Personal Philosophy Of Nursing Essay Example


When developing personal nursing philosophy, one should consider the four meta-paradigms of nursing, viz. the nursing practice, health, human beings, and the environment. These elements define the nursing practice and philosophy and they are highly interconnected to the extent that altering one of them causes a ripple effect on the others. This paper explores the place of the role of these nursing meta-paradigms in the development of personal nursing philosophy. It starts with an introduction before explicating the four meta-paradigms in details. It then covers a personal perspective to these meta-paradigms before giving a conclusion on the issue.


Different professional fields are governed by disparate meta-paradigms. By definition, a meta-paradigm conventionally implies a concept that underscores the general world of thought. In other words, meta-paradigms define the thought process in a certain area. In 1984, Jacqueline Fawcett hinted at the four basic meta-paradigms of the nursing profession (Tourville & Ingalls, 2003). In 2003, Lynn Basford and Oliver Slevin revised these meta-paradigms and came up with four different elements, viz. human beings, health, nursing, and the environment, which underscore the nursing meta-paradigms in the contemporary nursing profession. Each of these four meta-paradigms assists in developing personal nursing philosophy in different ways (Macrohon & Loriaga, 2012). This paper explores the four factors influencing the development of personal nursing philosophy coupled with their interrelationships to one another from a personal perspective.

Factors influencing the development of personal nursing philosophy

As aforementioned, the development of personal nursing philosophy is subject to the four meta-paradigms, viz. human beings, health, nursing, and environment.

Human beings

Human beings form the core subjects in the development of personal nursing philosophy. In the context of nursing, human beings change from ‘persons’ to ‘subjects’. As such, these subjects are unique and they should not be viewed as objects of professional care. Human subjects in the nursing profession include individuals, family members, and communities that define a person. In this context, human subjects are holistic beings and any interpretations made in a bid to understand them should not be taken as parts. In other words, parts of these subjects cannot be used to make conclusive observations concerning the patient. According to Fawcett and Lee (2013), “humans, as holistic beings, are unique, dynamic, sentient, and multidimensional, capable of abstract reasoning, creativity, aesthetic appreciation, and self-responsibility” (p.97). Therefore, when developing personal nursing philosophy, one should take into account all these aspects in a bid to come up with an inclusive philosophy that takes care of all patients’ needs indiscriminately.


According to Masters (2011), health is “the state of physical, mental, and social wellbeing and it not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” (p.83). From this understanding, health covers a wide range of aspects when developing personal nursing philosophy. Health covers more than the state of being sick or well. It entails moral, social, aesthetic, and physical elements. Therefore, from this perspective, health underscores “the lived experience of congruence between one’s possibilities and one’s realities and it is based on caring and feeling cared for” (Basford & Slevin, 2003, p.83). In the same context, illness becomes a dysfunction of any of the aforementioned aspects. However, the dysfunction can be rectified through caring relationships. On the same note, the individual suffering from the dysfunction plays a key role in the recovery process in terms of how s/he approaches the coping strategy. In a recap, the state of health is the product of the interaction between people and their environments, and thus individuals should consider this realization when developing personal nursing philosophy.


The environment within which a patient is placed plays a vital role in the recovery process. In the development of personal nursing philosophy, environment underscores “the totality of all things that impact on the recovery of the patient including home life, mental state, addictions, physical pain, chances of relapse, rewarding work, and a host of other variables” (Basford & Slevin, 2003, p.106). In this context, environment falls into two broad categories, viz. physical and socioeconomic environments. Under the physical environment, a patient encounters issues associated with the atmosphere, weather, organisms, and pollutants among others. These elements can contribute to the deterioration or recovery process of the patient. On the other side, socioeconomic environment entails people surrounding the patient, beliefs, cultures, and all other socioeconomic aspects in society.


According to Basford and Slevin (2003), nursing is “an art through which the practitioner of nursing gives specialized assistance to persons with disabilities that needed greater than ordinary assistance to meet the daily needs for self-care” (p.102). Just like meta-paradigms, which cover general knowledge on a particular aspect, the practice of nursing is broad as it comes out as an academic discipline while at the same time being a professional practice. However, the academic aspect of nursing merges with the professional side of it when trained nurses use the gained knowledge to provide human care to patients in a professional set up. Giving care to human beings forms the central moral idea of the nursing practice, hence playing a key role in the development of personal nursing philosophy.

