Personal Impacts Of The COVID-19 Pandemic Essay Example For College


The Covid-19 pandemic has had adverse impacts on individuals and affected nearly all aspects of life. From social and economic disruptions to food insecurity, loss of livelihoods, loss of loved ones, and devastating effects on education, Covid-19 has affected the general well-being of individuals. From a personal point of view, the pandemic fundamentally changed my ways of doing things and shaped my behavior in several ways. For example, it completely changed my perspective towards spending, shopping, and saving. More than ever before, I pay special attention to creating multiple streams of income, prioritizing my health and that of my family. Today, I am more conscious about making sustainable choices than short-term decisions. This paper highlights and discusses at length the specific ways through which the pandemic affected my life.


The outbreak of Covid-19 has affected people’s lives in unprecedented ways. The pandemic has had devastating social and economic disruptions that threatened our lives. Whether it is restrictions on movements, school closures, ban on social gatherings, or limitations on certain economic activities, the pandemic has created many negative effects. The overall effects of these social and economic disruptions are loss of income, food insecurity, loss of lives, and increased poverty levels (Horton, 2021). The security measures imposed and social distance requirements also affected relationships and social interactions among people. It is almost impossible to find someone whose life was not affected in one way or another due to the Covid-19 pandemic. Thus, from a personal point of view, the pandemic altered almost all aspects of my life, including loss of income, loss of loved ones, changes in behavior patterns, loss of education, restricted movement, and high cost of living. Overall, the pandemic dramatically changed my way of living, working, and learning in unprecedented ways.

Loss of Income

One of the greatest impacts of coronavirus is the financial impact that weighed heavily on me. The economic disruptions forced many employers, whether small, medium size, or large to cut salaries of employees temporarily due to loss of revenues during the pandemic. A considerable number of companies turned to pay cuts rather than laying off workers to reduce their labor expenses, and my employer was no exception (Buheji & Ahmed, 2020). My company implemented a 40% pay cut for all employees in March 2020, hoping to preserve the existing workforce for a faster recovery. Although the approach made economic sense, particularly during those uncertain times, it affected my lifestyle and general spending habits. During the 1 year of a pay cut, I had trouble paying my bills, including servicing a bank loan that I had taken a couple of years ago. The loss of income meant that I had to dip into personal savings at least to make ends meet. At some point, I had to borrow money from family members and friends to cover some of the expenses. The financial struggles during the period were a result of job disruption. In addition, the loss of income curtailed my ability to save money due to the economic upheaval.

Besides the financial impacts, pay cuts have effects on morale and overall productivity. Taking away a portion of employees’ income suddenly lowers their morale, especially if they are expected to do the same duties for less compensation (Cortes & Forsythe, 2020). During the period of the pay cut, there was a general feeling of low morale in the workplace. Decreased morale comes with lower productivity. Employees did not feel motivated to work hard for less pay, so the reduced productivity further affected the normal operations of the business. The overall effect of lower morale and decreased productivity was a decline in the quality of work due to the lost benefits and incentives. Pay cuts also come with reduced loyalty as employees are generally uncertain about what may come next. The overall effect is that employees start listening to offers from other potential employers due to the reduced loyalty.

Loss of Loved Ones

Coping with the loss of a loved one is often difficult, but it was even harder during the Covid-19 period because the losses were sudden and families were unable to mourn properly due to the restrictions meant to stop further spreading of coronavirus. On several occasions, I could not memorialize and grieve the loss of a loved one in ways that are culturally and religiously normal (MacKenzie, 2020). Border restrictions, both at the national and international level meant that I have had to forego attending funerals of a couple of my loved ones. In addition, visiting loved ones in hospital, particularly those infected with coronavirus was almost impossible. Not being able to be with a loved one or attend their funeral only made it difficult to deal with the loss. In my culture, rituals play a critical role in the grieving process as they enable the bereaved to connect with their loved ones. These rituals include being with a loved one at the end of life, attending their funeral, and interacting with others who are close friends and family members. These rituals not only help in the management of emotions but also help the bereaved to accept grief.

