Patient Educational Tool: Diet And Hypertension Free Writing Sample

Introduction

In this paper, the author discusses a patient educational tool for hypertension in an adult with an aim of analyzing it for use in providing patient education to the specific audience in this case- grown-up. The paper explains what a patient educational tool is, the specific audience for which the tool will be used by the author and the source and authenticity of the tool. The inherent design of the tool, its advantages as well as the cultural appropriateness in the tool’s use for the chosen audience is also discussed.

The author will then give personal perception of the use of this tool and the barriers associated with its use. The weaknesses and suggested improvements in the administration of the tool will also be discussed. The author concludes by summarizing the purpose, potential, weaknesses and practical application example where the author intends to use a similar tool in administering patient education.

Main body

A description from the Patient Education Institute considers a Patient Education Tool(s) as a set of interactive visually oriented presentations of vital health information to patients of a given illness (www.patient-education.com). Patient educational tools include such resources of multimedia nature that integrate clinical counseling processes. Usually, the tools as in cases of oral narrations may be accompanied by handouts of graphic nature or tutorials as in the case of PowerPoint presentations.

The presentations help a patient think of the scenery of the disease with an aim of analysis the causes of the ailment, risks involved and the treatment options for the disease. These PETs find use in hospitals, clinics, physician offices and other settings that champion patient understanding of their ailments. The division of Nutrition Education at University of Kansas has a number of developed modules of patient educational tools. These vary from offerings, auditory streams, image presentations in Ms PowerPoint (one of which presentations on diet in relation to hypertension is analyzed) and even interactive DVD guides to personal health in relation to disease and diet.

In this lesson, the investigator’s analysis is on the utilization of PowerPoint PET created by Tricia Fleming, an intern from the University of Kansas and Tammy Beason, an MS student and a Nutrition Education Specialist under the Family Nutrition Education Program of December 2001.

The PET can be used to counsel anyone since everyone is susceptible to hypertension. The product is not copyrighted. The tool relies on sources of education in hypertension from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) at Building 31, Room 5A48, 31 Center Drive MSC 2486 Bethesda, MD 20892. The module is designed for the audience of African Americans who have a history of hypertension and contribute to the highest number of those suffering from the disease.

The presentation, entitled “Diet and Hypertension” is acceptable as a very interactive PET for all African Americans in the US and abroad (ACP, 149). The PET takes the instructor through an interactive presentation episode on the meaning of blood pressure in defining hypertension, description of high blood pressure and importance of knowing the effects of high blood pressure (hypertension) and its effects on body parts. The trainer is led through these effects on different parts of the body such as the brain, the heart, the kidneys, the eyes and the arteries. Again, the module dwells on what causes hypertension, those susceptible to it, how it can be detected and gives an illustration of the detection gadgets. Tips for having blood pressure tests and categories of the disease are also discussed.

The creator presents the topic of high blood pressure deterrence and states habits of having a healthy lifestyle, the DASH diet, and tips for reducing the intake of sodium, which in high doses, is one of the causes of hypertension, maintaining healthy weight and being physically active. Other prevention measures include limiting the intake of alcohol and quitting smoking.

Other treatment options such as blood pressure medication, Diuretics, Beta, Alpha, Alpha-beta and Calcium Channel blockers are proposed if lifestyle modifications do not seem to work. Other proposals seconded include use of ACE and Nervous system inhibitors, Angiotensin antagonists and finally, Vasodilators. The presentation concludes by noting that the ailment is quite controllable but has very drastic consequences if not controlled.

The tool explains in detail, approaches to introducing strategies that can be developed by the individuals and which can be used to plan and develop future management criteria towards positive living. Finally, the tool helps one to know about oneself and thus make wiser decisions about lifestyle that enhances good health.

According to this tool, the causes of hypertension vary. Some of the causes given are: narrowing of arteries, high blood volumes that are abnormal, a heart that beats forcefully and harder than normal, other medical problems. However, the exact cause, according to the tool, is not known.

