Peplau’s Theory Of Interpersonal Relations Sample Assignment

Hildegard Peplau developed the Interpersonal Theory to enhance nurses’ understanding of their patients and improve nurse-patient relationships. These relationships are crucial for patient care, so it is important for nurses to be aware of any issues troubling the patient.

Peplau was born on September 1, 1909, in Reading, Pennsylvania. She grew up seeing how a flu epidemic affected families and experiencing the consequences of illness and death. As a teenager, she decided not to rely on others for her well-being and drew inspiration from her mother’s dependence on someone else and her authoritarian father. However, as a woman pursuing her dreams, she faced challenges because of limited educational opportunities and career advancement possibilities.

In 1931, Peplau graduated from the Pottstown School of Nursing in Pennsylvania, marking the start of her nursing career.

Starting as a staff nurse at a hospital, she later became a school nurse at Bennington College in Vermont. In 1943, she earned her bachelor’s degree in interpersonal psychology through a recommendation while working there. After obtaining her degree, Peplau joined the Army Nurse Corps and served in the military. Following her military service, Peplau began teaching and created Rutgers University’s first graduate-level program for clinical specialists in psychiatric nursing. During her career, she emphasized imparting interpersonal concepts.

In 1974, after spending most of her nursing career at Rutgers Hospital, she retired and received numerous rewards and honors. Among these honors was the prestigious Christiane Reimann Prize, the highest honor a nurse can receive. Peplau earned the nickname “The Mother of Psychiatric Nursing” due to her extensive nursing experience.

According to Barbra J. Callaway’s book “Hildegard Peplau” (2002, 172-173), Peplau dedicated herself to redefining, clarifying, and expanding nursing services for psychiatric patients. She left a lasting impact on graduate education in nursing by emphasizing the importance of establishing special relationships between nurses and their patients. When she returned to Teachers College as a teacher, Peplau aimed to use interpersonal relationships as a teaching method. She also encouraged her students to think independently and provided them with opportunities to learn through real-life situations.

In her classes, Peplau incorporated group therapy sessions and invited psychiatric doctors to speak. Students were assigned roles as patients, doctors, and nurses to further enhance their understanding of different perspectives.

Paplau scheduled clinicals at Brooklyn State Hospital in order to provide her students with a comprehensive understanding of the healthcare industry and an appreciation for patients’ perspectives. These clinicals consisted of assigning students to individuals with complex psychiatric conditions, with the goal of acquainting them with the challenges faced by medical professionals and emphasizing the importance of caring for patients. As stated by Callaway (2002), each student was required to dedicate one hour per week over a span of two weeks to their assigned patient throughout the course of a year.

Eventually, the patients at the facility began showing signs of increased awareness and ability to perform tasks such as self-feeding and bathing. The attendants informed the doctors about these changes, but the doctors dismissed them as mere superficial improvements that did not indicate any actual progress in the patients’ mental condition (Callaway, 2002, 172-173). Contrary to this perspective, Peplau argued that there were indeed positive transformations occurring. To aid in their recovery, she utilized psychotherapy. The development of interpersonal theory can be traced back to Harry Sullivan in the 1930s when he established it with the objective of supporting individuals with mental illnesses.

Interpersonal psychotherapy, created by Gerald Klerman in 2009, is an alternative to medication for individuals with mental illnesses such as depression and schizophrenia. Its main goal is to enhance social and interpersonal functioning in order to relieve symptoms (Sloan, 2009).

The goal of this therapy was to aid patients with mental illnesses who did not have success with medication. The approach involved creating bonds between patients and their healthcare providers that were customized to meet individual needs and support the management of their mental illnesses. The use of the interpersonal theory has a broad scope and is particularly beneficial for individuals dealing with conditions like depression, schizophrenia, eating disorders, and others. While it may not offer a permanent resolution, its effect is significant.

According to Willow Wisp on eHow (April 10, 2012), Peplau’s theory highlights the significance of the interaction between patients and healthcare professionals, such as doctors, nurses, therapists, and counselors. This interaction is crucial in helping patients overcome their individual challenges. The simple act of having someone to confide in can have a profound effect. Peplau’s theory involves employing different nursing roles – stranger, teacher, resource manager, counselor, surrogate, and leader – to assist patients in forming a bond with their nurses.

