocacy has been defined in the literature “as an iterative process of analyzing, counseling, and responding to patients’ care and self-determination preferences” (Vaartio-Rajalin & Leino-Kilpi, 2011, p. 526).

Drawing from this description, nurses are better placed to use their role to not only promote and safeguard the well-being and interests of patients, but also to ensure that patients are fully aware of their rights and have unlimited access to the information they require to be able to give informed consent (Vaartio-Rajalin & Leino-Kilpi, 2011; Wilkinson, 2012).

Here, nurses act as advocates in (1) analyzing the patient’s care preferences, (2) analyzing the patient’s self-determination preferences, (3) counseling patients about their rights and type of care, (4) counseling other care professionals with regard to the patient’s preferences, (5) responding to the patient’s care preferences, (6) responding to the patient’s self-determination preferences, and (7) identifying important information gaps and patient concerns during the informed consent process (Vaartio-Rajalin & Leino-Kilpi, 2011; Wilkinson, 2012).

Kibble (2012), citing other research studies, defines advocacy in nursing in terms of “participating with the patient in determining the meaning of health, illness, suffering and dying; providing information and supporting patients in their decisions; pleading the case of a patient; protecting the patient from unnecessary worry; disclosing negligence and misconduct; and valuing, appraising and interceding” (p. 10).

Drawing from this description, it can be synthesized that a major role of the nurse as a patient advocate entails disclosing professional negligence and misconduct, implying that nurses are better placed to act as whistle blowers in exposing events and experiences that often jeopardize the patient’s health and wellbeing.

Consequently, as acknowledged by Kibble (2012), nurses should always expose institutions and practices viewed as unethical or negligent, and also assume an active role in assisting patients to achieve the legal rights in the event that they are treated unfairly or negligently. Such assistance, according to Maryland and Gonzalez (2012), can be provided in terms of nurses appearing in court jurisdictions to give evidence against other care providers who put the lives of patients at risk due to professional negligence or misconduct.

Lastly, owing to the incompetence and unethical standards demonstrated by some physicians, it should be the task of nursing professionals to challenge the physician orders where necessary and provide alternatives that they feel are best suited to the patients. Many physicians do not spend substantial amount of time with their patients and are hence unable to understand some patient concerns and needs in the same way nurses do.

Consequently, nurses have a role to act as patient advocates by questioning the physician’s authority and orders in areas where such orders can compromise the patients’ care and treatment outcomes (Hanks, 2010; Kibble, 2012). This role demonstrates that nurses should no longer blindly obey instructions or orders given by physicians by virtue of the fact that they are active participants in the care process.

Overall, this paper has successfully demonstrated that nurses have many roles to play in advocating for the needs, concerns, and rights of patients, and that these roles stem from the nursing professionals’ knowledge, experience, and competencies to be outstanding advocates. As such, more research studies need to be undertaken to come up with theoretical applications through which these roles can be effectively internalized in the nursing profession for optimal patient health outcomes.


Hanks, R.G. (2010). The medico-surgical nurse perspective of advocate role. Nursing Forum, 45(2), 97-107.

Kibble, G. (2012). Patient advocacy in nursing practice: A systematic literature review (Bachelor thesis, Turku University of Applied Sciences, Finland).

Maryland, M.A., & Gonzalez, R.I. (2012). Patient advocacy in the community and legislative arena. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 17(1), 1-1.

Vaartio-Rajalin, H., & Leino-Kilpi, H. (2011). Nurses as patient advocates in oncology care: Activities based on literature. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 15(5), 526-532.

Wilkinson, K. (2012). Informed consent and patients with cancer: Role of the nurse as advocate. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 16(4), 348-380.

Social Community Constructions, Expected Social Conduct, And Economic Structures Within The Society


This paper outlines social community constructions, expected social conduct, and economic structures within the society. Also, it analyzes the government’s support for occupations and unfortunate citizens. It evaluates various aspects of society and their significance to the culture.

