An American Psychological Association-commissioned survey found that the great majority of Americans had a positive perspective about mental health diseases and treatment. 87% of people in the United States believe that having a mental health disorder is not anything to be ashamed of, and 86% believe that those with mental health concerns can better their situation (American Psychological Association, 2021). The CEO of the American Psychological Association (APA), Arthur C. Evans Jr., says the poll results are encouraging and show that the organization’s and others’ efforts to promote mental health care are paying off. The outcomes of this research include a greater willingness among older respondents to discuss mental illness openly as well as a strong belief that mental illness is nothing to be ashamed of.
There were 81% who said they would be very or relatively comfortable becoming friends with someone who has a mental illness, and 79% who said they would be very moderately comfortable engaging with someone who has a mental illness, according to the study. There was a little dip in the percentage of individuals who were okay dating someone with a mental health issue to 51%, and just 35% stated they were comfortable allowing those with a mental health disorder to care for their kid (American Psychological Association, 2021). Most Americans do not consider the most prevalent mental health issues to be diseases, which is notable in and of itself. One-third of those polled (33 percent) stated they did not consider anxiety or sadness to be mental illnesses.
In addition, views about suicide were examined in the study. 91% of Americans believe that suicidal persons can be cured and go on to have happy and fulfilling lives, and 88% believe that suicide can frequently be avoided (87 percent). In addition, 87 percent of those polled agreed that people should speak about suicide more freely, and 84 percent of those polled said that individuals should not be afraid to declare a loved one died by suicide. Seventy-nine percent of those polled thought that reducing the stigma and shame associated with mental illness would help reduce the suicide rate (American Psychological Association, 2021). There were also 30 percent of persons who said that if their loved one died by suicide, they would keep the reason of death a secret, while 63% agreed that suicide is a selfish decision.
Despite the good news, there is still some negative connotation. One-third (33%) agreed with the statement “those who have mental health illnesses terrify me,” and 39% stated they would regard someone differently if they were aware of their condition (American Psychological Association, 2021). Nearly four out of ten respondents who had never been diagnosed with a mental health illness or knew someone who had claimed that people with mental health issues terrified them. Only 27% and 28% of those who had been diagnosed with a mental health illness or knew someone who had did so. 59 percent of those polled said they had a friend or family member who had a mental illness.
There is still a strong stigma around mental health in the U.S. Some people with mental health issues experience discrimination and negative treatment in all aspects of their lives and this intensifies their problems. The discrimination comes from the society, employers, the media, family and friends. The media is a major factor to the spread of incorrect stereotypes (Rössler, 2016). Negative and inaccurate media portrayals of mental illness have persisted over the years. Misinformation about mental illness is routinely disseminated via popular culture (movies, TV shows, magazines, etc.) as well as mainstream media (newspapers, magazines, etc.) (Paterson et al., 2018). Violence and crimes done by people with mental health issues are sensationalized more than those committed by those who are otherwise healthy. This creates a distorted picture of mental illness sufferers as dangerous criminals who pose a threat to society. In most cases, people who have mental health problems are least likely to find work, be in long-term romantic relationships, find decent housing and be socially included in the mainstream society. The discrimination makes the individuals have worse mental health problems and may derail them from getting help. They also end up isolating themselves from the general public, live in poorly housed neighborhoods, lack employment and end up in poverty.
Types of mental disorders
Some of the mental disorders include: depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and dementia. In the globe, depression is the most frequent mental illness and a leading cause of physical and mental health problems. Throughout 264 million individuals around the world suffer from depression, according to current estimates (Fornaro et al.,2020). Women are disproportionately impacted as compared to men. Depression is characterized by distress and low self-esteem. Other symptoms include melancholy, a lack of interest or enjoyment in previously enjoyed activities, and a sense of guilt or self-loathing. In those who suffer from depression, they may also have a variety of physical ailments that have no obvious medical reason. Long-term or recurring depression significantly affects people’s capacity to perform at work or school and to deal with the stresses of everyday life. Depression may lead to suicide at its worst.
Bipolar disorder affects about 45 million individuals globally. Manic and depressive episodes are typically intermingled by periods of normal mood. A manic episode is characterized by an agitated or heightened mood, excessive activity, rapid speech, an inflated feeling of self-worth, and a decreased need for sleep (Fornaro et al.,2020). Someone who has a manic episode but no depression, are still considered to have bipolar illness. The person has lesser abilities of living normally since they are either irritated, have a heightened mood or are deeply depressed. They have grandiose perspectives and sense of worth which may make them engage in circumstances with an ego that may lead to self-destruction.
