Person-Centred Care Across The Lifespan

Minimizing harm if adolescents engage in risk-taking activities

Part 1

Children who are transitioning from childhood to adulthood, in many cases, make choices that put not only their health but also their well-being at risk. Examples of high-risk behaviours that adolescents engage in include drug and substance abuse, sexual activities and violent activities (Quinn et al., 2023). This topic is essential because it helps youths and health providers to understand risk-taking activities and control themselves from engaging in such activities.

The first normative event that adolescents experience is intellectual development. According to De Leyn et al. (2022), most children entering the adolescent stage often perceive their surroundings in concrete terms. Secondly, there is the aspect of emotional development. Children who develop emotionally begin to distance themselves from their parents or guardians (De Leyn et al., 2022). Such children begin spending more time with their friends and obtaining aggressive behaviour. The last normative event that adolescents experience is social development. As children continue to grow, they develop they begin falling in love and engaging in romantic relationships. However, adolescents and teenagers enter and exit adolescence at different ages (De Leyn et al., 2022). For instance, a seventeen-year-old boy might resemble a young man, but he might still have behaviour similar to that of a child.

The aspect of social development among adolescents that might compromise their health outcomes is social development. For instance, adolescents might join bad companies that drag them into drug and substance abuse. Hall and Lynskey (2020) state that drug addiction causes many health complications.

Nurses and midwives are crucial in providing person-centred Care to adolescents to help them maintain their health and well-being. For instance, they help them find ways to improve, Care for themselves and stay independent (De Leyn et al., 2022). This is especially true for adolescents addicted to harmful drugs such as alcohol and cocaine. Also, the nurses and midwives support adolescents and help them understand and learn about their health. For instance, nurses and midwives help adolescent girls to handle the issue of early pregnancy. They also advise the girls on how to handle themselves to avoid getting pregnant early.

Part 2

Health providers like nurses must minimize harm if adolescents engage in risk-taking activities. For instance, health providers should help adolescents understand social development as they transition from adolescence to adulthood. This will help reduce the rate at which adolescent individuals suffer from health conditions that result from poor socialization (Duell & Steinberg, 2021). An example of such a condition is liver cirrhosis which happens as a result of excessive consumption of alcohol. Information in the brochure will enable adolescents to be conscious of their social development.

The brochure mainly focuses on adolescent boys and girls. This question is crucial because it will help nurses understand how to guide adolescents as they develop. The brochure will help Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to monitor well the progress of their adolescent children (Duell & Steinberg, 2021). As a result, the Australian communities will raise children that will develop into responsible adults.

As a nurse, I will use different ways to disseminate the brochure. For instance, I will display the brochure on social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter and Instagram so that it can reach the target audience. Secondly, I will distribute the brochure leaflets to my patients so they can give them to their families and friends (Fraccastoro et al., 2020). Lastly, I will display the brochures on brochure holders to be visible so that they can be picked by other individuals who visit the hospital where I am practising my nursing career.


De Leyn, T., De Wolf, R., Vanden Abeele, M., & De Marez, L. (2022). In-between child’s play and teenage pop culture: Tweens, TikTok & privacy. Journal of Youth Studies25(8), 1108-1125.

Duell, N., & Steinberg, L. (2021). Adolescents take positive risks, too. Developmental Review62, 100984.

Fraccastoro, K. A., Moss, G., Flosi, A., & Karani, K. (2020). Disseminating Information to College Students in a Complex Media Environment. Business Education Innovation Journal12(1).

Hall, W., & Lynskey, M. (2020). Assessing the public health impacts of legalizing recreational cannabis use: the US experience. World Psychiatry19(2), 179-186.

Quinn, C. R., Boyd, D. T., Menon, S. E., Mitchell, M., Radney, A., Coker, E. J., … & Voisin, D. R. (2023). Exploring substance misuse behaviours among black girls in detention: Intersections of trauma, sex, and age. Addictive Behaviors143, 107693.