On who is susceptible, the module notes that anyone can develop hypertension but is observed to be most common in or older people after the age of 60 years. African Americans, however, develop it earlier than, for example, the Caucasians, the tool says. The vulnerability of the African Americans is explained in their genetic origin that causes them to be overweight – fact that can be associated with family history. High blood pressure of between 135-139 mm Hg is a sure recipe for development of hypertension.

The patient is also enlightened on the methods of preventing serious complications and is instructed to find ways of exercising, loosing weight and enjoying healthy eating habits. The module is inspirational in its urge to the clients to have the knowledge, motivation and strength to make them stay healthy.

The tool has a unique but very interactive design. The presentation is organized in a step-by-step account of the causes, effect and remedial account of the disease. The background of the PowerPoint tool is dark with contents in white. This makes good legibility and great readability. It can be viewed on outline, slides or even full screen slideshows. The slides can be customized to suite personal modifications should a trainer so wish.

The appropriateness of this tool is in no question considering the researched history of hypertension ailment within the populace of the African American origin. The presentation is in simple and clear English and where medical terms are used; their explanations in layman language are provided.

The cultural appropriateness is in no doubt African American but could fit any audience. Research shows that hypertension is rampant in the African American generation due to cultural aspects. Drahcir (2006) in his journal “African American Deadly Foe” while describing the history of hypertension and obesity in America attributes their vulnerability to smoking. He says that over 2.8 million with hypertension, one third of them do not know that they do have the disease. Furthermore, 25% of those between 65 and 74 years of age have hypertension among this population.

The acknowledgement of Drahcir (2006) that main causes are irrelevant but could be directed to genetics and environment. He says that the ‘thrifty gene’ inherited from their African ancestors enabled use of food energy effectively during feasts and famines which they however, they did not inherit. This makes the control of weight very difficult. This observable lack of exercises also contributes to glucose causing a tendency to develop high blood pressure. This scenario makes the cultural aspect of the choice of this tool quite relevant to this audience.

The advantages of this tool over others like publications and plain audio is in its interactivity. It enables self programming on part of the instructor and the patient and training increases adherence to instructions since the audience take the tool as their own. The procedures of presentation are simple and this increases knowledge of the patient over time. Patients with computers and who know how to handle PowerPoint presentations can soon have it for themselves. Barriers to this technology are minimized to the acquisition of skills in PowerPoint presentation in order to use the slide presentation tool. Images depicting causes, effects and prevention could also help to make it more interactive. The presentation may also be preceded with a short guide by a professional on what to expect and proceeded with graphical publications to reinforce a patients understanding of his/her circumstances through these presentations.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the tool finds its usefulness and purpose in explaining causes, risks and treatment options of hypertension. It has strengths in its interactivity while it is restrained by requirements of training before they are used. As a nurse, I find the tool appropriate as an after effort in counseling a chronically hypertension cases, all of which find relevance in this tool.

References

American College of Physicians (2006). Web.

Drahcir Semaj (2006), Diabetes: African Americans, Deadly Foe, McGraw-Hill.

Guyton, H (1997), Fitness Book Paperback: Diabetes educator (pp.26- 34), McGraw-Hill.

Heidi Wagner& Pizzimenti (2007), Eye on Diabetes: A Multidisciplinary Patient Education Intervention. CDE.

Kesavadev J (2003), Diabetes in Old Age: An Emerging Epidemic, SAGE Journals.

Coca-Cola Company’s Strategy & Globalization Issues

Introduction

As trade barriers are minimized and information is being de-regularized the world is becoming a ‘global village’. Elements like outsourcing, environmental stability, globalization; sustainability etc has changed the working patterns of organizations. Multinational corporations are increasing day by day and they are usually criticized because of issues like environmental stability, sustainability etc. Organizations that are experiencing their expansion phase are mostly directly to boost up their profits and they usually show lesser concern with elements like sustainability and environmental care.