There are also secondary roles as well, such as being a tutor, researcher, mediator, technical expert, and safety manager (Wisp, April 10, 2012). Additionally, Peplau incorporated phases of process from her theory. These phases include orientation, identification, exploitation, and resolution. Throughout these stages, the nurse aims to establish a connection with the patient and determine their mental state. If the nurse successfully completes the identification and exploitation phases, they then proceed to finding a resolution.

Nurses rely on the interpersonal theory in their daily practice, as they are the ones who have most contact with patients and possess the deepest understanding of them compared to other medical staff. This theory allows patients to improve without solely relying on medication. By partnering with nurses, patients can develop the ability to seek support from others. The interpersonal theory has made significant progress and will remain an integral part of healthcare professionals’ toolkit. It is important to recognize that medication is not always the solution; simply providing presence and support for the patient can be immensely beneficial.

Romanticism In “Persuasion” By Jane Austen

In the Romantic Era, women thought to not make rational decisions and instead go by their emotions. Jane Austen uses her writing in Persuasion and many other novels to prove that society is wrong and women can and do make rational decisions. For example, Anne in Persuasion, she starts as a meek girl who is easily persuaded by her family, but she eventually grows into herself and decides what is best for her.

When discussing the Romanticism is Persuasion, critics usually compare it to the Romantic lyric in one way or another. For example, Anne’s speech on constancy is noted on its lyrical quality resembling an elegiac ode. Her speech “exemplifies the definition of Romanticism” (Tarlson, 2006): “A spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings recollected in tranquility” (Wordsworth).

Anne experienced a tremendous amount of suffering and regret from dismisssing Captain Wentworth’s proposal; she recalls those feelings and “elaborat with passionate intensity the theme of surviving devastating lost in solitude…”(Thomas, 917). By speaking her feelings, Anne is able to clearly see her own ideas about the world and is also able to reject the ideology of the aristocratic class and create happiness for herself on her own terms. Anne is in pursuit to make her own happiness.

She recognizes her moral capabilities, the regret of refusing Wentworth, has a passionate presence, and is self-critical. With each meeting with Fredrick, Anne grasps a better understanding of their relationship no matter how little or small, despite restrictive social relations. Anne “achieves an insight, faces up to a tragic loss, comes to a moral decision, or resolves and emotional problem” with every encounter (Thomas, 900). However, this eye-opener usually occurs in solitude.

Such as when Wentworth removes her nephew from Anne states: “she was ashamed of herself, quiet ashamed of being so nervous, so overcome by such a trifle; but so it was; and it required a long application of solitude and reflection to recover her” (81). Another understanding occurs during Anne and Frederick’s meeting at the concert: “She was thinking only of the last half hours, and as they past to their seats, her mind took a hasty range over it. His choice of subjects, his expressions, and still more his manner and look, had been such as she could see only one light.

His opinion of Louisa Musgrove’s inferiority, an opinion which he had seemed solicitous to give, his wonder at Captain Benwick, his feelings as to a first, strong attachment, – sentences begun which he could not finish – his half averted eyes, and more than half expressive glance, – all, all declared that he had a heart returning to her at last; that anger, resentment, avoidance, were no more; and that they were succeeded, not merely by friendship and regard, but by the tenderness of the past; yes, some share of the tenderness of the past.

She could not contemplate the change as implying less. – He must love her” (185-186). Anne reads into these meetings coming up with conclusions no matter if they are wrong or right. For instance, she often comes to the wrong conclusion when it comes to Fredrick’s actions, “the result of the wild imagination” (Thomas, 902). Persuasion center’s on Anne’s quest for her object, Wentworth, which will bring her happiness. A Romantic shift occurs in Anne when she is physically able to express herself through the use of imagination, such as her “consistency” speech.

The more Anne begins to assert herself the more progressive and happier she becomes, all due to the “recognition of the value of her own ability to choose for herself” (Tarlson, 5). “Literature serves a very different purpose in Persuasion than in her other novels, because it is something to be considered, treasured and used as a moral and emotional guide… it necessitates her rejection of the social and familial pressures upon her in favor of an enlightened emotional life” (Tarlson, 12-13).

The Romantic literature, in particular, allows Anne to realize the amount of freedom she should be able to have in her pursuit for happiness. Anne broke off the proposal with Wentworth the first time because she was persuaded that he would provide for her materially for her because he was not in the aristocracy. But when she chooses him the second time, it is not because he is a changed man but because “she had the courage to choose for herself without regard to aristocratic nation of class” (Tarlson).

