Personal Budget Planning: Saving, Investing, And Donating Sample Assignment

Calculating a personal budget is of crucial importance for financial independence, as it allows you to understand the process of operating money. Fedosov et al. (2021) state that “long-term budget planning is especially important in conditions of high financial dependence” (p. 1). It is clear from my budget table that my income is well enough to pay my bills, as it covers all expenses. Thus, it is safe to say that I live within y means and am entirely independent of my family. The savings category constitutes my emergency fund: every month, I put $8000 into my bank account to save money both for any unexpected expenses and for future use. This money would also serve as retirement savings, and I plan to slowly increase the amount of money I save up to at least $10,000; as for now, $8000 is clearly not enough for retirement. Seeing that, with all the expenses counted, I still have more than enough money; I can start supporting my family and donate to charity.

My first step to start saving for the future would be to set aside a fixed percentage of income every month. I will create a separate account or debit card where I can transfer funds from my salary, part-time job, advance payment, or business profits. Moreover, to avoid the temptation to use this money or cancel my monthly contribution, I will set up automatic deductions and open a bank account that does not allow premature withdrawal.

From the available investment tools, I would consider stock investing first. However, before buying shares, it is important to study the performance and performance of the company, read analytics, and make a probable forecast. Additionally, after the purchase, I will have to study statistics and stock reports and follow the charts throughout the day. Still, stock investments would be my first choice of using spare money. Another less risky way I am also willing to try would be to buy index funds rather than individual stocks of companies. In fact, these are ready-made portfolios of securities – for example, shares of the largest IT companies in the United States or companies with the largest capitalization. As a result, the price of the index will follow the average price of all securities included in it. At the same time, I will not need to monitor constantly how things are going in the market, as with stocks. Finally, to secure my finances, I will diversify my investments: I will use different investment tools, carefully research various strategies, and combine them in complex systems. My investment portfolio will be differentiated by many variables, such as tools, industries, companies, and even countries, to provide better insight into the stock market. This way, I will partially insure myself against related losses.

In my budget table, I have a particular expense for credit payment. I will loan $26,000 for 36 months from the bank to buy a car, which would be more profitable than spending time and money on public transportation. My income allows me to pay the loan with ease. However, in the future, I will try to refrain from taking loans and simply save up the needed amount. Still, if I would ever need to loan money, I would first research the offers from the banks and choose the one that would fit me best.

Reference

Fedosov, V., Morunova, G., Ivanova, N., & Kankulova, M. (2021). Long-term budget planning in the context of globalization and its socio-economic significance. SHS Web of Conferences, 92, 03009.

Deferred Action For Childhood Arrivals: Road To Legal Status

Abstract

The Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) was established in June 2012. This program provided temporary deportation exemptions and worked permissions for undocumented youth throughout the United States. The article presents the historical background of the emergence of the program and a theoretical explanation of the program’s essence. Various and contradictory points of view of the program researchers are analyzed. This article aims to focus on the issues of effectiveness, constitutionality, and feasibility of DACA. This study examines how young undocumented immigrants overcome the uncertainty of ambiguous or threshold legal status. Also, the question is formulated about how the program corresponds to or contradicts the ethical ideas of society. A conclusion is made about the constitutionality of DACA; however, the effectiveness of DACA is controversial since, as it becomes possible to conclude from the results of research, DACA encourages violation of the law. Some ethical issues remained unresolved during the adoption of DACA, which may cause specific problems in the future. It became evident that the successful implementation of DACA will only be accomplished if proper attention is paid to the issues of the national identity of migrants.

Introduction

The Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) is a set of laws in the United States that allow persons brought into the country as a child to obtain a renewable two-year deferred period and a work permit. The project was to draw attention to the problem of illegal immigrants and ensure their protection and participation in society. The DACA’s goal was to develop interim measures to protect against deportation for people brought to the United States as children who did not have citizenship or legal resident status. This paper aims to analyze competing views on the constitutionality, effectiveness, feasibility, and ethics of DACA in the United States. The preliminary thesis of the work is that DACA does not violate the constitutional foundations of the United States. The alleged encouragement of violations of the law by the parents of DACA recipients is controversial.

Background

The predecessor of the current act was the so-called DREAM Act, which allowed recipients to obtain American citizenship and protection from deportation. It was introduced in 2001, compared to DACA, which came into force in 2012. The DREAM Act is a bill that aims to provide legal status to young immigrants who are illegally residing in the United States. Such young people came to the country after their parents brought them there. The DACA bill initially failed in the Senate in 2007 and 2011 due to Republican opposition. However, the essence of the law was reasonable, both from a political and social point of view. The law provided a clear path for obtaining citizenship and permanent residence in the United States. Unfortunately, the DACA bill came into force only during the Obama presidency. Among the problematic aspects of the program is the abuse of power – the law was implemented without Congress’s approval. It is also believed that the bill has placed a financial burden on the state to solve illegal immigration issues.