Personal Business Plan

Business name: Best Choice Eateries and Deliveries

Executive summary

This personal business plan outlines what I plan to do after I leave university. The name of the business in mind is Best Choice Eateries and Deliveries, which will work according to the needs of many people who need more time to make meals. The company will also deliver quality food to different destinations, including homes and offices. There are several questions that I plan to answer as I establish this business and serve the whole community at large. The marketing position statement urges customers to visit the company and experience the business’s quality products and services. Some checkpoints and milestones will indicate the business’s success and help the business identify the factors that may positively or negatively affect the business. After identifying the negative aspects, I will develop risk mitigation strategies to ensure the company stays afloat even during tough times. Entrepreneurial ethics are essential for the business as it ensures that all staff are honest and treat all our customers respectfully. Generally, the company is efficient, customer-oriented, technologically capable, inspirational, innovative, and quality-driven.

Vision and opportunity.

After I leave university, I plan to start an Eatery that would serve different people from different walks of life. This vision is driven by the numerous opportunities available in the service industry. Additionally, people must eat daily, and I want to provide them with the best services. By offering quality services, I am assured they will return to get more of my products and services (Kumar et al., 2021). They will also refer their friends and family, thus helping me to build my business and increase profits. The main aim of starting up an eatery is to make a coin for me, make a profit and do something I am passionate about. My purpose is also to ensure that people get value for their money. I will ensure I get the best people to offer services in the Eatery and the best foods on the menu. Some of the questions that compel me to begin this Eatery include:

  1. What is my passion, and how can I use it to help other people in society?
  2. What are the current trends that make the service industry evolve each day?
  3. What are some opportunities that can help me meet my goals?

The service industry has more opportunities that arise every day. People have also become so busy with their jobs, and they may need more time to make food for themselves and their families. Therefore, an eatery would get customers from offices and families since delivery options will be incorporated into the daily operations. Those in their workplaces can order the foods they want for breakfast, lunch, or dinner, and the staff will deliver them. Families can also collect their meals to be delivered to their homes at any time (Ellis, 2020). During the day and at the end of the day, the Eatery will have several customers who would like to end the day with a hot meal without having to go through the hustle of cooking it. Even though the market is saturated with similar businesses, I will make my products and services more unique to ensure that I get more customers and compete well with my competitors.

Marketing and implementation strategy.

My market position statement will be: “You want the best meals in the comfort of your home or office? Best Choice Eateries and Deliveries got you!”

This marketing positioning statement will work because people will be interested in a service provider that caters to their needs in the comfort of their desks, whether at home or in their workplaces. Additionally, the statement also connects with the target audience- those that may have tight schedules and thus need help cooking or making their meals (Lee et al., 2019). All customers are assured of custom-made meals they can order, and they get them delivered anywhere any time. The statement also emphasizes its uniqueness in providing customers’ orders and allowing them to work, thus not losing any minute of their working hours looking for places to eat. The stamen is clear and notifies the customers of how easy it is to get their specific services, and one can quickly identify the n=benefits that come with seeking the benefits of the Eatery.

The compelling value my business will offer to employers and society is customer commitment and differentiated products and services from similar companies. The company seeks to comfort customers while ensuring quality products and services. By treating all my customers well, I am assured that they will become loyal and even spread the word about the excellent products and services of the Eatery (Drummond et al., 2020). By establishing this business, I will be different from other UAE students who look for white-collar jobs after they are done with their education. Instead, I will be creating employment for myself and other people. Some formal work can also take time to come by, and establishing the Eatery will enable me to do what I enjoy while offering the best services to the members of my community. The broader population will also enjoy the benefits that I provide, and I will allow them opportunities to give feedback and continually improve services according to that feedback.

Risks and Mitigation.

The first key milestone in this plan is getting all the finances necessary to start the Eatery. The finance should manage to cater for the premises, salaries for the few employees needed at the beginning and the amount needed to purchase raw materials for the first few months. After the Eatery runs, another milestone is realizing a profit and breaking even after the initial investment. After achieving these checkpoints, I will only ensure that the business remains relevant in the market while maintaining the same quality services as the first day it was established (Morrish & Jones, 2020). Breaking even will be the primary measure to show that the business has succeeded. Additionally, more customers every day will show that the business is flourishing and that people are satisfied with the products and services that the Eatery has. The long-term indication of success is when I can open up another chain of eateries in different parts of the country and attain the same level of customer recognition, thus translating to overall success.