Define, describe, explain personal thoughts, feelings, and beliefs, and summarize the interrelationships

From a personal perspective, human beings play a critical role in the development of personal nursing philosophy. I believe that without human beings, the nursing profession would not exist because nurses need patients in a bid to complete the practice. Therefore, with this understanding, I hold that human beings should be regarded highly in the development of personal nursing philosophy. Given that human beings are unique beings, one’s philosophy should be dynamic to accommodate all the aspects that make a ‘person’.

On nursing, I think nurses are key determinants in the recovery and well-being of patients. The information and skills gathered from the academic aspect of nursing are useless unless they are applied in real working setup to provide and foster human care. Nurses undergo thorough training in a bid to equip them for the real task of taking care of human subjects. Therefore, given that human care forms the central aspect of the nursing practice, nurses in the nursing profession should always endeavor to offer care indiscriminately. Morality and ethics should define the practice of nursing always.

I believe that the environment plays a key role in the wellbeing of patients. Conventionally, the majority of sicknesses arise from predisposing environments and if people avoided such environments, they would avoid most illnesses. Therefore, as a nurse, I have the responsibility of ensuring healthy living environments especially through advising patients on how to create and maintain such environments. I can also influence the socioeconomic environment by talking to the people surrounding a patient or pushing for legislations that would change the wellbeing of my patients.

Finally, my definition of health is the holistic wellbeing of individuals. In my personal nursing philosophy, I believe that I should go beyond taking care of physical illnesses and reach out to the patient’s soul and heart. This aspect introduces the concept of connectedness whereby I believe that I should connect with my client to ensure that s/he gets holistic treatment.

All these nursing meta-paradigms are interconnected. The nursing practice and human beings work hand-in-hand. Without human subjects, the nursing practice would be meaningless and nonexistent. Similarly, without the nursing practice, patients would suffer greatly due to lack of care. Similarly, health and environment are inseparable as the majority of health issues emanate from the environment. All these meta-paradigms are highly interconnected such that an effect from one causes a domino effect on the others. For instance, poor environment causes a health problem to an individual who then goes to a nurse for treatment.


The development of personal nursing philosophy is subject to four major meta-paradigms, viz. health, nursing, human beings, and the environment. These meta-paradigms are highly interconnected to the extent that a change in one causes effects in other elements as shown in this paper. The nursing practice and human beings work hand in hand and the absence of one renders the other useless. The academic aspect of the nursing practice only becomes meaningful when applied in the nursing profession to deliver human care to patients. In the development of my personal nursing philosophy, I think all the four meta-paradigms are indispensable, and thus I take them seriously in the quest to foster nursing and human care.


Basford, L., & Slevin, O. (2003). Theory and Practice of Nursing: An Integrated Approach to Caring Practice.

Fawcett, J., & Lee, R. (2013). The influence of the metaparadigm of nursing on professional identity development among RN-BSN Students. Nursing Science Quarterly, 26 (1), 96-98.

Macrohon, M., & Loriaga, A. (2012). Nursing as a caring theory: Metaparadigm. Web.

Masters, K. (2011). Nursing theories: A framework for professional practice. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning, LLC.

Tourville, C., & Ingalls, K. (2003). The living tree of nursing theories. Web.

Innovative Business Models In Contemporary Settings

All the companies strive to acquire the secret of success. In that matter, each particular business has its own secret of success. Thus, businesses require simple models, which will allow understanding and implementing the factors for success. In that regard these models should also be innovative, where models focusing functionality and productive leadership no longer can provide useful recommendations, most of which became customer oriented. In that regard, this paper provides an overview of the possible innovation in business models, which can be integrated and implemented in the contemporary business setting.

One of the approaches proposed as business model is implementing a strategy called the ecosystem. The proposed strategy is based on the fact that successful businesses are no longer dependant only on their own efforts, where in order to maintain competitiveness, companies for not only occupy existent ecological niches, but also create new. In that sense, the business success of each unit is dependent on the success of numerous other organizations. Addressing the service oriented business, the ecosystems are not only chains of supplies and distributions, but also many organizations, whether they participate in the allocation of services or not.

