People are the reasons for prosperous entities. who engage the workforce that are the reason for accomplishment. Those in leadership positions are attracted to employee commitment as a means to obtain organization success due to the understanding that this engagement is a major factor for structural success (Lockwood, 2007). As defined by Kahn (1990), employee engagement is the connection of participants of an institution with their roles related to work. Through engagement, these participants display emotion, cognition and physical abilities during the function of their responsibilities. Other research has shown that employee engagement aids leadership in improving or maintaining a competitive improvement (Christian, Garza, & Slaughter, 2011).
Success for organizations such as Mississippi State Extension (MSU-ES) is based upon workforce knowledge. Workforce engagement is an essential core of Extensions operations. Through professionals and specialists, MSU-ES has been active in providing research based programming to improve the quality of life to residents in all 82 Mississippi counties (MSUES, 2019). Extension personnel are partnered with Mississippi State University (MSU) faculty, sometimes referred to as specialists, and residential citizens to evaluate needs related to each community. Utilizing data acquired through needs assessments, Extension personnel in the field connect with educators and specialists on campus to develop and distribute research based information.
The topics covered include agriculture, natural resources, 4-H youth development, community development and, health and human sciences. From research to delivery, leadership throughout Extension serves as a conduit for successful programming. Leaders effect success through examples of openness, ethics, inspiration and enabling others to be successful (Cetron, 1982).
Mississippi State University Extension is a member of the land-grant university system. This system includes state colleges and universities in each state and territory with in the United States including the District of Columbia (Association of Public and Land-Grant Universities, 2012). This system offers educational content to a wide array of the population to improve daily lives (Association of Public and Land-Grant Universities, 2012). Leadership throughout an organization highlights the impact of employee engagement as it relates to success of an institution (Biro, 2014).
Through engagement, employees positively impact the value of education MSUES contributes to Mississippians. Acknowledging the connections recognized among leadership and employee engagement, it is logical to assume that understanding the connection among employee engagement and individual leadership style will enhance Extension professional’s ability to lead in means which improve individual engagement as well as the engagement of supervised employees. In doing so, this will increase the value of education and, thus, improve the daily lives of Mississippians. The continual development and success of MSU-ES may be improved through amended efforts engage personnel in Extensions mission.
The proposed research is geared toward developing a training program in leadership for MSU-ES so that those in leadership positions can preserve and increase both engagement and leadership. Though employee engagement has been researched in various workplace settings which include hospital and health care institutions, schools and, many business and financial institutions (Hakanen, Bakker, & Schaufeli, 2006; Schaufeli & Bakker, 2004), research related to levels of employee engagement with Extension professionals have not been recognized. As Extensions mission is engagement, this research on leadership and employee engagement can contribute to that literature.
Traditionally, Extension has provided educational content and support to and for the groups and individuals it assists. The traditional model for outreach is from the state level to the region and, then to county levels. In some areas, specialists are placed into the communities to deliver needed resources. As Extension programming has changed to include more subjects, leadership in programming needs has also increased. Originally, Extension programming was geared toward agriculture, with the majority of the population residing in rural areas (West et al., 2009). As the focus of Extension was agriculture a century ago, forty-two percent of the population was laboring in the farming segment (West et al., 2009). That is no longer the case.
Cooperative Extension has undergone unprecedented transformation during the past 100 years. To accommodate this change, Extension leadership has always evolved to meet the requirements of stakeholders. More recently, this has come at a time of great budget constraints. This challenge has required great leadership in mandated program changes to coincide with state and national concerns. As the first Extension agents were called change agents, Extension has a foundation of evolving to accept new demands (Seevers & Graham, 2012). Extension organizations continue to deliver research-based information and resources through both state and local offices as well as media platforms including online (Bull et al, 2004).