Come the unity refers to a social set up with values and strings of consciousness of shared associations between persons (Delanty 28). They live under and share similar Environment and situations, or are in one geographical location. The community thus has a lot to do with links, values, and cultures of people.

Social Structure and Behavior of the Community

This deals with systemized organizations, which establish a community as one functional unit. It has a major role in the influence of the behavioral patterns of an individual. It means the cultures, norms, and the way they sway the members of that community (Sorrentino 34). Also, it may relate to economic stratification and distribute ion of major social facilities and resources.

Social structure affects governance, bylaw, and the economy. Social behaviors are usually contextual. They determine how persons view and lead their social lives and insights into how individual expectations condition us. Individuals obtain social norms and direct their characters to honor them, failure of which conflicts arise.

Other factors that have significance on social expectations include our stereotypes, set institutional and social functions, or media. Generally, one’s behavior should honor the culture and set virtues of the society in question.

Economic Stratification System and government’s help

Normal society is composed of categories of individuals, groups, and organizations with a unique endowment. There is indeed an economic stratification in all communities. Stratification refers to the alignment of persons in line with their uniqueness from one another in terms of income, job, and resource availability. In the socioeconomic view, there exists a lower level, middle, and the top class (Taylor & Andersen 217).

The government may issue jobs to the less fortunate or generally the public. It allocates revenue to diverse economic sectors. Informal employment industry may benefit from incentives and loans for enterprise. There are legislations that safeguard employees and prescribe their remuneration and work benefits.

Also, there exist allowances for social protection and work equipment purchase for employees. There are lowered medical care to the needy, education and basic shelter and hygiene services. These are commonly constrained by limited resources in countries.

The Five Aspects of Community

Aspects of the community refer to the set of common values to which the morals and behavior patterns of individuals are attributed (Homan 52). Shared territory refers to the physical area where every member of the society occupies. It embodies all the community members and distinguishes concepts. Shared values dictate the behavior and traditions of a community. It links people to a pool of morals that drive a given society.

Thirdly, the support structure incorporates the services and values within society. The shared public realm has to do with the systems, which are in place for the society to draw its morals and social practices. They are like societal benchmarks. Lastly, there exist aspects of shared destiny, which all the members of society work to achieve. Each society has defined destiny and expects all its persons to work towards them.


All governments should address the crucial wants of the less fortunate persons. There are discrepancies in social groups due to varying level of endowment with resources, occupations, and location. Human behavior is a resultant feature of standards and practices. Consequently, different persons behave differently. Habit and behavior depict the type of family an individual resides.

Works Cited

Delanty, Gerald. Community. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis, 2010. Print.

Homan, Mark. Promoting Community Change: Making It Happen in the Real World. California, CA: Cengage Learning, 2007. Print.

Sorrentino, Richard. Culture and social behavior. London: Routledge, 2005. Print.

Taylor, Howard. & Andersen, Margaret. Sociology: understanding a diverse society. California, CA: Cengage Learning, 2007. Print.

Medical Outcomes Quality Improvement

The Purpose of the Project

The targeted project is a Quality Improvement Initiative (QII). The project will ensure every caregiver supports the health needs of different patients. The targeted healthcare institution will benefit from the training program. The training program will equip every caregiver with new skills. Such skills will promote the quality of medical care. The project will also encourage more nurses to embrace new competencies.

For instance, every nurse will acquire evidence-based skills that can improve his or her medical practice (Booker, Schluter, Carrillo, & McGrath, 2011). The purpose of the proposed training program is to ensure every nurse offers evidence-based care. The project will also introduce new technologies.

Such technologies will support the activities of these nurses. Some of the targeted technologies include computers and scanners. Such tools and devices will make it easier for the targeted nurses to provide the best patient care (Hughes, 2013). Every manager in the institution will also be part of the proposed project. The purpose of this project is to produce the best medical outcomes.