One of the external factors that may affect the Eatery includes prices of raw materials in the market that are needed to cook different food varieties according to customer needs. The commodity prices are something other than what the Eatery can control since the prices are universal. However, the management can find ways to work around those prices and ensure the quality of products and services remain constant through all seasons. The positive factors affecting the business include workforce expertise and technological capability. These two factors ensure that the staff produce the best foods under the best conditions and know how to work around technology to advertise and sell our products and services. To mitigate any risks to the business, I will ensure a constant supply of quality raw materials to ensure quality end products. There will be enough reserves to ensure they are available even in their off-seasons to ensure that the Eatery has raw materials (Singh et al., 2021).

Entrepreneurial ethics, personal “board of directors.”

Some of the ethical considerations that I will keep in mind include upholding moral values beginning with myself and all the staff of the Eatery. I will ensure all the staff has specific moral values and serve as examples for our customers. The principal value is honesty, where all employees will do as instructed by customers without going through any shortcuts to achieve what they need. The staff should also respect all customers regardless of how much they spend, their prestige, or their position in the social classes of society (Vallaster et al., 2019). We should all understand that all customers are essential to the business and should be treated with similar respect. Another ethic is responsibility, and all the staff of the business should attend to all customers to the best of their ability; after all, the same customers are the ones who make the business function every day. By observing these ethics, the business will hold a reputable name among all the customers and will manage to prosper within a short time.

Some of the “personal board of directors” include close family members who raised all the finance to make the business a reality. These people will be involved in some decisions that involve the business, and their input will be considered in making any changes needed (Castellanos & George, 2020). They will also help in more advertisement of the business by telling other close friends of the excellent services. They will advise on the best course of action when they feel the business needs to meet its objectives. They will only be on the sidelines, but I will be the sole proprietor of the business. I chose these members of the board of directors because they have dealt with similar businesses before, and their guidance will be influential in steering the business in the right direction. This personal business plan can be summarized as an efficient, customer-oriented, technologically capable, inspirational, innovative, and quality-driven business.


Castellanos, J. D., & George, B. (2020). Boardroom leadership: The board of directors as a source of strategic leadership. Economics and Business Review6(1), 103-119. Drummond, C., O’Toole, T., & McGrath, H. (2020). Digital engagement strategies and tactics in social media marketing. European Journal of Marketing.

Ellis, M. M. (Ed.). (2020). Vision for opportunity: John Roueche and the community college movement. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Kumar, I., Rawat, J., Mohd, N., & Husain, S. (2021). Opportunities of artificial intelligence and machine learning in the food industry. Journal of Food Quality2021, 1-10.

Lee, C., Hallak, R., & Sardeshmukh, S. R. (2019). Creativity and innovation in the restaurant sector: Supply-side processes and barriers to implementation. Tourism Management Perspectives31, 54-62.

Morrish, S. C., & Jones, R. (2020). Post-disaster business recovery: An entrepreneurial marketing perspective. Journal of Business Research113, 83-92.

Singh, R., Agarwal, S., & Singh, N. (2021). Adaptation of Roster Format in Food Joints. Journal of Case Research12(1), 1-7.

Vallaster, C., Kraus, S., Lindahl, J. M. M., & Nielsen, A. (2019). Ethics and entrepreneurship: A bibliometric study and literature review. Journal of Business Research99, 226-237.