Through evolution of programming, stakeholders have expanded to include non-rural clientele. Due to this need, those in leadership roles have focused more programs to reach these metropolitan audiences. This is done through programming in areas of natural resources and community development as well as 4-H and Family and Consumer Sciences (FCS) (Diekmann et al., 2012). Mississippi State University, through the Extension Service, effects change for Mississippians through:
- • Providing research and education in a practical and applicable way
- • Using the latest technology and teaching techniques to serve clients
- • Developing and using volunteers to help disseminate programs and information
- • Cooperating with other groups and agencies
- • Maintaining a culturally diverse staff responsive to the needs of various audiences at all socioeconomic levels (MSUES, 2019)
As needs continue to evolve, so will the leaders in Extension. Leadership has always been integral in the evolution of Extension. With increasing expansion of Extension resources, the financial stress related to serving the needs of diverse clientele with reducing budgets requires strong leadership. Original funding for Extension initiated from the Smith-Lever Act of 1914. It was then matched by each state through the development of land-grant institutions (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2014).
Currently, Extension is funded from national, state, county and outside sources. These outside resources are needed to compensate for diminishing federal funding (Bennett, 2011). To compensate for this loss, leaders in program areas of Cooperative Extension across America have made efforts to improve programming and increased outsourced funding. If not for this outsourced funding, many extension programs would not be available.
Extension is the largest public education system outside of the classroom (Bowling & Brahm, 2002). With the Smith-Lever Act of 1914, a third role was added for universities to disseminate education in agriculture, mechanical arts, and home economics to those in need. This included not only those enrolled in higher education but farmers and homemakers as well (Franz et al., 2010).
Additional funding was provided from the federal government for state curriculum to be implemented to improve society through education (Campbell, Comer, Edwards, Hillison, 2006). Extension disseminates unbiased researched based educational content through a means which clientele is able to learn (Rader, 2012). Though Extension has not always displayed success when reaching clientele, it has always evolved to adapt new means of distributing educational content. Farmers, homemakers, youth and the general public depend on researched educational content to improve their daily lives (Angima, and Stokes, 2019).
Extension programs have aided in transforming agrarian societies during times of need through educational content derived from experiment stations. This knowledge was provided to farmers throughout each state collectively and individually (Gould & Ham, 2002). Researched knowledge from Extension is widely utilized without debate but, history in Extension shows that was not always the standard. During the origination of extension, there was a lack of organizing (Peters, 2002) which led to trust issues among those who needed education in agriculture and those who provided it (Barnes & Haynes, 2006).
Two decades ago, the Kellogg Commission released a report stating that Land-Grant institutions must evolve its means of dispensing researched based information (Kellogg Commission on the Future of State and Land-Grant Institutions, 1999). This consists of solving current practical problems (Peters, 2002). It is widely understood that County Extension Directors (CED) understanding of programming is essential for the success of Extension (Jayaratne, Owen & Jones, 2010). However, many lack the leadership ability to effectively administer programming (Sanders, 2014). Leadership is recognized as an individual’s ability to address unforeseen situations, adjust to situations, or effect change while leading others (Day, 2000; McKee, Odom, Moore, & Murphrey, 2016). Those in leadership roles are continuously looking forward.
Leaders’ thoughts encompass what can be done. They possess an understanding of what team work can accomplish. Those in leadership roles are confident about the future and believe in organizational success. However, visualizations viewed only by leaders are not enough to move organizations forward. Those in leadership roles have to convey their visions and communicate their thoughts. In doing so, others will have the opportunity to receive and adopt the changes needed to implement those visions. Programs related to developing leadership skills are understood as a means to improve skills addressing unanticipated complications and initiating change. These programs can also positively impact the process of leading others (McKee, Odom, Moore, & Murphrey, 2016).
Leadership programs are vital for Extension personnel to be successful. Those who serve in leadership roles in Extension are often responsible for program implementation, budgets, policy making, and stakeholder issues. They also serve as the liaison between agents and Extension administration (Sanders, 2014). Additionally, due to the retirements of baby boomers, there is an even stronger need of leadership. This is highlighted by the need for having leadership programming to improve the needs of new employees (Moore & Rudd, 2005). Due to Extensions model of promoting from within, programming in leadership can be of positive benefit (Jayaratne, Owen & Jones, 2010).