Losing loved ones and not being able to attend their funeral during the Covid-19 era affected my ability to process their loss. For example, I experienced frequent and ongoing thoughts after losing my grandmother and not being able to attend her burial. I was constantly preoccupied with sorrow, excessive bitterness, and anger. I experienced a disconnection from a number of social relationships for several months because I had difficulties accepting her death. The thought of helplessness and hopelessness stuck me for a whole year and had significant impacts on my day-to-day functioning. Even after the lockdown restrictions were lifted, funeral services have been quite different during the coronavirus era (MacKenzie, 2020). For example, the restrictions of the people who can attend meant that I had to miss attending the funeral of colleagues and close friends who died during the pandemic period.

Working from Home

The outbreak of Covid-19 led to a significant percentage of the workforce being unable to go to workplaces in effort to mitigate the spread of coronavirus. This made employers and employees look for alternative working arrangements, particularly in densely populated metropolitans like Nairobi. Most employers resorted to working from home (WFH). This working arrangement has had its limitations and huge impacts on employers and employees. From an employee’s point of view, working from home saves commuting time and gives employees some level of flexibility (Green et al., 2020). It allows them to choose the times to work when they are most productive and to take care of their families the rest of the time. A major concern for this kind of arrangement, however, is the inability to balance work schedules and family engagements. From the employer’s point of view, working from home limits teamwork, which is necessary for effectiveness. Working from home is also criticized due to lack of motivation which affects the achievement of desired organizational goals. Unmonitored performance is another challenge that employers face in working from home arrangements, which may lead to less amount of work being accomplished.

Although working from home offered me some level of flexibility and autonomy, I lacked sufficient emotional support to handle stress during work. The loneliness experienced while working from home is too much and could lead to depression, damage to relationships, and other ills. Working from home was associated with depressive symptoms and decreased social satisfaction. As far as happiness is concerned, computers cannot substitute the in-person interactions that come with working from the office (Green et al., 2020). Although working from home is a good substitute for working from the office during the pandemic, it is inadequate in terms of addressing the human needs for interaction. Overall, this working arrangement had negative impacts as far as mental health is concerned.

the advantages and disadvantages of WFH.

Table 1 shows the advantages and disadvantages of WFH. Source ((Green et al., 2020)

Restricted Movements

In March 2020, Kenyan authorities issued tight restrictions in Nairobi and other parts of the country after an increase in the Covid-19 infection rate. All movements by air, road and rail into and out of Nairobi and other major cities were suspended. In addition, curfew was imposed between 10:00 pm and 4:00 am for the entire nation. The operation of certain businesses such as bars and restaurants was further suspended in response to the increasing number of coronavirus infections. These strict measures further crippled the economy and the cost of living in Kenya. The lockdown had far-reaching effects on the physical and mental health issues like anxiety and depression. During the lockdown, there were increased levels of stress and psychological problems due to many uncertainties. The stress was linked to the disruptions in the normal ways of living, learning, and working. Besides these disruptions, the lockdown caused a lot of fear and panic. For instance, the fear of being infected, long a loved one, losing a job, and fear of financial instability. The uncertainties about the next move the government would take further intensified the emotional difficulties.

At a personal level, the thought of the number of people who lost their lives during the lockdown period coupled with an uncertain future, social isolation, and lack of access to certain amenities affected my mental health and almost led to depression. The mental health issues can be attributed to the loss of income and the uncertainties that came with the lockdown. People with lower incomes are more likely to experience mental health impacts compared with those with higher incomes. In addition, working in the essential services sector further intensified the situation. During the lockdown period, essential workers were required to work outside the home and could not practice social distancing due to the nature of their job. Consequently, I was at a higher risk of contracting coronavirus and exposing other members of my family (Panchal et al., 2020). As an essential service provider, we faced more challenges including access to Personal Protective Equipment (PPEs). Combined, these factors may have contributed to poor mental health outcomes for me and other essential service workers. During the pandemic, essential service providers were more likely to show symptoms of anxiety and depression than non-essential workers.

Symptoms of anxiety and depression on essential worker

Figure 1 shows symptoms of anxiety and depression on essential workers. Source (Panchal et al., 2020)

Loss of Education

The government of Kenya closed all schools, colleges, and universities to further reduce the spread of coronavirus. As a result, learning institutions were required to use technology and the internet to implement online learning. Teachers were also required to prepare learning materials to facilitate learning at home. However, the lack of access to the internet, particularly in remote areas hindered effective online learning (Hoffman & Miller, 2020). The closure of learning institutions not only affected learners, but also affected parents, teachers, and other stakeholders. It led to the loss of learning time as students had to stay at home for over 7 months. As a result, a learning gap emerged and affected the normal January to December calendar for primary and secondary schools. At a personal level, my children had to stay without receiving education during the period and had to wait for the reopening to continue with their studies.