An important aspect in such ecosystems is distinguishing the significant segments, where a fundamental attribute of such systems is that failures in any of its domains will result to problems in the other segments of this domain. In that regard, an approach to evaluate the ecological “health” of the business ecosystem can be seen in the methods proposed by Lansiti and Levien (2004). According to this method the business ecosystem should evaluated based on three factors, i.e. productivity, robustness, and niche creation. Productivity is measured based on the profit from the investments made into the business sector. Robustness is measured through the capability of surviving disruptions. For example, the strong growth of the software sector can indicate that the ecosystem in which this sector is a segment, in this case it is services business, is relatively robust. The third factor is niche creation, which can be measured by the degree in which the occurrence of new technologies in the system will be used to create new service and goods. Again, in the case of services business, taking as an example of hotel management, the occurrence of wireless technologies, allowed the occurrence of new services to the customers.

Additionally, strategies that can be outlined within the ecosystem are divided into four types depending on the complexity of relations and the level of turbulence and innovation. The strategies include keystone, i.e. being in the centre of business relations; niche, i.e. occupying a narrow business segment; commodity, i.e. the most ecologically neutral system with a minimal dependence of the company on the ecosystem; physical dominance, i.e. the dependence on complex business relations. In general, the business models presented are simple, where it implies monitoring the process as well as the relations within dependant sectors that influence the system.

For customer-oriented businesses, the reliance on the people as their most valuable capital plays a major role. In that regard, the ecosystem proposed as innovative model for assessment and positioning, it approaches sectors rather people. Accordingly, the focus on the customer in many business sectors, including the services sector, should be derived from the focus on the people as the most valuable capital. In “The Surprising Economics of a ‘’People Business’” by Felix Barber and Rainer Strack, the authors outline the importance of new approaches for the companies that intensively rely on people, or People Business. Services business, in that matter, is people business, where the most important distinguishing factor is the cost of the people employed to the capital invested.

An important aspect for assessing people business is the way it can be evaluated. The authors acknowledged that the standard schemes of business evaluation, i.e. relating the cost of the capital to its productivity, can no longer be effective for people business, where the approach that should be used is relating the cost of the employees in the company to their productivity. In such way, this method isolates the main driver for performance which can indicate hidden operational problems and insights into their causes.

An important aspect that should be outlined in the management of people business is the importance of relevant information. In that sense, it should be noted that the existence of such information should be combined with the ability to use it effectively to make effective decisions.

It can be seen through the proposed models and evaluations, that innovative business models can improve the existent business schemes in terms of effectiveness. Specifically, when almost all companies became customer-oriented, the traditional models focusing on profit and increasing productivity is no longer forms a competitive advantage among competitors. In that sense, innovating business processes, in addition to improve of efficiency, allows companies to re-assess their productivity and acknowledge different problems as well as their solutions.


  1. BARBER, F. & STRACK, R. (2005) The Surprising Economics of a “People Business”. Harvard Business Review, 83, 80-85+.
  2. IANSITI, M. & LEVIEN, R. (2004) Strategy as Ecology. Harvard Business Review, 82, 68-78.

Psychology Case Study: Phenomenology


Psychotherapy has an interesting history of evolution beginning from the days when it was part of biology. Phenomenology, a term first expressed by Edmund Husserl in Germany in the mid-1980s, has been defined as “Stumpf’s introspective method that examined experience as it occurred and did not try to reduce experience to elementary components” (Schultz and Schultz, 2008). The analysis is not done in this method as this approach to knowledge relies on an unbiased description of immediate experience as it occurs. This philosophical reflection has been used for research purposes in psychology. The entry into the psychology of this philosophy has allowed the evolution of realistic phenomenology which is associated with human actions, motives, and selves. Different philosophers have added different aspects to the subject. The philosophy of Law was added by Adolf Reinach and the aspects of ethics, value theory, religion, and philosophical anthropology have been added by Max Scheler. Existential phenomenology is related to action, conflict, desire, and oppression. Gestalt psychology has been associated with existential philosophy.

Cultural psychology is another aspect of the discipline which has a role to play in all psychological approaches. The relationship between culture and mind is significant in all scientific studies of the mind. Culture is essential for human experiences. Cultural psychology is a study of the human mind through a study of cultural products. Structuralism and functionalism were the early schools of thought of psychology. Structuralism surfaced when psychology was separated from the discipline of biology and philosophy. It was first advocated by Wilhelm Wundt but his student E.B. Titchener is considered as the founder of this entity which deals with conscious experience (Schultz and Schultz, 2008). Functionalism followed structuralism. Functionalism is a system of psychology concerned with the mind as it is used in an organism’s adaptation to its environment. It was formed as a reaction to structuralism. Mental processes were explained in a more accurate manner and systematically. Instead of focusing on consciousness, the purpose of consciousness was considered. Individual differences were also thought about. Psychotherapy has evolved so much that many approaches are prevalent. The Logan case has been taken up for case study in this paper.