Research Paper – Types Of Reports


In the criminal justice system, a law enforcement officer is tasked with maintaining law and order as described in the Constitution. Upon breaking the law, police officers must apprehend the suspect before taking him to the federal justice system for charging per the law interpretation. During the arrest period, the suspects are booked, and the officers involved in filing reports or records that can be utilized during prosecution to ensure justice is given. In this regard, a law enforcement officer’s ability to document reports as events unfold is vital in enabling rightful prosecution from the criminal system by alluding to the facts outlined in the reports. The report writing skills relating to a particular incident are crucial because they indicate competence when prosecuting an offender. According to Pham (2020), detailed law enforcement reports help guide the administration, cross-examination, investigation, and any arrest. The documents showcase efficiency in report writing, where incidents are based on facts. The criminal justice system requires the reports to align with fairness, neutrality, integrity, and honesty to foster legal scrutiny and protection during prosecution. The reports are also used as a reference point for initial crimes, especially during preliminary hearings. They offer important statistical data on equipment needs, staffing, crime trends, and hotspots to law agencies. The paper will focus on reasons and information required to complete domestic violence crimes, felony crimes, misdemeanor crimes, and traffic crashes.

Traffic crashes

Traffic incidents are common, with law enforcers being the first-line respondents. The police are tasked with identifying the offenders, giving required aid, and enhancing public safety in case of traffic crash accidents and incidents. Therefore, law enforcement officers must complete a traffic crash report whose incident documentation portrays reliability and decisiveness when charging the involved party. The police are a public service sector meaning whatever they do is always under scrutiny. Traffic crash reports showcase the need to uphold accuracy and transparency. They help law enforcement agencies to cultivate confidence and build trust at the local, regional, national, and international levels. The virtues to be upheld by the police align with the scripture, where the New International Version in Titus 2:7-8 points out the need to maintain the truthfulness, sincerity, honesty, sound speech, gravity, incorruptness, and words that cannot be condemned. While practicing these virtues and values, police officers must act promptly once a traffic incident is reported and jot a report to help in the investigative phase.

The traffic crash report demands that the law enforcer steer initial individual investigations that led to the traffic collision. The initial inquiry is pivotal in gathering important facts. For example, some facts during a traffic crash may include the driver’s speed, facilities and infrastructure, the vehicle’s visible damage, the aftermath as revealed in photographic evidence, drivers and survivor’s account of the accident, and the observation made by independent witnesses (Vredeveldt et al., 2018). Such information is a vital tool highlighting the accident’s factors and causes crucial in aiding investigators to reconstruct a better report once the investigative process is completed. The traffic crash reports are based on tangible, visible, and observable facts instead of individual opinions, theories, thoughts, and perceptions regarding the accident’s cause. Thus, a law enforcer in the traffic crash incident documents what witnesses and parties involved said while including photographs to avoid bias. After hearing from the parties and witnesses, the law enforcer must include a detailed transcript suggesting whether a crime was committed and the action taken. In this essence, traffic crash reports are vital tools for protecting the affected from negligence while ensuring fair compensation. Besides, the traffic crash reports help charge and prosecute the offenders because of reckless driving. Upon completion of the traffic crash report, the police officers submit it for approval from a police chief before entering it into a precinct database.

Misdemeanor crimes

Baynard (2021) asserts that misdemeanor crime reports include low-level criminalities such as trespassing, public nudity, disorderly conduct, and larceny, where offenders are taken to a federal penitentiary to serve a maximum one-year sentence. The jury may decide to lower the sentence depending on the given account. When documenting a misdemeanor offense report, the law enforcer must consider the crime level committed because they differ with legal precedents and jurisdictions. The misdemeanor reports allow important data to be sourced, vital in predicting future criminalities and tracking possible offenders. According to Lowder et al. (2019), misdemeanor cases are classified into three classes or levels, with the offenders being sentenced for one year, 180 days, and 90 days for levels 1, 2, and 3, respectively. During the misdemeanor crime documentation, key elements include levying of possible additional penalties, maximum convicted period, and the committed crime. Besides, the misdemeanor crime report should include the offenders and offended names while making the report brief, ordinary, accurate, concise, and full of facts.