Being out of school meant the cessation of learning for my children, so they had to be engaged in domestic chores. Studies show that domestic responsibilities increase the risk of academic failure. The prolonged school closure further took a toll on students’ physical and emotional well-being (Hoffman & Miller, 2020). Besides academic support, schools are essential as far as the provision of non-academic support is concerned. The non-academic support is in the form of mental and health support such as obesity prevention. In addition, children have a wide range of mental health needs that are often addressed through school-based services. School counselors and psychologists play a crucial role in the provision of mental health services (Hoffman & Miller, 2020). Schools are the most ideal places for children to obtain mental health needs, so the prolonged closure denied children these services. During a prolonged school closure period, parents were forced to assume the role of educating their children, while also working, which was quite challenging. Children’s mental health was further affected by exposure to a wide range of societal changes like social distancing, exposure to pandemic-related information, some of which were frightening.

Importance of educational continuity

Table 2 shows the importance of educational continuity. Source ((Hoffman & Miller, 2020)

High Cost of Living

When the Covid-19 pandemic struck in 2020, the government reduced taxes on basic commodities such as gas and cooking oil to 14% to cushion Kenyans against the economic shocks. However, in 2021, the government re-introduced the 16% tax on gas and cooking oil, even before the economy had fully recovered from the economic shocks of the pandemic (Voigt, 2021). The action by the government further raises the cost of living. Further to re-introducing taxes on gas and cooking oil, the government also increased taxes on airtime from 15% to 20%, affecting over 21 million subscribers. Kenya also increased borrowing to try and cushion Kenyans against the effects of the Covid-19, which only added more burden on Kenyans. The government has continued to borrow to finance major infrastructural projects happening in the country. Excessive borrowing puts pressure on the government’s income, so the government has to turn to Kenyans to fill the income gap. The high cost of living is felt more by the poor who spend most of their income to buy food items and housing. The situation is further worsened by massive corruption in the government, so funds that would otherwise be used to service the national debt are lost through corruption.

The massive corruption in Kenya has had far-reaching effects. Besides increasing the cost of living, it increases the cost of doing business. The Covid-19 pandemic further intensified the crisis, making it extremely difficult for low income earners and small businesses to survive. The situation is not expected to change soon given that Kenya is in the electioneering period and the economic outlook is not optimistic (Voigt, 2021). Elections in Kenya have previously been associated with a poor economic outlook and reduced investments since no investor is willing to invest in a country where there are uncertainties such as violence. Furthermore, no significant policies are made during the election period since legislators focus more on elections than anything else. Chances of a rapid economic recovery post-pandemic look slim, meaning that the cost of living will continue to skyrocket in the foreseeable future. Thus, the pandemic has not only increased the cost of basic commodities in Kenya but also made life completely unbearable.

Limited Access to Natural and Nutritious Foods

The lockdown and border restrictions slowed harvests in some parts of the country, leaving millions of people, particularly in the urban settings without access to natural and nutritious foods. The restrictions on movements further affected the transportation of foods to the market and forced many manufacturing plants, particularly those located in rural areas to close down (Stephens et al., 2020). During the lockdown, many farmers dumped perishable produce like vegetables and milk due to disruptions in the supply chain and declining consumer demand. People in urban settings, on the other hand, struggle to access nutritious commodities like milk, fish, meat, fruits, and vegetables. Trade restrictions and other confinement measures not only prevented farmers from accessing markets for their produce but also barred them from buying farm inputs. Agricultural workers were also affected, which further altered the timely harvesting of crops, thus interrupting the entire food system. As a result, urban dwellers like myself and my family faced limited access to healthy, nutritious, diverse, and safe food items.

The pandemic affected the whole food system and showed its fragility. In a country characterized by high levels of poverty like Kenya, Agriculture is one of the greatest contributors to the economy’s GDP. The lockdown, therefore, posed a great challenge to the food production process, contributing to food insecurity for all people (Stephens et al., 2020). The situation was further exacerbated by a lack of government support to the agricultural sector due to declining revenues. In addition to border and trade restrictions, quarantine measures imposed by the government also limited farmers’ ability to access their lands for harvesting. As a consequence, crop production declined further leading to food insecurity in the long run. In the urban areas, border and trade restrictions affected formal and informal trade of agricultural produce. The overall impact was a rise in the prices for agricultural products, limiting access to natural, nutritious, and safe products.