The Case

When Logan was in his last year of college he realized that he was spending more and more time studying for his classes. His new habit was a time-consuming and worrying one. His notes never seemed to be perfect; writing and rewriting his notes till they achieved perfection conveyed the impression that he was industrious to onlookers but the reason for the extra hours of work was totally different. Logan’s hard work paid off in school and he graduated in the top five percent of his class.

Majoring in Psychology, he accepted a job working with troubled teens after graduation. Extremely ambitious and hopeful of making it, Logan persevered in his job. However, people at the facility he worked with observed his eccentricity of taking too much time to complete his assignments. Their doubts were justified: Logan was checking and rechecking his work for no obvious reason. He spent more than a week on a job that should have taken 2 hours. Though he realized that extra time was being consumed, he could not stop himself from rechecking. When his probation period was over, the company let him go.

Logan’s problems

Logan is an over-anxious person who has recurrent or persistent thoughts and ideas. These ideas have become uncontrollable. Repetitive behaviors are evident in him. The repeated checking is an obvious feature of his compulsions. He is actually responding to an obsession. Logan may be driven to compulsions as compensation for reducing anxiety or discomfort. Aiming for perfection, he believes that redoing things may produce a better result.

Treatment possibilities for Logan

Behavior therapies

Behavior therapies can be understood through two theories: the classical conditioning theory and the operant conditioning theory. Classical conditioning is explained by the stimulus-response and the stimulus-stimulus theories. Operant conditioning involves an alteration of conduct due to influences of the environment. The social learning theory indicates that a person learns from observing others. Cognitive behavior therapy allows for more flexibility in application and is a good response to the distress of the patient (Merrick and Dattilio, 2006). The concepts of the development of schemas or cognitive beliefs are woven into the therapy. This therapy has inputs from gestalt therapy where exposure to the environment has affected thought, emotion, and behavior. Human existential concepts also can be found. When working with families, concepts of systems theories are also incorporated (Merrick and Dattilio, 2006).

Logan can have cognitive behavior therapy which is time and cost-effective. It would allow him to return to his job as early as possible. Practically it integrates comfortably with other modes of treatment if the necessity for a combination of therapies has arisen (Merrick and Dattilio, 2006). Logan may need to have pharmacotherapy along with his CBT. Cognitive behavior therapy can be easily combined with pharmacotherapy because goals are short-ranged and the focus is on human biochemistry (Merrick and Dattilio, 2006). Cost-effective treatments are better administered due to the shortage of trained therapists and the increase in hospital costs. The biological and physiological causes of anxiety disorders, depression, and psychotic illnesses can all be addressed by cognitive behavior therapy. A common ground approach is possible with CBT. The CBT model elaborates Logan’s personal experience, personality, knowledge, clinical acumen, and cultural sensitivity (Merrick and Dattilio, 2006). It is a combination of strengths from theory, methodology, and scientific outcomes. The therapist would be able to use practice that is open-minded and firmly grounded with CBT. The threat of territoriality is reduced as the CBT merges with most therapies (Merrick and Dattilio, 2006)

Rational behavioral emotive therapy is one type of CBT that would be good for Logan. The approach would be problem-focused and goal-oriented. It would be structured in nature and presented in a logical manner (Dryden, 2001). It is also an educational approach to counseling and psychotherapy. The focus is on the present as well as the future and is skills-focused. Logan must be convinced that he will be helped to change his beliefs. He will be shown to understand the healthy and unhealthy negative emotions towards negative events (Dryden, 2001). The healthy alternative to a disturbing emotion is pointed out. Feeling options are introduced to Logan and he selects one that he feels would help him in the long run. Logan will be guided to set his own goals. Behaviors that go against the grain are discouraged. Those who help him to achieve his goals would be encouraged. He would be helped to develop a realistic view without any thinking distortions (Dryden, 2001). Interpersonal and problem-solving skills would be introduced so that Logan becomes more affectionate, friendly, and capable. Logan is first of all convinced about the irrationality of his beliefs (Dryden, 2001). Then he must be taught to develop a level of emotional insight. Strengthening his conviction in rational beliefs, Logan must be guided towards believing them. Psychotherapy helps him to change but Logan must feel adequate to do it himself. Even if Logan respects the therapist, he may not be ready for changing his irrational beliefs. Only if he does that, will he begin his passage to good health. With REBT, Logan would be able to recognize and understand his unreasonable, unrealistic, and self–defeating thoughts. He develops the ability to logically avoid the unhealthy construct and thereby future dejection (Sharf, 2008).