Discussion of Competing Perspectives

Perspective 1: Constitutionality of DACA

The first issue with DACA that creates competing perspectives is its constitutionality. The parties to argue their position refer to the Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution. This amendment introduced the granting of citizenship to any person born in the United States territory and a ban on deprivation of rights unless by court order. It not only proclaimed the equality of all citizens, regardless of skin color but also provided for the punishment of states for violating these regulations. In addition, it was intended to decrease the rate of representation in the US Congress for the violating state.

To assess how consistent the analyzed bill is with the US Constitution, one should mention such a document as Deferred Action for Parents of Americans. The program, called Deferred Action for Parents of Americans and Lawful Permanent Residents (DAPA), allows specific parents of US citizens to apply for temporary deportation protection and employment permissions. Researchers differ in their views on the constitutionality of the project. For example, Konopasek assessing the constitutionality of DACA and DAPA argues that DACA is constitutional, while DAPA is not. He writes about the need to determine the scope of the president’s powers to issue decrees to ensure that there is an abuse of the right. In a situation where the principle of checks and balances is not observed, it becomes impossible to determine whether specific actions of the country’s president are violations of the law. The author argues that the emergence of DAPA should be associated with the death of one of the Supreme Court judges and the resulting deadlock between the remaining judges. The essence of the author’s argumentation boils down to an analysis of the Constitution, particularly the provisions on care and actions taken following the presidential decree under both Obama and Trump’s presidency. According to the author, it is the responsibility of the Supreme Court to answer questions regarding powers. The document is mainly based on the opinions of researchers of law, and, accordingly, a much smaller part of the work is made up of objective facts.

The Supreme Court has not yet reached an unequivocal decision on birthright citizenship concerning children born in the United States from illegally present foreigners. This lack of a straightforward solution is the reason for disputes over the constitutionality of DACA. The author writes that in states with more violent migrant policies, the sense of legal uncertainty worsens. For states with more democratic laws, such as California, legal limits become less pressing. The study uses the semi-structured interview analysis approach, which may affect the reliability of the results obtained and the possibility of their application outside the targeted group of individuals.

In general, it appears that since DACA does not provide citizenship to recipients, it does not violate Amendment 14, which grants citizenship to anyone born in the United States. However, there is an obvious need to regulate the balance of powers between representatives of different branches of government. The procedure of implementing such bills should be strictly defined.

Perspective 2: Effectiveness of DACA

DACA has been a significant economic growth engine for cities and states. The introduction of this bill allowed DACA recipients to benefit from new tax revenues from large purchases and new jobs. Pope’s research results show that DACA has produced positive results in the labor market. Unemployment among DACA recipients has declined, while incomes have risen. Accordingly, it can be considered that in terms of the effectiveness of economic indicators in the world of work, DACA is producing positive results. Pope’s research was not sponsored by any political organizations, which to some extent testifies to the author’s impartiality. However, Pope’s work did not consider other indicators of migrants’ problems, which should be attributed to the shortcomings of the essay.

It became possible for other researchers to use Pope’s research experience for their work. In particular, Amuendo-Dorantes and Antman build on Pope’s findings; they use the same difference-in-differences design, in which some groups are getting the treatment and others do not, that was used in Pope’s work. This way of doing research can be considered a standard tool for this kind of inquiry to determine how much the situation has improved compared to the control group. For example, the likelihood of developing poverty among families with DACA recipients decreased by 38%, according to the result of this study. However, since it is impossible to say with certainty that the 38% decrease in poverty was caused precisely by the implementation of DACA, this impossibility to establish a causal relationship should be attributed to the study’s shortcomings.

According to Brannon and McGee, maintaining DACA will allow current program members to earn around 102 billion in total federal revenue. At the same time, the elimination of legal protections would reduce revenues to about $ 30 billion in the next decade. The authors’ approach proves the economic efficiency of DACA. However, there is a considerable risk that the program will be canceled due to the unstable political situation. The expected forecast does not study many other factors that may affect the research results, which can be regarded as the limitation of the article.

There is a problem with the program itself balancing legality and illegality. Roth assumes that DACA has encouraged more migrants with young children to come to the United States. Nevertheless, according to the author, there is “legal violence”: the beneficiaries are given hope for social integration without the possibility of its full achievement. The author’s research uses a comparative approach and is carried out to analyze in-depth interviews with recipients in Carolina.

From an economic point of view, the abolition of DACA will cause a severe drop in the income of migrants. However, some studies linking income growth and poverty reduction among migrants do not consider other indicators, which gives reason to distrust the assumptions about the positive economic impact of DACA. While DACA helps existing migrant children gain legal status, it also encourages breaking the law and risks leaving recipients without parents or support in another country.