Discussion

Coca-Cola is considered to be the cola giant in today’s world and in nearly all the countries of the world this beverage is consumed. Coca-Cola Company has 49 production plants in India catering to a coke thirsty nation. It is found that 3.8 liters of water is necessary to produce 1 liter of cola beverage. There has been a hot debate over utilization and quality of water used for soft drink production in different countries such as India, Mexico and Columbia. The largest plant of Coke is placed in Kerala (India) and this plant has been criticized a number of times for putting farmers out of work and because of the fact that land is being poisoned with toxic waste. To achieve economies of scale Coca-Cola has been pumping out millions of gallons of water every day from underground reserves and reservoirs. This has raised questions regarding the shortage of water supply in areas surrounding its plants. The authentic figures are not revealed by Coca-Cola and other brands however the production of cola is presumably draining the reserves which are crucial for cultivating crops and drought sickened population. The dearth of water in some areas is pushing such companies towards either complete shut-down or finding other resources. Cola consumption growth and unregulated pumping of water is increasing as the awareness of cola brands and feel of cola becomes popular amongst end consumers. The only positive point one can found for this action is the increase of profits and expansion of operations. Moreover the plant is placed to satisfy the demand of coke in India.

There are numerous issues that are at stake for Coca-Cola and that can easily tarnish overwhelming image of world’s leading brand. Locally people can abandon buying Coke because of the environmental hazard it’s creating. This outcome is quite rare but it can happen because people have numerous alternatives of Coke. People locally can opt for Pepsi and other Cola’s available in the market. This radical shift would definitely have a negative effect on the regional sales of Coca-Cola and their sales would decline. Furthermore, government can pose a ban on Coke’s operation in Kerala because of the environmental hazard they are creating and this can badly hurt Coke’s image. This action if not stopped would create havoc and can severely damage the brand image of Coca-Cola. People are badly affected by this and they are facing problems like stomach pain and other related diseases are affecting them. Coca-Cola is not only affecting the environment but also stopping the water and they are consuming them for their own needs. Thus they are exercising their undue power.

Globally the most important issue is the image of Coca-Cola which is affected because of this and competitors of Coke can use this issue and through PR activities and competitive advertising can badly affect their image. Moreover, Coke spend a hefty amount of dollars in the programs associated with corporate social responsibility and this activity of poisoning farms and leaving the farms parched can create a confusion in the minds of global consumers. Globally this action can reduce the sales of Coke and some people might change their prefrenes and can opt for other Cola’s. Globalization although has changed the working phenomenon in today’s world and companies just have to spend a certain amount of dollars to start their operations in any country they want. This action of stopping the water and intoxicating the water in India can create problems of entering into new states in India and in other countries too.

The term sustainability has raised number of questions for consumers and producers. It’s basically the phenomenon that big organizations are affecting the needs and lives of future generations by catering to the current generation. Ecological changes, environmental hazards, intoxicating the water are actually creating a clash between development and sustainability. Researchers found out that the water sludge in Kerala contains cadmium and lead which can lead to severe circumstances and people can even suffer from cancer and it can severely affect pregnant women. However, the company claims that the water sludge is good for the people and it’s good for the crops too. Moreover, the company’s vice president believes that the water shortage is because of the shortage of rainfalls and the company is using their allotted share of water. This conflict is creating problems for the residents and the company isn’t suffering because of this.

In this case one can easily evaluate that there is a genuine clash between development and sustainability. Coca-Cola is developing and they are growing on continuous basis but this development is harming the localities of India and they are suffering from the evils of environmental hazards. Moreover, Coke’s regime to cater the needs of its current customer is actually affecting their prospect customers.

Conclusion

Thus, we can conclude that by following this strategy Coke will definitely lose its customers in the long run and this customer loss would not only take place in India but might also affect Coke’s campaign internationally. An individual can easily understand that Coke is following the development strategy but the issue of sustainability is raised because of this. This attitude of Coca-Cola is against business ethics and its hurting Coke’s image too. International social organizations are not laying that much importance on this issue because small villagers of Kerala are suffering and Coke is continuously negating this point that the villagers are suffering. They are standing firm on the point the strategy of Coca-Cola is benefitting the villagers as the crops are improving. But villagers claim that the development of crops are worsening day by day and rice and pulses are not suitable for eating because they can’t be cooked properly. Therefore, Coca-Cola’s interest do tend to influence the decision making process and governments should sincerely take notice of far damaging effects on the ecological settings of the world we are living in. This issue must be addressed properly on local and international forums and Coke must take care of its brand image which is diminishing through these actions.