There is an understanding that competency and skill set of Extension personnel is of great importance for Extension leaders (Jayaratne, Owen & Jones, 2010). However, few in leadership roles possess the competency required to be successful (Sanders, 2014). Numerous issues abound regarding the success of designed and implemented programming. Previous research has shown that some Extension personnel have not had support in their leadership roles. Research has also shown that funding reduction has reduced programming in areas of professional development. Additionally, for agents, leadership development has to compete with other programming deemed more important (Campbell, Grieshop, Sokolow and Wright 2004). Unfortunately, this has impacted the skill sets related to leadership.
Reflections On The “Seven Habits Profile”
The “Seven Habits Profile” is an enlightening tool for evaluating one’s leadership skill set. I discovered my three strongest habits were “Seek First to Understand,” “Sharpen the Saw,” and “Emotional Bank Account.” I was weaker in the habits of “Put First Things First,” “Life Balance,” and “Begin with the End in Mind.” Upon reflection, my strengths are dependent upon one another. My weaknesses too share a similar theme. I received a score of 16 on my first strength of “Seek First to Understand.” Throughout my life, I have frequently been told that I excel at listening to others and in showing empathy. I find it is a simple task for me to put myself in the in the position of others, especially when they are experiencing some hardship at the moment. This strength is evident when I am traveling, especially internationally.
I have studied, worked, and lived in a few different countries and while I have experienced the unavoidable culture shock, I have mostly thrived off of these experiences. My motto when traveling is “do what the locals do,” and I accomplish that by staying with residents of that city. I ask questions and learn from them what makes their, albeit different, culture so appealing to me. At the office, I am usually the one chatting with patients about who they are and their history.
Learning about a person makes it a simple task to empathize with a variety of positions. The second category I received a score of 16 in was “Sharpen the Saw.” Nearly fifteen years ago, when I was finishing up my undergrad program, I had a professor stress to us the importance of knowing the order of our priorities in life. That lesson has stayed with me throughout my professional career. I take the time I need to reset mentally, physically, and socially. I make it a priority to run a few times each week to stay healthy and relieve the stress that builds up during the day.
Most importantly for me, is my passion for traveling and exploring the world. I take time away from the office to completely reset at least once a year, if not a few times a year, even if it is just a weekend trip to another island of Hawai’i. I encourage my subordinates to do the same. I talk to them about what they do to unwind and rejuvenate themselves from their time at work. Our staff works twelve-hour shifts. Consequently, the time away from the office is precious. The staff observes that it is acceptable to take care of themselves and are encouraged to take the time they need so that our team might be healthy.
I demonstrate strength in the category “Emotional Bank Account,” in which I received a score of 14. I believe this relates closely to the first strength I possess. I believe that kindness can make a world of difference in a person’s life. With the rise of social media, I people have become much more critical and condescending towards one another, especially when their identity is unknown. We have forgotten that a kind word can change the trajectory of a person’s day, if not their life. I am also repeating, “just be kind,” at the office and in many social settings. I strive to live by example with honoring commitments made to my friends, family, and co-workers. In the office, I desire to build that atmosphere of trust and mutual respect, and being a leader who keeps her promises is essential to establishing that reputation.
It is vital to creating a culture that does not tolerate speaking negatively about co-workers when they are not around. It is easy to get caught up in blaming one another or pointing out one another’s short-comings when working in a setting that requires all roles to depend upon one another. By giving everyone the benefit of the doubt and showing grace when faced with a mistake, the team learns to extend that same courtesy amongst themselves. I am weakest in the category of “Put First Things First” with a score of 11. I am a relatively spontaneous person and can find myself easily distracted from doing a more tedious task when a simpler and more enjoyable event is also available. While I know what I need for a healthy work-life balance, I often find myself unable to leave the office and my subordinates because there are many tasks left to accomplish. My assistant is often telling me to go home for the day so that I might get to the other events I have scheduled.