Anne had the ability to change herself and the situation and take advantage of it. Persuasion is a Romantic text in theme and structure; in contains sensitivity to loss, solitude in estrangement, interest in memory (the long regret over a broken proposal), the complexity and understanding of the passage of time, recovery of the past, concern over the poor, and the importance of feelings. All of these are applicable to the influence of the Romantic Era.

Main Character Of Tess Of The D’Urbervilles

In Hardy’s novel, Tess of the D’Urbervilles, readers are able to immerse themselves in the life of Tess, a character who lacks independence and eventually faces a tragic end. The narrative highlights the significance of seizing control over one’s own future and being assertive. Furthermore, Hardy scrutinizes the hypocrisy and judgmental tendencies present within Tess’ society, particularly in relation to organized religion. He also explores the genuineness of “conversion” and raises doubts about its sincerity. Through this literary work, readers are transported to an alternate reality where they gain understanding into the various factors and experiences that shape an individual’s existence.

The study of Tess’ tragic life allows readers to understand the importance of free will and taking charge. Although Tess is often seen as a victim of her malevolent society, her selflessness, pride, and strong sense of duty ultimately contribute to her downfall. Tess’ strong sense of duty compels her to make the delivery herself when her father is too drunk. “Oh no, I wouldn’t have it for the world… I could go,” Tess expresses a high level of responsibility and determination to rectify the situation when her family is unable to do so.

Tess demonstrates her selflessness and overwhelming sense of responsibility when she kills Prince. In response, she begins to ask herself rhetorical questions such as “What will father and mother live on now?” Her thoughts are solely focused on the well-being of her family, which deeply distresses her as she experiences extreme guilt. Thomas Hardy accentuates the theme of Tess’ guilt by metaphorically likening her to a murderess: “Her face appeared dry and pale, as if she saw herself as a murderer.”

Despite the death of Prince not being Tess’ fault, she assumed complete responsibility for it, which caused her immense anguish. By using the term “murderess,” Hardy conveys the heavy burden placed on Tess’ shoulders with a strong negative and violent implication. It was these intense and extreme emotions that drove Tess into Alec’s arms. Hardy enables the reader to fully engage with Tess’ life and showcases the repercussions of pushing things to the limit and excessively demeaning oneself. Furthermore, Hardy raises doubts about the concept of fate and ponders on the existence of human free will.

According to the author, it is incorrect to solely blame ‘fate’ for wrong and unjust events. This notion is exemplified in the scene where Tess was raped by Alec. The people from Tess’s own community often reassured themselves fatalistically by saying: ‘It was to be.’ This is where the tragedy lies, as expressed by the author in a critically despondent tone. Hardy believes that it was not ‘meant to be’ and that people could have intervened to protect Tess. Thus, the real tragedy stems from society’s mindset.

Tess’ lack of power and victimization by various societal factors is portrayed throughout the story. However, in Phase the Seventh, Tess finally takes control of her own destiny by killing Alec. Despite this act, Hardy suggests that it may be too late for Tess. “The oblong white ceiling, with this scarlet blot in the midst, had the appearance of a gigantic ace of hearts” (382). In including the image of an ace of hearts made from Alec’s blood, Hardy symbolizes the gamble that Tess took by killing him and demonstrates her newfound power and strength.

The recurring motif in the novel is the colors red and white, with white symbolizing innocence and red representing passion, aggression, and sin. Despite Tess finally taking control of her own fate, it is too late as the irreparable damage has already been done. Through Hardy’s novel, readers are immersed in Tess’s tragic world and gain insights into the importance of strength and fighting for autonomy. Tess of the D’Urbervilles by Hardy allows readers to explore a new world and understand Tess and her society. Hardy uses his novel to critique the hypocritical nature of organized religion in society and promotes the idea of individuals finding their own spiritual path.

Tess’ pregnancy and birth became a scandalous topic of gossip among the villagers. This tragic and ironic situation unfolded even at church, a place meant to provide security and freedom from judgment. Hardy’s use of intense emotive language on page 85 captures the deep sadness that Tess feels as she becomes aware of the whispers about her. She is heartbroken and feels unable to continue attending church. This irony lies in the fact that people who come to church to pray and listen to God’s word are the ones passing judgment on Tess.

This passage highlights Hardy’s critique of organized religion and its hypocrisy. The judgmental nature of society prevents Tess from giving her child a proper Christian burial. The parson, though aware of the rightness of burying the child, refuses to do so with certainty due to undisclosed reasons (page 97). Once again, Hardy emphasizes the negative impact of organized religion and the grave consequences it imposes on individuals.

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