Changes in Behavioral Patterns

The outbreak of the Covid-19 not only changed the way people work and socialize but also the way they shop. During the initial stages of the pandemic, we were faced with an acute shortage of some commodities like maize meal, which greatly affected consumption patterns. The closure of some shops and major stores in March 2020 affected us, forcing us to only purchase essential items. Although the retailers and shops opened, later on, the behavior to purchase only essential commodities has not changed (Drury et al., 2021). In fact, the behavior has persisted throughout the pandemic period. Online shopping also emerged as people began working from home. More than ever before, shoppers began placing orders online, particularly for non-food items amid restrictions on movement.

Fear of infection for self, family, and friends has fuelled a change in behavior patterns. In my household, for example, behaviors such as cooking, baking, and consuming foods and drinks at home increased during the pandemic and are likely to remain post-pandemic. In addition, I have cut on behaviors such as visiting bars and restaurants frequently, due to loss of income and factors such as fear of infection (Drury et al., 2021). More importantly, I have acknowledged that investing for the future and diversifying investments can help me to meet my future financial goals. Relying on one stream of income has proved to be too risky and should be avoided by all means possible. Improving my nutrition and fitness level is a great lesson that I learned during the pandemic period. More than ever before, I am focused on improving my immune system and that of my family members to avoid infectious conditions such as the Covid-19 as related conditions like high blood pressure, diabetes, and heart diseases. Thus, the pandemic has completely altered my behavioral patterns and those of my household in response to the impacts of the pandemic such as declining income, restricted movements, and fear of infections.

Behavioral change patterns during the pandemic


Figure 2 shows behavioral change patterns during the pandemic. Source (Drury et al., 2021)


Overall, the Covid-19 pandemic completely altered my life. From working from home to loss of income, loss of loved ones, high cost of living, restricted movements, and limited access to nutritious foods. Further to this, the pandemic lead to a significant change in behavior patterns in response to the fear of infection for self and family members, as well as reduced income. Whether it is the way of living, working, or learning, the pandemic altered all aspects of my life. Although the world is headed towards recovery after massive vaccinations, certain behaviors are likely to remain even post-pandemic period. The bottom line is that Covid-19 has taught us invaluable such as better financial management, limiting wastage, the importance of multiple income streams, shopping more consciously, taking health with a lot of seriousness, and much more.


Buheji, M., & Ahmed, D. (2020). Covid-19 The untapped solutions. Westwood Books Publishing, LLC.

Cortes, G. M., & Forsythe, E. (2020). The heterogeneous labor market impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic. Available at SSRN 3634715.

Drury, J., Carter, H., Ntontis, E., & Guven, S. T. (2021). Public behaviour in response to the COVID-19 pandemic: understanding the role of group processes. BJPsych open7(1).

Green, N., Tappin, D., & Bentley, T. (2020). Working from home before, during and after the Covid-19 pandemic: Implications for workers and organisations. New Zealand Journal of Employment Relations45(2), 5-16.

Hoffman, J. A., & Miller, E. A. (2020). Addressing the consequences of school closure due to COVID‐19 on children’s physical and mental well‐being. World medical & health policy12(3), 300-310.

Horton, R. (2021). The COVID-19 catastrophe: What’s gone wrong and how to stop it happening again. John Wiley & Sons.

Kenny, C. (2021). The Plague Cycle: The Unending War Between Humanity and Infectious Disease. Simon and Schuster.

MacKenzie, D. (2020). Stopping the Next Pandemic: The Pandemic that Never Should Have Happened, and How to Stop the Next One. Hachette UK.

Panchal, N., Kamal, R., Orgera, K., Cox, C., Garfield, R., Hamel, L., & Chidambaram, P. (2020). The implications of COVID-19 for mental health and substance use. Kaiser family foundation21.

Stephens, E. C., Martin, G., van Wijk, M., Timsina, J., & Snow, V. (2020). Impacts of COVID-19 on agricultural and food systems worldwide and on progress to the sustainable development goals. Agricultural Systems183, 102873.