My second weakest category is “Life Balance” also with a score of 11. Surrounding myself by people I care about rejuvenates me and I recognize I need to be in their company. I am relaxed by the time spent by the ocean and by allowing my brain to unwind by reading a book for pleasure. My job demands a lot of me, and when I do not regularly allow myself the time to do these activities, I suffer for it. My work also suffers for it as I begin to experience burn-out. I believe I am getting better at giving myself the time I need to refresh and reset my mind, but it will always be an area I struggle with. I have difficulty in not taking on every task presented to me. My third weakest category is “Begin with the End in Mind,” in which I received a score of 12. I am not an excellent planner.
Due to my spontaneous nature, I naturally reject routine tasks. I have a vague idea of what I would like to accomplish in the future; however, with my husband in the military our life is so transitional that I am continuously adapting to a new setting, a new job, a new culture, and even a new country every few years. I thrive on the change, but it makes it difficult to plan too far in advance, especially with such little notice of where the next move will take us. I find that this reflects in how I prepare for daily duties whether at home or work. I can create a high level of stress by putting off various tasks because I did not adequately plan nor prepare for what I needed to accomplish on a given day.
Three Leadership Strengths Within the theory of leadership, I identify as a situational leader. I have identified three of my strengths within this theory, the first being adaptability and flexibility in regards to change. As a spouse of a military member, I am adept at adjusting to changing circumstances at a moment’s notice. This skill reveals itself as I supervise various employees daily. As the Assistant Manager for a busy dental clinic, our daily routine is often interrupted by the current patient’s chief complaint. Depending on which staff members I am supervising that day, I can either focus more on my Managerial tasks or I will be relied upon to lend a hand with the front office duties, like treatment planning. Daft (2014) identifies the four styles of leadership for a situational leader.
These include: directing, coaching, supporting, and entrusting employees and are based on the readiness of the employee, not the employer. I have demonstrated strength in changing from one leadership style to another as I work with several individuals during the day. My second area of strength is my ability to assess how quickly a new hire can proceed with their training and given duties. I am responsible for much of the onboarding and the training of new staff and can adjust the training schedule to fit the needs of the new hire. We have been fortunate to have hired several bright young women for both our front office and back office staff, and they quickly required little to no monitoring to assure they were able to complete all tasks correctly. In fact, in less than a year they were promoted into Lead positions which included taking on additional responsibilities.
We also have staff who take longer to pick up the details of their job and I must progress at a slower pace with them, often finding repetition is their key to success. Depending upon the abilities and the maturity of my subordinates I can move from a leadership style that is dependent upon tasks to one that is more relationship based. As my staff matures into their roles, I will eventually give them complete independence to complete their assigned tasks. Aligning duties with maturity and a hunger for more responsibility and independence is a critical element of situational leadership (Hersey, Blanchard, & Natemeyer, 1979). My third area of strength is knowing which of the seven power bases identified by Hersey, et al. (1979) I should implement with each employee as the specific circumstances direct the interaction. Our management team strongly relies on the reward power to influence the staff’s motivation.
Occasionally, when a staff member is difficult or even insubordinate, I must depend on legitimate power to achieve the desired results. With an employee that is a mature and fast learner, I can rely on referent power and expert power when supervising their work. Three Leadership Weaknesses I have discovered three weaknesses as they pertain to my role as a situational leader. The first weakness is my instinct to take over for an employee who is unable to complete a task versus adapting to their current leadership style requirements. Waldman and Bowen (2016) describe this as one of the paradoxes situational leaders face as they aim to both maintain and relinquish control to developing employees.