Electromyography Characteristics And The Concept Of Electromyography Fatigue Threshold

Electromyography (EMG) involves the documentation of the electrical activity of muscle tissue and relaying it as a graphical representation or an audible signal. When muscles contract, the ensuing action potentials are transmitted from the brain to the motor unit, thereby causing the contraction of muscle fibers (Ertl, Kruse, & Tilp, 2016). Through EMG studies, researchers can quantify the extent of muscle activation. EMG techniques are classified as either invasive and noninvasive approaches. A fine wire or needle is inserted into muscle tissue to record muscle activation in invasive techniques (Lozano-García et al., 2015). Conversely, noninvasive EMG entails putting electrodes on the surface of the skin over the muscle being investigated (Malek & Coburn, 2012).

The purpose of this review is to examine the concept of EMG fatigue threshold (EMGFT). The applications of EMG in the investigation of muscle fatigue are explained. Differences in EMGFT in large and small muscles are also explained.

EMG has amplitude and frequency domains (Altın & Er, 2016). The EMG amplitude quantifies the recruitment of the motor unit as well as its firing rate. These parameters are of immense importance when studying cycle ergometry. Conversely, the EMG frequency is thought to replicate the conduction speed of the muscle action potential. EMGFT was originally referred to as the physical working aptitude at the onset of fatigue. However, after several investigations on the issue, the EMGFT was defined as the greatest exercise force that can be sustained indeterminately with no substantial rise in gradient when EMG amplitude is plotted against time (Mahmutović et al., 2016).

The concept of EMGFT has been demonstrated in large muscles by Morse et al. (2016). These authors demonstrated that the consumption of caffeine improved tolerance for endurance and stress exercises in the superficial quadriceps femoris muscles. In contrast, Crozara et al. (2015) evaluated the EMGFT of various small muscles, including biceps femoris, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, and lateral gastrocnemius using two EMG methods.

References

Altın, C., & Er, O. (2016). Comparison of different time and frequency domain feature extraction methods on elbow gesture’s EMG. European Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 2(3), 35-44.

Crozara, L. F., Castro, A., De Almeida Neto, A. F., Laroche, D. P., Cardozo, A. C., & Gonçalves, M. (2015). Utility of electromyographic fatigue threshold during treadmill running. Muscle & Nerve, 52(6), 1030-1039.

Ertl, P., Kruse, A., & Tilp, M. (2016). Detecting fatigue thresholds from electromyographic signals: A systematic review on approaches and methodologies. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 30, 216-230.

Lozano-García, M., Sarlabous, L., Moxham, J., Rafferty, G. F., Torres, A., Jané, R., & Jolley, C. J. (2018). Surface mechanomyography and electromyography provide non-invasive indices of inspiratory muscle force and activation in healthy subjects. Scientific Reports, 8(16921), 1-13.

Mahmutović, S., Sprout, E. Y., Fontaine, J. C., Buskirk, T. M., Galen, S. S., & Malek, M. H. (2016). Test-retest reliability of the electromyographic fatigue threshold for cycle ergometry. Muscle & Nerve, 53(5), 803-807.

Malek, M. H., & Coburn, J. W. (2012). The utility of electromyography and mechanomyography for assessing neuromuscular function: A noninvasive approach. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics, 23(1), 23-32.

Morse, J. J., Pallaska, G., Pierce, P. R., Fields, T. M., Galen, S. S., & Malek, M. H. (2016). Acute low-dose caffeine supplementation increases electromyographic fatigue threshold in healthy men. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 30(11), 3236-3241.

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