Felony crimes

When one commits a felony, the offense, including death, is considered serious and punishable by law. The offense seriousness meets with harsher fines, penalties, and sentences. In the United States, an offender convicted of a felony is given a minimum of a one-year sentence in a federal penitentiary (Slocum et al., 2019). In many cases, felony crimes taint the offender’s image for life when labeled a criminal, making it hard to obtain government jobs because of past offenses. Therefore, when filing a felony crime report, the law enforcer must consider crime grouping, classified into two groups: crimes against people and people. Some crimes against individuals include drug possession, kidnapping, manslaughter, criminal battery, rape, and assault. Crimes against property encompass fraud, vandalism, arson, and theft. Felony crimes have various degrees and charges specified in each state and jurisdiction. The police should be guided and aware of the felony level and the protocols required when filing felony documents. Felony crime reports must be written from the beginning of the incident, corroborated by side notes, and portray the incident’s reflection. For instance, the narrative part can show how events occurred in a timely and chronological order while indicating other related scenarios. The felony crime report should entail the law enforcement officers present, the time, date, street address, and other particular details. The felony report must illustrate the incident’s nature, correspondence contents, and when the authorities were alerted before swinging into action. The document must accommodate reported facts and portray objectivity.

Domestic violence (DV) crimes

Domestic violence occurs in cohabitation, marriage, or domestic setting where abuse and violence are directed toward a spouse or intimate partner. However, it may broadly accommodate the elderly, parents, and children. It manifests itself through sexual, reproductive, religious, economic, emotional, verbal, and physical forms through violent, aggressive, coercive, and subtle means. Some key aspects of domestic violence include stalking, intimidation, domineering, sexual abuse, beating, slapping, restraining, biting, and other physical assaults. The domestic violence emergent nature makes it to be given the relevant priority calls and dispatches. Upon arrival, the law enforcer writes a domestic violence crime report detailing the victim’s physical and emotional fate. Domestic violence reports are significant in aiding prosecutors to give the right judgment based on the victim’s account and tangible evidence. A complete DV crime report must be accurate and detailed with the duty to end the domestic abuse cycle. When well written, the prosecutors can aid the offended in seeking justice and prevent future reprisals of a similar incident. The DV report must accommodate appropriate legal procedures and policies, such as whether an offense was determined to occur and entailing the incident’s detailed narration. Besides, the law enforcer should document if the dominant aggressor was identified and arrested. A major boost for the DV report is the interview transcript which gives a primary account of what happened, especially from the victim of abuse. Also, it is vital to include the offender’s details, like intoxication and substance abuse. The DV report should indicate the presence of deadly weapons, guns, and other firearms and if they were confiscated per law. The report should highlight if an Emergency Protective Order (EPO) were provided after noting the minors residing in the household and including their date of birth and names.


From the preceding, law enforcers must participate in report writing to ensure justice is served where needed. Report writing involves detailed documentation and account of what transpired to determine appropriate legal action is taken and recommendations. Law enforcers are tasked with detailing felony, domestic violence, misdemeanor, and traffic crash reports which must be accurate, concise, detailed, and full of facts. Objectivity allows prosecutors and the jury to determine the type of crime committed and the extent to which an offender serves a sentence per jurisdiction laws. In the long run, positive outcomes are achieved in the criminal justice system with specific, accurate, clear, and comprehensive reports.


Baynard, M. (2021). Overcriminalization of Low-Level Offenses: Perpetuating Poverty and Racial Disparities in the Misdemeanor Criminal Justice System.

Lowder, E. M., Morrison, M. M., Kroner, D. G., & Desmarais, S. L. (2019). Racial bias and LSI-R assessments in probation sentencing and outcomes. Criminal Justice and Behavior46(2), 210–233.

Pham, D. (2020). The Need for Report Writing Training for Law Enforcement Professionals.

Slocum, L. A., Greene, C., Huebner, B. M., & Rosenfeld, R. (2019). Changes in the enforcement of low-level and felony offenses post-Ferguson: An analysis of arrests in St. Louis, Missouri. Criminology, Crim. Just. L & Soc’y20, 25.

Vredeveldt, A., Kesteloo, L., & Van Koppen, P. J. (2018). Writing alone or together: Police officers’ collaborative reports of an incident. Criminal Justice and Behavior45(7), 1071-1092.