I am a controller by nature, and it is difficult for me to fight that instinct when I am working with an employee that takes a longer time to develop a skill or perform a task. When a patient needs an immediate answer, it feels natural for me to step in and answer all of their questions instead of letting my staff figure out the solution on their own. I hinder their development when I act on this instinct. My second weakness as a situational leader is my predisposition to avoid confrontation. Shaw (2014, Chapter 3) identifies twenty blindspots with one being a “tendency to avoid difficult conversations.” When a staff member is underperforming, it puts stress on the other members of the team. They become frustrated that the same basic standards are not applied to everyone equally and eventually become less motivated to perform their tasks.
Due to my dislike of confrontation and my empathy towards people in difficult situations, I can stray from leading from a position of legitimate power and instead coddle the ineffective employee to the detriment of the entire team. My third weakness as a situational leader pertains to my propensity to overwhelm my mature, competent staff members with extra duties because I believe them to be capable of handling them. The development of newer staff is hindered as they are trying to figure out how to balance their life with their new job when I task them with too much responsibility too soon.
When staff members show a natural knack for picking up the nuances of the position, I can forget that they do not have the benefit of time and experience on the job to know all of the specifics for completing the task. I forget about the readiness aspect of my subordinate to be able to accomplish a duty to the company standards. Daft (2014) defines readiness as both the willingness and the ability an employee has for doing a task. In focusing on the employee’s eagerness to please and perform a role, I find myself ignoring their lack of ability and forget to define the parameters for accomplishing the task. I will leave the employee frustrated if I continue in this manner.
To maximize my success as a leader, I have identified three theory-based changes. The first change is adopting the correct leadership style that compliments both the situation and the learning curve of my new hires. I need to systematically process through the four leadership styles Daft (2014) identifies. The less a staff member knows, the more I must act as a director or a coach. As the employee gains confidence in the task they are undertaking I can move into the role of a supporter or even a leader who entrusts her staff with full autonomy to complete a project. Doing so will prevent me from both taking control away from an employee and overwhelming my new hires with too many tasks or too much information.
The second change I can implement is pausing to reflect on my employees’ perceptions. I can even survey them to rate myself as a leader. Zigarmi & Roberts (2017) examine initiating structure and consideration and how staff perceives these task-oriented and people-oriented leadership behaviors. I can apply these theories to the challenging conversations I must have with members of my team who are underperforming. By showing consideration to my employees who are executing given tasks at or above expectations, I must, in turn, initiate a structure with specific guidelines for my employees are not yet willing or able to produce results as expected.
The third change needed to succeed as a manager is to become more person-centered as I enable the growth of my employees. Lynch (2015) found that a situational leader’s role is to facilitate the development of what she calls “followers,” or in my situation employees, in gaining an understanding of their capacity for growth and development. Encouraging my staff to do their own self-assessment of their learning styles, current growth and knowledge, and willingness to learn will allow the employee to take on more responsibility for their personal growth and development. My staff will feel empowered and will potentially increase their drive to succeed in their respective roles. SMART Goals to Improve Leadership Practice I have two SMART Goals to improve upon my leadership practice and skills.
My first goal is having my assistant fully trained up to take my place when we open a new office. My goal is specific because it involves one-on-one training with a designated employee and involves a series of logical steps for us to take together. I will measure the goal through a tracking system of all the tasks she must learn. I will have weekly check-in meetings with her, and the progress will be overseen by my current Office Manager. This goal is attainable as my assistant is an intelligent employee who is capable of taking on the new information and the new duties she will be expected to learn. The process will be facilitated by the use of knowledge checks, webinars, and on the job training. This goal is relevant as I am working on becoming a better trainer of the leadership roles within our company.
Our practice has also identified a future opportunity arising for a second location, at which point I will leave the current office and my assistant will take over. I will accomplish this goal in seven-and-a-half months, or by October 1 of this year, which gives us the time needed to prepare her for running the office. My second specific leadership goal is improving my understanding of the financial side of the company for which I work. It is essential for my role as Assistant Manager to understand how and why we forecast our daily, monthly, and annual goals in the manner we do.