The Targeted Population

This Quality Improvement Initiative (QII) will empower many individuals in the targeted healthcare institution. To begin with, the training program will target different caregivers and nurses. Many nurses do not embrace the use of evidence-based competencies. The training program will ensure the targeted caregivers improve their nursing skills.

The educational program will also “ensure more patients are part of the healing process” (Hughes, 2013, p. 4). For instance, different patients will be encouraged to collaborate with their caregivers. This approach will make nursing a holistic approach.

The managers and other subordinate workers will also be part of the training program. This training program will equip different managers with powerful skills. Such skills will encourage them to improve their leadership strategies. The program will also be characterized by different social campaigns.

These campaigns will target many individuals in the community. The campaign will “encourage every citizen to promote the best health practices such as sanitation, hand washing, and proper disposal of domestic wastes” (Chassin & Loeb, 2013, p. 468).). The campaign will “encourage more individuals to sleep under quality mosquito nets” (Chassin & Loeb, 2013, p. 468). The training program will equip every stakeholder with the best practices.

Benefits of the Project

The proposed project will support the health needs of many people. The project will ensure every targeted caregiver uses new technological devices. Such devices will make it easier for them to offer timely patient care. The individuals will also acquire new nursing skills and theories. Such theories will encourage them to focus on the changing health needs of their patients (Chassin & Loeb, 2013).

Every manager will also acquire new skills. The practice will produce the best working environment in the institution. Every stakeholder will also be part of the healing process.

The successful implementation of the project will produce new practices. The program will encourage more nurses to work as teams. The individuals will also embrace the concept of diversity. They will also utilize new competencies in order to support their patients. The effectiveness of the working environment will produce the best nursing outcomes. The training program will produce positive behaviors at the institution. The nurses will be ready to form new teams.

This approach will also improve the level of communication (Chassin & Loeb, 2013). The caregivers will also make appropriate decisions in order to provide evidence-based care. The targeted medical devices will improve the quality of care. Such devices will “also reduce most of the medical errors associated with different nursing practices” (Hughes, 2013, p. 14).

The Cost of the Project: Budget Justification

Healthcare facilities should use new programs in order to offer the best medical care. Medical facilities should use minimum resources in order to achieve their goals. The proposed training program will be less costly for the institution. To begin with, the institution will purchase several computers.

These computers will “ensure the organization collects quality information from different patients” (Booker et al., 2011, p. 44). The institution will also acquire quality teaching materials. The institution will use banners, charts, and flyers. The institution will also hire new trainers. Such educators will equip different nurses with the best skills. The proposed budget for the project is as follows:

Item/Activity Projected Cost ($)

5 computers



Modern medical equipment

Salaries for trainers

Reading materials








Total 12,050

The institution will also purchase more books and journal articles. Such articles will equip more nurses with evidence-based ideas. The targeted medical campaigns will also present the best ideas to different individuals in the community (Hughes, 2013). According to the above budget, the institution will incur minimal expenses. This approach will “ensure the institution improves the quality of medical services availed to different patients” (Booker et al., 2011, p. 46).

Evaluation of the Project

The managers in the organization will have to evaluate the success for the program. The first approach will entail the use of questionnaires. Such questionnaires will collect the best responses from different nurses and patients. The managers should also “monitor the level of collaboration in different departments” (Chassin & Loeb, 2013, p. 479). The project will encourage the institution to implement more Quality Improvement Initiatives (QII) projects.

Reference List

Booker, J., Schluter, J., Carrillo, K., & McGrath, J. (2011). Quality Improvement Initiative in School-Based Health Centers across New Mexico. Journal of School Health, 81(1), 42-48.

Chassin, M., & Loeb, J. (2013). High-Reliability Health Care. The Milbank Quarterly, 91(3), 459-490.

Hughes, R. (2013). Tools and Strategies for Quality Improvement and Patient Safety. Web.

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