There are an estimated 20 million individuals worldwide who suffer from schizophrenia. These traits begin to emerge throughout early adulthood. People with schizophrenia and other psychoses have irregularities in their thinking and perception, as well as their emotions, vocabulary, and behaviors (Harrison & Luciano, 2021). Psychosis is characterized by a variety of symptoms, the most prevalent of which are delusions and hallucinations (fixed false beliefs or suspicions that are firmly held even when there is evidence to the contrary). For those who have the condition, it may be difficult to carry out their daily activities. As a result of social and health stigma, people may face discrimination and social exclusion. Patients with psychosis face human rights violations, such as long-term institutionalization.
An estimated 50 million individuals throughout the world suffer from dementia. Alzheimer’s disease and stroke are some of the illnesses that cause dementia. One of the hallmarks of dementia is that cognitive function (the capacity to process thoughts) declines well beyond what would be anticipated as a result of normal aging (Harrison & Luciano, 2021). It has an impact on a person’s ability to remember, think, navigate, comprehend, calculate, comprehend language, and make sound judgments. Deterioration in emotional regulation, social behavior, or motivation is often and infrequently preceded by an impairment in cognitive function.
Non-directive treatment approach and how it can be used to treat mental disorder
Non-directive psychotherapy, also known as client-centered or person-centered psychotherapy, is a method of treating mental health issues that focuses on helping patients gain a better understanding of their own thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. It involves therapists mirroring their clients’ expressed worries and providing regular, warm, “unconditional positive attention,” to help their “clients” see themselves more clearly and interact more honestly with the therapist and others (Švab, 2018). The therapist serves as a facilitator, allowing the client to choose the pace, direction, and end of treatment.
The approach can be used to treat mental disorders since it gives the patient a chance to identify and recognize their problems themselves. The patient is put in a position where they recognize that they need help. The therapist then assists them to analyze, synthesize and diagnose the patient’s issues and predict the future development of the patient’s problems (Švab, 2018). The patient is then prompted to make decisions about the solutions to their problems, analyze their strengths and make a final decision on how to solve the problem. That way, a mental illness patient is prompted to take responsibility of the treatment process since from the start, they are not forced to make decisions, they make the treatment decisions themselves after acknowledging that they have problems.
Directive treatment approach and how it can be used to treat mental disorder
In the directive treatment approach, people are encouraged to learn how to address their own issues with the support of a counselor. Counsellor-centered counseling is another name for this form of therapy since, the counselor does everything from analyzing, synthesizing, diagnosing, prescribing, and following up on his own patients (Švab, 2018). The patients are allowed to make decisions but the counsellor does everything to get the patient make a decision to keep with the diagnosis. The counsellor makes attempts to direct the patient’s thinking in a certain way by informing, explaining the illness and advising them. The approach can be used for the treatment of mental illnesses by prescribing what the patient should do to solve their problems. The patient’s treatment plan is based on how the counsellor understands the abilities and limitations of the patient. Since the counsellor is a professional, it is expected that they will develop plans that will best fit the successful treatment of the patient.
American Psychological Association (2021). Survey: Americans Becoming More Open About Mental Health. APA News and Advocacy.
Fornaro, M., Solmi, M., Stubbs, B., Veronese, N., Monaco, F., Novello, S., … & Vieta, E. (2020). Prevalence and correlates of major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia among nursing home residents without dementia: Systematic review and meta-analysis. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 216(1), 6-15.
Harrison, P. J., & Luciano, S. (2021). Incidence of Parkinson’s disease, dementia, cerebrovascular disease and stroke in bipolar disorder compared to other psychiatric disorders: An electronic health records network study of 66 million people. Bipolar Disorders, 23(5), 454-462.
Paterson, C., Karatzias, T., Dickson, A., Harper, S., Dougall, N., & Hutton, P. (2018). Psychological therapy for inpatients receiving acute mental health care: A systematic review and meta‐analysis of controlled trials. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57(4), 453-472.
Rössler, W. (2016). The stigma of mental disorders: A millennia‐long history of social exclusion and prejudices. EMBO reports, 17(9), 1250-1253.
Švab, V. (2018). Stigma in mental disorders: What is psychiatry able to do. Psychiatr Danub, 30(Suppl 4), 172-174.
Perfectly Competitive Markets Essay Sample For College
A perfectly competitive market is a market where businesses sell identical products, and there are no barriers to entry and exit. Perfectly competitive markets are advantageous to new market entrants who are trying to minimize the risk of the business. The new market entrant will reduce the risk of failing because the business deal in identical products that already exist in the market. Theoretical models have found that a significant equilibrium will be reached in a market with a perfect competition where the quantity demanded at the current price is equal to the quantity supplied for every product (Kononenko & Kugai, 2019). Perfect markets create a state of the economy where the production of goods and services is tailored to the consumers’ preferences. Also, perfect markets lead creates productive efficiency where an economic system that operates within constraints of industrial technology cannot increase the production of goods and services without sacrificing the production of other goods and services.