I will measure my progress in learning and applying these new skills by meeting with my Office Manager weekly as we go over the previous month’s numbers and the current month’s goals. I will also measure my progress by taking on the task of forecasting the goals for the monthly staff meeting and having my manager confirm whether or not my work is correct. It is an attainable goal as it aligns with my duties as the Assistant Manager. It is also achievable because my Office Manager is encouraging my development in this area and is supplying me with the tools and the assistance that I require. The goal is relevant to my role as the manager who is running the daily operations of the office. It will allow me to lead my team to a better understanding of how and why we operate the way that we do. The time frame I plan to accomplish this goal in is six and a half weeks, by April 1 of this year.
Actions to Reach My SMART Goals I have developed two actions that will assist me in having my assistant fully trained up to take my place within the seven and a half month timeframe. The first action is compiling a checklist of every task she will need to learn within the set deadline. It will be organized by tasks and built out in a way that evenly distributes the duties she must learn in an order that makes sense in the light of the business. The second action consists of a weekly thirty-minute check-in with my assistant to discuss any problem areas and to find the solutions based on her skill set. It will also include a monthly hour-long meeting with our current Office Manager as she will be overseeing the entire training process. I have identified two actions that will coordinate my development in understanding the financial aspects of the company by which I am currently employed.
My first plan of action is to schedule an hour-long meeting with my manager. In this meeting, she will teach me how to forecast annual goals. During this session I will practice forecasting goals for various hypothetical situations that could affect our company. The second action step is meeting with my Office Manager at the end of every month as she prepares and forecasts the goals for the upcoming month. I will take on the task of doing the actual goal setting, and she will check my work for accuracy and offer any insight and additional training as needed. I look forward to the challenge of applying these action steps to my current role of Office Manager. I believe that they will encourage me to become a better leader of my team. Examining my personal style of leadership has created the opportunity for reflection on how I currently mange my team and has made me aware of any changes that need to be made so that I might be a more effective leader.
Leadership Across Cultures
The due diligence analysis in bringing our company to Jamaica is that it is a strategic location where shipping lanes could come in and out of the Panama Canal as well it is a major feedstock sources on the United States Gulf Coast, United States East Coast, and South America. It has a trade agreements with the United States, Caribbean, and EU which provides for favorable import and export opportunities. The upgrade in Jamaica credit ratings is a B and it has a positive economic outlook. The Panama Canal expansion is projected to double shipping traffic through the region and major infrastructure improvements is rapidly transforming the island efficiency and logistics with a major highway being completed.
Management Decision to a Business in Jamaica
Jamaica’s intercultural adaptability and readiness for change is developing all the time. Jamaica is seen to have a medium tolerance for change and risk. It is important for innovations to have a track record or history noting the benefits if they are to be accepted and implemented. The fear of exposure, and the potential of embarrassment that may accompany failure, brings about aversion to risk and the need to thoroughly examine the potential negative implications. While in risk-tolerant environments, failure is perceived as a learning process that encourages confidence in future ventures, failure in Jamaica causes a long-term loss of confidence by the individual as well as by others. Because of this attitude, intercultural sensitivity is going to be required, especially when conducting group meetings and discussing contributions made my participating individuals.
Traditionally, the supervisor is seen to hold that position because of superior knowledge and skills. It would traditionally have been unthinkable for someone of a higher position to collaborate with, or ask ideas of one of a lower status. This is changing somewhat in younger generations, particularly those employed by multinational corporations. If you would like to encourage participation it is important first to clearly establish a non-threatening work environment and communicate clearly that their participation is desired. Successful cross cultural management will recognize that teamwork is becoming increasingly important in most organizations (https://www.commisceo-global.com 2019).