Voigt, M. (2021). The Rise and Fall of Kenyan Entrepreneurs: Social Mobility in Kisumu (Vol. 11). Nomos Verlag.

Impacts Of Divorce On Children Writing Sample


Most people get married with the hope and intention of enjoying a life-long family unity. However, there are cases where parents become uncomfortable with each other. They cannot settle their differences, and with time, these differences set them far apart. When they cannot live with differences, divorce becomes a viable choice for everyone to live the way they wish for the best of their lives. A divorced marriage hurts children the most. They see life from a different and mostly harsh perspective than they ever experienced when their parents were together in a united family. Belo is some impacts that divorce has on children.

  1. Poverty

When parents have divorced, children are more likely to follow their mother. Divorced women have a higher chance of getting into poverty than women who remain in their marriage (Hogendoorn, Leopold & Bol, 2020). Since these women have children they moved with to their new lives as a divorcee, these children get a fair share of the poverty of their parents. The quality of life of such children is likely to be lower or substandard than the quality of life they would have enjoyed under the protection and providence of their fathers.

  1. Failure in education

When parents have divorced, children are left with less supervision. Therefore, they are not reprimanded for their poor performance or even for their laxity in attending school and joining others to pursue their academic excellence. For this reason, children from divorced families are less likely to complete their studies. A lack of enough finances also presents the challenge of financing their education. Even though single parents could afford to pay for high school fees, they might find it quite demanding to provide for their family needs and still need all children’s education financing needs (Diab & Schultz, 2021).

  1. Stress and depression

Depression is yet another struggle faced by children from divorce marriages. It is in the children’s best interest to enjoy the company of both their father and mother. What divorce does is that it separates parents, and it makes one of these parents look toxic. When children are young and unable to decide on their own, they grow up believing their parents are tix and probably hate them. They grow stressed about why one of their parents could be so harsh to them to the extent of abandoning them. These are the kind of children who, when much troubled, turn into activities that endanger their lives (Kravdal & Grundy, 2019).

  1. Marriages and relationship difficulties

Children from divorced families are likely to end up like their parents. They cannot go through marriage sustainably simply because there is no one to guide them on how to go through marriage hardships. With a divorced parent, children will always reference the lives of their divorced parents and use it to support why they cannot accommodate certain weaknesses of their partner. Since they are not strong enough to withstand all those challenges that come alongside marriages, it is equally difficult for them to make successful marriages when they are of age.

  1. Children to parents’ conflict

As children grow older and their cognitive understanding of divorce develops, they start to take a side. Majorly, children refuse to be at the neutral point, and they change their attitude toward their parents. From their misinformed decision, they take to hate and discriminate against one parent simply because they are siding with the other. This creates a separation not just between parents but between parents and their children. Where children take different sides, they end up conflicting amongst themselves. Children conflict based on the side of the parents they wish to support.

  1. Unstable social lives

Children from divorce marriages tend to withdraw themselves from their social groups. They might feel shy about their family situation and find it difficult to interact with other children from functional families (Nazri, Ramli, Mokhtar, Jafri & Abu Bakar, 2019). Without social lives, there is little or no sense of belonging within the community where one comes from. Due to a lack of social networks, these children turn to drugs because no one can question them and guide them on how to live lives even with changes. When not intervened on time, the social engagement of these children dies, and they tend to prefer to live solitary lives that are unhealthy for them in the long run.

  1. Cohabiting

Children from divorce marriages do not recognize their parents as a course of marriage advice. They tend to believe and follow their institutions on the issues of marriage and family establishment. They start marriages based on cohabitation even without the knowledge of their parents. There are many reasons they may fail to engage their parents in such an issue because they could still be young to get married, or maybe they married out of desperation and are still trying whether things will work out well for them. It is due to such marriage practices such children end up in divorce marriages in the future. It is something they are unable to correct by themselves because, at first, those who were supposed to mentor them in their marriage lives failed in theirs (Johnston, Cavanagh & Crosnoe, 2020).


Divorce has its fair share of challenges for parents and children. However, children are on the severe receiving end of the most challenging of divorce. They suffer from academic struggles, future marriage struggles, conflict with parents and children, depression, and drug abuse, among others, as discussed above.