Perspective 3: Feasibility of DACA

Among the possible emerging problems in DACA implementation may be the difficulties of integrating recipients into society. The researchers believe that it will be difficult for children receiving work permits to adapt since many citizens indicate they do not belong to the country. Moreover, one of the key factors in slowing down the integration process is the growing discriminatory attitudes in society because of the number of terrorist attacks in recent years. The study was based on semi-structured interviews with representatives of youth migrants. Thus, the very basis of the survey raises reasonable doubts about the reliability of the results obtained, but this is compensated by cross-checking with other resources. The final result of the study is the conclusion that the problem of integration is characteristic and relevant not only for the group of interviewed persons but instead, has a mass character.

Umfress writes that the feasibility of DACA is extremely important for the successful functioning of the agricultural industry in the country’s southern states. The project’s cancellation could lead to the loss of jobs for many migrants employed in this area. Agricultural activity mainly involves low-skilled workers, who are mostly migrants. This problem is much less of a problem for affluent American citizens who have better job opportunities. Although the article has a solid evidence base from previous work, some interpretations are suspected of bias, particularly the author’s position against a zero-sum approach to the labor market.

The successful implementation of DACA is only possible if attention is paid to the problems of the national identity of migrants who have come to the United States. Consideration should also be given to the impact of the cessation of policies on specific areas of the economy. In particular, the end of DACA will negatively affect workers in the agricultural industry who are predominantly migrants.

Perspective 4: Ethics of DACA

DACA raises questions from the perspective of morality, as discussed by many researchers interested in this project. DACA seems to some researchers to comply with the requirements of morality since it does not violate any laws and makes it possible to produce more benefits for people than potential harm. From Di Bartolo’s point of view, this program protects migrant families and improves their health situation by offering access to the best facilities. However, the ethical interpretation of the program, no matter how reasoned it is, remains a controversial object for research, limiting the applicability of this author’s findings for the current analysis.

In the next analyzed article, the study of ethical problems of the implemented policy continues. Farrell believes that DACA can be considered by addressing legal and moral uncertainties regarding the analyzed issues of migrants in the United States. The article’s essence is to study the possibility of canceling DACA and deporting recipients from the United States from a moral perspective. However, according to Farrell, attention should be paid to how reasonable such a decision is concerning children of migrants. In particular, they cannot influence what is happening in any way. Furthermore, deportation of parents who receive DACA can negatively affect these children’s emotional and psychological health. Once again, the ethical interpretation of politics here cannot serve as a convincing argument in favor of the possibility or impossibility of its implementation or further preservation. However, it should be noted that Farrell’s argumentation is in many respects similar to that of the previous researcher Di Bartolo.

It appears that several ethical issues remained unresolved during the enactment of DACA. In the future, this may affect the effectiveness and feasibility of the program. However, at this stage, from an ethical point of view, the decision to cancel the program cannot be made. Such a decision does not comply with the concept of ethics. In addition, it can be concluded that even insignificant changes in the conditions for granting work permits and temporary protection of deportation will cause tension in society and exacerbate ethical contradictions in the program’s implementation.

Conclusion

When the DACA was adopted, there seemed to be an abuse of power since the program was adopted without considering Congress’s opinion. This obliges authorities to resolve the distribution of powers between the branches of government regarding the implementation of DACA. It is also believed that the law has imposed a financial burden on the state to solve the problems of illegal immigration. Accordingly, this problem must also be resolved by the authorities.

It appears that DACA does not contradict the 14th Amendment to the US Constitution since DACA does not provide citizenship to recipients; however, the effectiveness of DACA is controversial. The lack of a Supreme Court decision on birthright citizenship concerning children born in the United States to illegally resident aliens is a source of controversy over the constitutionality of DACA. The effectiveness of DACA is challenging to assess also because the currently available studies do not consider all the necessary factors, which affects the reliability of the research results. The dominant opinion among researchers is that DACA meets the requirements of morality since it does not violate any laws and allows people to do more good than potential harm. However, the lack of resolution of some ethical issues, such as the deportation of parents who receive DACA, may cause specific problems in the future. Successful implementation of DACA will only be achieved if proper attention will be paid to the issues of the national identity of migrants. Refusal to use the program can lead to a decrease in income and loss of work for recipients.

References

Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina, and Francisca Antman. “Can Authorization Reduce Poverty among Undocumented Immigrants? Evidence from the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals Program.” Economics Letters 147, (2016): 1-4.

Arthur, Andrew R. “Birthright Citizenship: An overview.” Center for Immigration Studies, 1, no. 1 (2018): 1-16.

Brannon, Ike, and Kevin McGee. “Would Suspending DACA Withstand a Benefit-Cost Analysis.” Regulation 41, (2018): 4-5.