In a perfect market, no single supplier has more influence over the market price. The prices in a perfect market are determined by the demand and supply forces. Notably, in a perfect market, many businesses are under operations; this is due to the absence of barriers to entry and exit, which allow many firms to compete. A person can enter the market, and when it turns out to be unfavourable, they can easily exit (Kononenko & Kugai, 2019). This is one of the advantages of operating in a perfectly competitive market. Some examples of products that form a perfectly competitive market are agricultural products such as soybeans, corn, and wheat.
Features of Perfect Market
There are many buyers and sellers in the market; in a perfectly competitive market, the number of consumers willing and able to purchase certain products and services at a certain price is quite many. Also, many sellers and suppliers in the market are willing to sell and supply the products and services at a certain price (Komleh, n.d). And as such, no party, either sellers, suppliers or consumers, can influence the pricing of the products and services.
Homogenous products are available in the market can be used interchangeably because they are substitutes for one another. Consumers can choose to substitute one product with another. For instance, the market might sell butter and margarine, and the two products are substitute products. When the price of one substitute increases by a certain margin, consumers shift their consumption to other available substitute products.
There are no barriers to entry and exit; in a perfect market, firms can enter and exit at their convenience. Barriers to entry, such as fixed costs required to enter the market, are not present. Therefore firms find it easy to enter because they are not required to incur costs when entering the market. In a perfect market, a firm can exit at any time because there are no obstacles to be followed during exit.
All market participants have perfect information; consumers and producers in a perfect market have perfect information about the prices of goods and services. When consumers know all the information regarding the products and pricing, producers cannot exploit them. This prevents businesses from obtaining information that they will use to manipulate the prices of products in the market.
Zero transaction cost; buyers and sellers in a perfectly competitive market have the advantage of zero transaction cost. Buyers and sellers do not incur costs in conducting business transactions. This is based on the assumption that buyers and sellers come from the same locations; thus, transaction costs are unnecessary since they can meet and carry out the transactions (FajrinManik & Wahyudi, 2020).
Profit maximization of sellers; in a perfectly competitive market, sellers tend to maximize profits by selling products that are in high demand. The sellers also ensure that the marginal revenue covers the marginal costs incurred. Therefore, all sellers are wealth maxima oriented in the perfectly competitive market.
Firms in a perfect market do not incur transportation costs due to the perfect mobility factor. In the market, the factors of production are considered mobile and, therefore, free movement of works from one firm to another. It also enables the firms to make adjustments when changes in market conditions arise.
Efficiency in Perfectly Competitive Markets
During profit maximization, perfectly competitive firms combine with the maxima-utility consumers, which results in allocation efficiency and productive efficiency. Productive efficiency refers to producing products without waste; therefore, the choice will fall in the production possibility frontier. Due to the limited entry and exit barriers in the perfect markets, the prices will always be equal to the minimum long-run average cost (Gowdy, 2020). This means that goods are produced and sold to consumers and retailers at the lowest cheaper cost.
On the other hand, allocative efficiency is achieved in perfectly competitive markets that distribute goods and services optimally. The points along the possibility frontier curve are considered to be preferred socially. In perfect markets, the prices of goods and services are equal to the marginal cost of production. The price of a product is considered a measure of social benefit derived. The marginal cost incurred by a business firm is considered to measure the social cost of producing the product (Gowdy, 2020). Since the firms in perfectly competitive markets maximize profits by carrying out production at the quantity where the price will be equal to the marginal cost of production, the firms, therefore, ensure that social benefits received from the production of goods and services are in line with the social costs of production.
Market structures such as monopoly, oligopoly, and monopolistic competition are observed more in the real world than in perfect markets. This market structure does not produce the product at a minimum average cost, and their prices are usually not equal to the marginal costs. The fact that the marginal cost of production is not equal to the marginal price of the product makes the market structures to be considered inefficient because they will not produce allocation efficiency and productive efficiency (Komleh, n.d). This makes perfect markets to be more superior compared to other market structures.