Diab, S. Y., & Schultz, J. H. (2021). Factors contributing to student academic underachievement in war and conflict: A multilevel qualitative study. Teaching and Teacher Education97, 103211.

Hogendoorn, B., Leopold, T., & Bol, T. (2020). Divorce and diverging poverty rates: a Risk‐and‐Vulnerability approach. Journal of Marriage and Family82(3), 1089-1109.

Johnston, C. A., Cavanagh, S. E., & Crosnoe, R. (2020). Family structure patterns from childhood through adolescence and the timing of cohabitation among diverse groups of young adult women and men. Developmental psychology56(1), 165.

Kravdal, Ø., & Grundy, E. (2019). Children’s age at parental divorce and depression in early and mid-adulthood. Population studies73(1), 37-56.

Nazri, A. Q., Ramli, A. U. H., Mokhtar, N., Jafri, N. A., & Abu Bakar, N. S. (2019). The effects of divorce on children. e-Journal of Media and Society (e-JOMS)3, 1-19.

Impacts Of Quality Management On Coca-Cola Company Essay Sample For College

Is Quality an expensive process?

Quality indeed is an expensive process as it plays a significant role in the company’s overall production. The Six Sigma principles outline that the primary focus of business enterprises is customer satisfaction, especially with the current competition. Concerning Coca-Cola products, the customers correctly identify with the predominant taste and value of the products and services (Panigrahi, 2020). As such, there cannot be a substitution for the quality value since customers recognize such inadequacies reasonably fast. Given the rapid product reviews and digital space, clients tend to share information about products, which subsequently negatively impacts an organization’s sales.

Furthermore, focusing on Quality determines the ultimate price customers are willing to pay at a fair market price. For instance, the Coca Cola customers are eager to pay slightly more for products and services as compared at approximately 29.58 percent against 16.29 percent for Pepsi Co (Štofová & Kopčáková, 2020). However, the counter studies indicate that 85 percent of quality aspects occur in a project due to negligence of the management system.

Is it time-consuming?

The impact of quality management influences several processes in the production chain. Firstly, it affects delivery, where when the output is rejected under quality standards, the entire work must be reprocessed to match the intended Quality if the process requires additional time and resources.

Secondly, trust issues can arise after delivering products and services due to quality concerns. For instance, the new Coca-Cola product packaging can be an issue for the new market segment (Panigrahi, 2020). As a result, this issue would be a significant obstacle for the organization regarding the time taken to initiate changes and regain market trust.

Another time-consuming factor associated with quality management is competition. Lack of proper focus on Quality opens the doors to product skepticism resulting from the reviews and social media platforms. Consequently, this action will trigger the savvy competitors to take advantage of the shortcomings to dominate the market (Štofová & Kopčáková, 2020). The organization will then be forced to rework its strategies to regain its presence which is time-consuming and unpredictable.

Internal Failure Costs

These are costs incurred to mitigate the defects before the goods and services are delivered to the final consumer. According to Panigrahi (2020), Coca-Cola Company can incur the following internal associated costs; Failure in the analysis regarding the new product line, especially in the new market segments such as soft drinks and energy drinks. Secondly, it can suffer from the rework or rectification costs, especially on the branding and packaging of its products. Additionally, scrap can also be a common issue with the production lines, with some machines turning to be defunct and irreparable.

External Costs

These are costs that result from remedying the defects discovered by the ultimate customers. Coca-Cola can incur expenses such as; complaints whenever the customers complain about the products and the Quality of services offered. For example, customers raised objections about the zero sugar carbonated drinks at the beginning of the product launch (Panigrahi, 2020). This action forced the organization to reassure the customers of the health benefits associated with the product via advertisements and other marketing strategies. Additionally, the warranty claims witnessed in other tailored services can be a considerable loss to the firm at any time of claim.

In the final analysis, the external costs are relatively more expensive than the internal failure costs. They involve the organization’s material review boards and sufficient time to address the issues amicably. Therefore, Coca-Cola Company should limit these defects in quality management to prevent such losses in the future.


Panigrahi, V. (2020). An Organisation Study On The Coca-cola Company (Doctoral dissertation, CMR Institute of Technology. Bangalore).

Štofová, L., & Kopčáková, J. (2020). The Competition Strategy between Coca-Cola vs. Pepsi Company. Calitatea, 21(179), 40-46.