Di Bartolo, Isha Marina. “Immigration, DACA, and Health Care.” AMA Journal of Ethics 21, no. 1 (2019): 4-7.

Farrell, Joseph. “DACA-ptives: On the Moral Quality of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals Program.” International Journal of Applied Philosophy 32, no. 1 (2018): 33-47.

Konopasek, Seth. “Examining the Constitutionality of Executive Orders: DACA, DAPA, and the Take Care Clause.” Brigham Young University Prelaw Review 32, no. 1 (2018): 15-25.

Paschero, Sofia, and Jody McBrien. “National Identity and Integration Challenges of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) Recipients.” Societies 11, no. 1 (2021): 24-26.

Pope, Nolan G. “The Effects of DACAmentation: The impact of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals on Unauthorized Immigrants.” Journal of Public Economics 143, (2016): 98-114.

Roth, Benjamin J. “The Double Bind of DACA: Exploring the Legal Violence of Liminal Status for Undocumented Youth.” Ethnic and Racial Studies, 42 no. 15 (2019): 2548-2565.

Umfress, Moriah D. “DACA and Agriculture: Why Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals Should Not Be Allowed to End.” Drake J. Agric. L. 23, (2018): 549-556.

Sugar In School Breakfast Article By Lengyel Et Al.

Article Summary

The article Sugar in School Breakfast: A School District’s Perspective provides a detailed account of the sugar amounts in students’ food rations. As the parents become more concerned about the effects of increased sugar levels on the children’s health, this study evaluates the learners’ everyday intake of sugar, protein, fat, and other nutritional elements. Additionally, it examines how the current menu complies with the norms suggested by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The purpose of this publication is to analyze the breakfast sugar and calorie values served in the Houston Independent School District (HISD) highlighting that the rations are provided according to the health and well-being regulations (Lengyel et al., 2015). To present further examples and support the suggested claims, the study thoroughly analyzes the breakfast program of the HISD nutrition services.

The article incorporates several arguments that support the HISD perspective on the issue. One of the major statements is the compliance with the USDA breakfast meal pattern, which controls the number of calories, fruits, vegetables, dairy, and sugar provided to the students. However, the dietary guidelines do not state the daily intake of sugar, only recommending to decrease the quantity of added sugar and sweetened beverages, meaning that no specific regulations are available for the schools (Lengyel et al., 2015). After that, a significant complication is the inclusion of natural sugars in the breakfast menu. Such items as fruits and milk often contain natural sugars that cannot be distinguished from added sugar, creating an issue in accounting for the sugar intake (Lengyel et al., 2015). Moreover, another crucial point is the offer versus serve menu, which provides the learners an opportunity to choose between the breakfast options. In this regard, as the foods received by each student begin to vary significantly, it is strenuous to ascertain the overall amount of sugar and calories consumed.

Given the highlighted complications, the HISD aims to reduce the sugar intake of school students as much as possible. Nevertheless, the source’s main argument states that considering the breakfast costs, vendor issues, and the necessity to cater to over 118,000 learners, it is considerably challenging to minimize the amount of sugar received. Therefore, if parents and guardians wish to alter the current breakfast menu, they should participate in changing the recent policies established by the USDA.

Article Response

From my perspective, the authors’ argument is fully coherent, underlining the pertinent issues encountered by the nutrition services. Providing necessary nutrition for numerous students can be especially difficult given the novel guidelines introduced by the USDA. For instance, the recent change from serving 1/2 to a whole cup has tremendously impacted the schools’ finances, necessitating extra expenses (Lengyel et al., 2015). Furthermore, as the HISD also caters to students from underprivileged families, presenting them with an opportunity to receive free meals as part of the First Class Breakfast program, the overall food costs increase dramatically (Lengyel et al., 2015). Thus, considering the inexistent sugar intake guidelines from the USDA, controlling the everyday amount of sugar consumed by each learner becomes exceptionally strenuous. Altogether, I completely agree with the article’s argument and support the idea that additional resources and governmental regulations are required to alter the students’ sugar intake.

Reflection Questions

When I first started reading the article, I had conflicting opinions regarding the study’s content, as I was unsure that the text could provide strong arguments apart from the USDA recommendations. Nevertheless, after I have studied the entirety of the suggested evidence, my initial reaction has changed significantly. It is now evident that the HISD stance on the matter is supported by credible materials and data, making a compelling argument. Moreover, paying attention to my responses to the article’s prepositions allowed me to establish my position concerning the topic more clearly. I was able to create an opinion that relies on relevant evidence from the text and comprehensively addresses the discussed issue, which positively influences the strength of my viewpoint.

Reference

Lengyel, J., Cramer, N., Oceguera, A., Pigao, L., & Houston Independent School District, Nutrition Services Department (2015). Sugar in school breakfasts: A school district’s perspective. Journal of Applied Research on Children: Informing Policy for Children at Risk, 6(2).

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