Bringing the diversity of the workforce will have for your company. The way we would bring diversity to our company we would create diversity friendly policies. We would review our existing workplace policies with a diversity and we would, reassess our employee benefits. We would also provide diversity training, we would establish diverse mentorships, we would build diverse teams and we would re-examine our efforts.
Contrast the various aspects of U.S. human resource management of the U. S. vs Jamaica. Human resource management would be different in the United States compared to Jamaica due to religion, culture and nationalities. The United States compared to Jamaica is mixed with a little everything. The United States has all walks of compared to Jamaica. A lot people come to America chasing the American dream, looking for a brighter future. So, human resource management in the United States would have to be a bit more diverse. Where Jamaica is not so blended with many different types of religion, races, nationalities, and sexual preferences. Human resource management in Jamaica still has to be diverse and expect the unexpected.
In Jamaica, local workforce and leadership style I believe would be a democratic style. I believe since we are running our business in another country (Jamaica), we would need to involve our Jamaican employees in the decision making process because they would have a better understanding and relationship with their fellow citizens. Compared to the United States, I believe a lot of our businesses are ran and operated in autocratic style. We usually make all the decisions for our companies and we tend to show little concern for our employees.
Management Decision to a Business in Egypt
The due diligence analysis in bringing our company to Egypt is the performance of our target companies, which we would identify and analyze the key value that drives us behind the acquisition pricing, we would identify the potential risks, we would maximize financial and tax positions, we would draft up price adjustments and warranty and indemnity clauses and implement them. And we would conduct a post-acquisition audit, preparing our opening balance sheet. We would also identify and prioritize the factors to increase our business value, compiling pro forma financial information, analyze past performance and building our reviews in our business plan, we would organize and manage data to showcase our information, provide guidance at each phase of the negotiation process, maximize our financial and tax position, we would help draft a price adjustment or warranty and indemnity clauses, we would help managing any potential litigation and claims processes.
Patience is the key to successful intercultural management when working in Egypt. Essentially a relationship-driven culture, it should be understood that taking the time to get to know someone will always take precedence over any timelines. Do not rush the business relationship building process or it may jeopardize any future business dealings. When working with people from Egypt, it’s advisable to reinforce the importance of the agreed-upon deadlines and how that may affect the rest of the organization.
However, it is not unusual for a manager in Egypt to avoid confrontation over a deadline in order to maintain a positive business relationship within the company team. The global and intercultural expansion means that some managers may have a greater appreciation of the need to enforce timescales and as such, agreed deadlines are more likely to be met. Employees do not publicly question their manager’s decisions. Risk-taking is limited to those in decision making positions. Employees are generally treated with respect. In return, employees treat their managers with the respect and deference attributable to their position.
Egyptians must know you and like you to conduct business; personal relationships are necessary for long-term business. At the beginning of a negotiation, wait to be told where to sit, most seating reflects on ranking. If the government is involved, discussions will take even longer since approval must often be given by the ministers of several departments. It is advisable to include older people with impressive titles in your company’s team since Egyptians has respect for age and experience. To ensure you avoid cross cultural miscommunication, contracts and agreements you should spell out, in minute detail, what the expectations you are for both sides (www.commisceo-global.com 2019).
The way we would bring diversity to our company we would create diversity friendly policies. We would review our existing workplace policies with a diversity and we would, reassess our employee benefits. We would also provide diversity training, we would establish diverse mentorships, we would build diverse teams and we would re-examine our efforts.
Contrast the various aspects of U.S. human resource management of the U. S. vs Egypt. Human resource management would be no doubt different in the United States compared to Egypt due to religion, culture and nationalities. The United States compared to Egypt is mixed with a little everything. The United States has all walks of compared to Egypt. A lot people come to America chasing the American dream, looking for a brighter future. So, human resource management in the United States would have to be a bit more diverse.
Where Egypt is not so blended with many different types of religion, races, nationalities, and sexual preferences. Human resource management in Egypt still has to be diverse and expect the unexpected. Also Egypt is a male-dominant country. Human resource management would need to know how to interact and communicate with the opposite sex.