Benefits Derived from Perfect Markets
Perfect markets offer participants many benefits; the first benefit is that a firm can easily enter and exit the market. A trader can start a business venture without any restrictions in a perfectly competitive market. A firm can also exit the market after achieving a target objective. Secondly, consumers enjoy lower prices because, in a perfect market structure, the prices are determined by demand and supply mechanisms. If a firm charges high prices for its products and services, the customers shift to other firms that offer lower prices. Thirdly, consumers are not exploited by sellers in the market, due to the stiff competition, no single seller has control over the market prices. Therefore sellers cannot influence the market by changing the prices (Guthmann, 2021). A perfectly competitive market is reducing the exploitation of consumers. Fourthly, sellers in a perfect market incur less promotional costs because the market deals with homogeneous products.
Furthermore, the prices are determined by demand and supply mechanisms. Therefore a firm does not require to spend a lot on product advertisement, product promotions and publicity. Lastly is the optimum utilization of resources because the profit margins are usually low due to low prices of products producers in a perfect market will strive to reduce wastage by utilizing the available resources.
Demerits of Perfectly Competitive Markets
Despite the advantages of perfectly competitive markets, there are drawbacks as well. The first disadvantage of engaging in a perfect market is the low profits because of the competition that exists in the market. Small and medium enterprises will not survive the market due to the limited profit size and lack of incentives. Secondly, due to limited barriers to entry and exit, many firms enter the market leading to stiff competition, thus limited market share and reduced profits. Thirdly, there is limited freedom of choice; perfect markets deal with inhomogeneous products and services; this limits the choice of customers because they cannot access a variety of products (Wijaya, 2020). The last disadvantage is that firms do not enjoy economies of scale because there are no economies of scale in a perfectly competitive market.
Equilibrium in Perfect Markets
Equilibrium in a perfect market is the point where the demands in the market equal the market supply. The prices of a firm are determined at the point where supply and demand are equal. The firm operating in a perfect market will achieve equilibrium when marginal cost equalizes with the price. The demand for products affects the equilibrium level in the short run, while in the long run, the equilibrium is affected by both demand and supply of products (Arora, 2021). At equilibrium, a business receives normal profits in the long run. In perfect markets, some factors are deemed to be fixed, and therefore, as the prices of other factors are provided, the cost per unit of quantity is expected to rise after a certain point.
Criticisms of Perfect Competitive Markets
Economists and researchers have criticized assumptions of the perfectly competitive markets. Economists criticize the price take assumption; it is assumed that in a perfect market, bother sellers and buyers are price takers. This makes the economic agents look passive; the concern is who sets the prices of buyers, and sellers are price takers. Therefore, the perfect market assumption is not appropriate because it does not provide the price maker in the market (Gordon, 2020). Economists, therefore, link the perfect market model to communists and capitalists.
The price theory of perfect markets has been criticized for representing passive agents as it limits active attempts by firms to maximize profits and wealth. The perfect markets are based on the assumption that no seller can set their prices because every participant is a price taker. It has been criticized that the market limits wealth maximization and individual welfare by limiting price undercutting processes, designing products, branding, and innovation. The criticism points out the lack of realism that the products are homogeneous and cannot be differentiated. Another common criticism of perfect markets is that a change in demand and supply does not necessarily cause a change in prices (Gordon, 2020). It is not true that the differences in demand and supply will cause an increase or decrease in the process in the short run.
In conclusion, perfectly competitive markets are an efficient market structure compared to oligopoly, monopolistic and monopoly market structures. The prices of products in the perfect market are determined by the demand and supply forces, and therefore sellers are not limited from overcharging. A perfect market leads to allocative and productive efficiency, an important aspect of the economy. Perfect markets protect the consumers from exploitation, save firms the cost of promotion, and enter the market and exit at their convenience, among other benefits. It is worth mentioning that perfectly competitive markets are the best forms of market structure.
Arora, C. (2021). Block-3 Equilibrium under Perfect Competition.
FajrinManik, L., & Wahyudi, D. R. (2020, February). Perfect Competition Market In Islamic Economic Perspective. In Proceeding International Seminar of Islamic Studies (Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 822-827).
Gordon, D. (2020). Book Review: “Economics in Two Lessons: Why Markets Work So Well, and Why They Can Fail So Badly.” Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics, 22(4), 655-659.
Gowdy, J. M. (2020). 4 Introducing Prices: Perfect Competition and Pareto Efficiency. In Microeconomic Theory Old and New (pp. 57-78). Stanford University Press.
Guthmann, R. (2021). The Illusion of Perfect Competition: The Law of One Price under Trading Frictions. The Illusion of Perfect Competition: The Law of One Price under Trading Frictions (September 13, 2021).
Kamlesh, R. A. A. (n.d). Comparison between conditions of perfect competition market and pure monopoly in supply, demand and equilibrium.
Kononenko, A. I., & Kugai, K. (2019). Competitive market types development and market concept for competitive position formation. Conceptual aspects management of competitiveness the economic entities.