In Egypt, the local workforce and leadership style I believe would be bureaucratic style. Egypt is a male-dominated country. Islam is their dominant religion and most of the men there believe men are the head of women. In a country like Egypt it is not custom to look at the opposite sex in their eyes and even communicate and interact them unless you are married or related. In the United States, I believe a lot of our businesses are ran and operated in autocratic style. We usually make all the decisions for our companies and we tend to show little concern for our employees.
Management Decision to a Business in Canada
Canada has several due diligence which includes: Vendor due diligence, vendor assistance, sell-side due diligence, defensive due diligence, and transaction due diligence. The concept for buyers is to investigate a potential acquisition to make sure it is in good condition present it by the seller. The vendor who conducts a due diligence process is less common in Canada, at least. in the Vendor due diligence, sell-side due diligence and the defensive due diligence which is used interchangeably.
There are several ways to make a buy-side due diligence that has to be originated by the seller and the focused of the business to be sold and carried out before the seller goes deep into discussions with the potential buyers. The vendor due diligence provides an independent assessment of the historical performance and prospects of a business being sold. Which includes a well explained report on the business and how it can be used by sellers to quickly address issues identified and make their business more attractive to buyers. This can be provided to potential buyers to significantly reduce their own due diligence requirements.
The vendor due diligence has benefits to both buyers and sellers. This allows both parties to refer to a single set of credible financial numbers that identifies potential deal breakers early in saving time for both parties. This analysis includes the quality of earnings in the periods driving a buyer’s valuation, provides a solid base for the buyer’s projections and the seller’s investment bankers if one is relevant. The benefits to sellers, shareholders, and management. The reduced risk of price chipping and the valuation issues are addressed upfront.
This protects the enterprise value by allowing the seller to address potential issues before going to market and to facilitate a better control of the sale process which saves management time by cutting time spent on addressing due diligence queries and requests from all parties. This allows management to continue on running business at critical times. The benefits to buyers it saves time and a significant amount on third party due diligence cost. This allows focus to be made at critical business issues in exclusivity phase, as opposed to determining accuracy of reported numbers and facilitates acquisition financing by smoothing the lender due diligence process (Earl 2018).
Intercultural adaptability relies on the understanding that in Canada there is a sense that all people in a company all have important roles and that they all are valued for their input. Therefore, in this culture, managers are expected to engage their junior team members in discussions about events that might affect them which includes a during decision making. Since Canada is a cultural mosaic where immigrants are encouraged to practice their ethnic heritage, the business behavior you may see will vary depending on the cultural heritage of the person involved. Employees are expect to be consulted on decisions that will affect them and the company.
Managers must remember their roles as leaders and to harness the talents of the group they assembled and to develop any resulting synergies. The leader will be deferred to as the final authority in any decisions that is made, the leader typically do not dominate the discussion or generation of ideas. Due to a greater level of group working in Canada, praise should be given to the entire group as well as to individuals (www.commisceo-global.com).
The way we would bring diversity to our company we would create diversity friendly policies. We would review our existing workplace policies with a diversity and we would, reassess our employee benefits. We would also provide diversity training, we would establish diverse mentorships, we would build diverse teams and we would re-examine our efforts. Contrast the various aspects of U.S. human resource management of the U. S. vs Canada. Human resource management is similar with Canada and The United States. Human resource management in Canada and the United States are both diverse. Both countries are blended with different types of religion, races, nationalities, and sexual preferences.
I believe the local workforce and the style of leadership with Canada would be the charismatic style. For I learned about Canada and it’s citizens it appears they have a team spirit. I could see companies managers inspiring their employees to establish the company vision and they would communicate their passion with enthusiasm. I believe a lot of our businesses are ran and operated in autocratic style. We usually make all the decisions for our companies and we tend to show little concern for our employees.