Wijaya, T. (2020). Pasar Persaingan Sempurna Dan Pasar Persaingan Tidak Sempurna Dalam Perspektif Islam. Profit: Jurnal Kajian Ekonomi Dan Perbankan Syariah, 4(2), 1-16.
Permanent Versus Progressive Time Sample Essay
In his passage, Murray uses several examples to characterize a permanent life. He calls it “the main web of life,” which are simply the things that cannot be changed and are constant to everyone. To explain the ‘main web of life’ or permanent life, Murray illustrates its’ contrast, which is progressive life. According to Murray, progressive life changes with situations over time; can be superseded by other achievements. For instance, achievement can always be replaced by another achievement thus, showing progress in life. Nonetheless, Murray further explains the concept of permanent life by giving examples. Firstly, Murray provides an example of joy and grief as part of “the main web of life” despite the difference in time.
In the passage, Murray states, “The joy of an Egyptian child of the First Dynasty in a clay doll was every bit as keen as the joy of a child now in a number of vastly better dolls. Her grief was as great when it was taken away.” (Murray, n.d) This shows that despite the two children being from different times and the appearance of the dolls, the joy the two children experienced was similar, meaning that joy is a permanent aspect of life. It is the same despite different circumstances. The child’s joy with a much better doll does not necessarily mean more than that with a clay doll. Similarly, Murray further explains the aspect of joy by stating that the joy and grief of an artist in his art are similar to that of a strong man winning his fight. Another example Murray uses to elaborate on the permanent life is facing death. As we know it, every human being has to face death at some point in their lives; that is how things are, and nothing can supersede that.
Rose and Sophie are twin sisters. When they came of age, both got married and moved to their own homes because it was their dream to have their own family. Sophie got to have kids first, and she was blessed with twins whom she loved dearly. However, when Rose was ready to have her kids, she couldn’t, and when she visited her doctor, she learned that she had uterine fibroids and thus, could not bear children. Of course, she was devasted by the news. Therefore, the only option was to adopt a child, and eventually, they adopted a boy. Rose went on to love her adopted boy as if he was her own; she loved him as much as her sister loved her biological children. In this case, Sophie and Rose expressed love to their kids in a way that any circumstance couldn’t supersede.
In another instance, there is a school teacher, and the other is a martial arts teacher. The school teacher joined teaching because he loved to help students to prosper and described it as his purpose in the community and never looked at the amount of salary he was paid. Seeing students pass their examinations made him happy; consequently, he found joy in teaching. On the other hand, the martial arts teacher taught his students purposefully to help instill discipline and respect in his students and help them develop defensive techniques. The martial arts school held fighting competitions on several occasions, and whenever his martial arts students won the fights, he was filled with joy. In this case, both the teachers have different careers and purposes; however, they find joy in whatever they do, indicating that joy is an emotion in people’s daily lives that exists in “the web of life.”
Socrates’ parable in the dialogue “Ion” indicates that he does not write from the learned skill or knowledge but rather from inspiration. Additionally, he holds that good poetry are always written when a Muse or a god inspires one as he states on the Ion dialogue, “good poets are not just inspired but ‘divinely’ inspired, connected to the Music gods via a chain to which the poet’s audience is also linked” (Prato, 2013). Socrates explains how a magnet or ‘stone of Heraclea’ works to illustrate the art of inspiration is transferred from a Muse to a poet. He elaborates that when a magnet attracts one ring, it can transfer its magnetism to the first ring, which in turn attracts another ring that attracts another ring; that ends up forming a chain of rings. Similarly, the art of inspiration is transferred from an inspired poet to his audience, who also gets inspired through reading a divinely written poem.
Socrates uses the example of a magnet and rings to educate Ion that he [Ion] can utter so much about Homer than any other poet because all his [Homer] utterances have been inspired by Homer, a poet inspired by Muse. In the Ion dialogue, Homer is taken as the initial ring, inspired by a Muse [ stone of Heraclea], who inspires Ion and why he can utter good things about Homer. He adds that “a poet is a light and winged thing, and holy, and never able to compose until he has become inspired and is beside himself.” (Plato, 2013) This was to show, as Lombardi ( 2019) illustrates, not all written poems are a classic, but only those with high artistic qualities that are visible not only during its time but all the time.
Lombardi, E. (2019, October 22). What makes classic literature classic? ThoughtCo. https://www.thoughtco.com/concept-of-classics-in-literature-739770
Murray, G. (n.d.). The interpretation of Ancient Greek literature.
Plato. (2013). Ion. (B. Jowett, Trans.) https://www.gutenberg.org/files/1635/1635-h/1635-h.htm