Gestalt therapy

Gestalt theory believes that personality is a result of different interdependent traits that work together to form an integrated human being (Koffka, 1999). The traits which work in a synchronized manner are physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual. When the mixing of traits occurs, a completely different trait can result. If a person wants to analyze his traits, he has to study all the aspects of his personality. Emergence, reification, multi-stability, and invariance are the principles of the therapy (Sternberg, 2003). An interaction between the organism and the environment constitutes the basis of the therapy. The search for the desired object by the organism is represented by the sensory activity. Motor activity indicates the finding of the object and its assimilation. Following both is the attaining of equilibrium. When the object has been assimilated, a state of equilibrium is reached.

Every perception is interpreted as a figure projected against a background. Gestalt therapy produces the development of the continuum of awareness. Logan will be facilitated by the therapist to increase awareness of himself. Some people block the awareness if disgusting. Defense mechanisms are expressed as intellectualization or escapades into the past. Other coping strategies could be denial or deflection. The environment affects every part of the organism whether externally or internally; this is explained as the concept of boundaries. Neuroses occur at the boundary. A cure following psychotherapy indicates that the process of reconstruction of the physiological system and resultant restoration of equilibrium is established (Gobar, 1968). Helping Logan to become aware of his feelings, perceptions, thoughts, desires, fears, and body processes, or in one word, his personality, the therapist can change his thoughts and attitude towards life (Sharf, 2008).


Analytic psychotherapy includes the conscious and unconscious elements of the human psyche (Goldenberg and Goldenberg, 2008). The goals of psychotherapy would be reintegration, self-knowledge, and individuation associated with awareness, responsibility, and a connection to the transcendent. “Psyche is the combination of spirit, soul, and idea” (Goldenberg and Goldenberg, 2008). Jung proposed that perceptions are determined by what a person is. Psychotherapy involves the use of the psyche which is a self-regulating system, the unconscious which is a creative and compensatory part, the doctor-patient relationship which facilitates self-awareness and healing, and the personality growth occurring over the lifetime (Goldenberg and Goldenberg, 2008). A disturbance in the patient’s equilibrium causes neurosis. These are traced by the psychoanalyst back to the origins. Logan may have some secret that could have affected him and it would be elicited by the therapist in this treatment method. The process of psychotherapy would include confession when Logan’s personal history would be totally revealed, elucidation where the infantile origins would be identified, education where Logan would be moving into the stage of an adopted person with a health-promoting behavior, and the last stage of transformation when greater knowledge and insight further improves Logan. (Goldenberg and Goldenberg, 2008).


The cost-effective cognitive behavior therapy appears to be a good or the best method to bring Logan out of his illness as it allows for the inclusion of other therapies without creating a chaotic situation. Even pharmacotherapy can be associated. The shorter duration and speedier recognition of the problem or the time-effectiveness would permit Logan to return to normal life as early as possible. The range of Logan’s symptoms of anxiety and repetitive actions can be changed with CBT. Of the CBTs, rational behavioral emotive therapy seems to be suited to Logan’s illness. This problem-focused and goal-oriented therapy would have an educative approach too. Logan also is empowered to participate in his therapy by deciding what feelings of his he is going to develop as healthy alternatives to his previous ones. His convictions and emotional insights are strengthened. Logan would learn how to prevent his earlier symptoms from returning. Gestalt therapy and psychoanalytic therapy are also effective methods but not as competitive where Logan is concerned.


Dryden, W. (2001). The reason to change: A rational emotive behavior therapy. New York: Brunner-Routledge.

Gobar, A. (1968). Philosophic foundations of genetic psychology and gestalt psychology. The Hague: Martins Nilboff.

Koffka, K. (1999). Principles of Gestalt Psychology, Routledge.

Merrick, P.L. & Dattilio, F.M. (2006). The contemporary appeal of cognitive behavior therapy New Zealand Journal of Psychology, Vol. 35, Issue 3, New Zealand psychological Society.

Schultz, D. P., & Schultz, S. E. (2008). History of psychology. Cengage Learning: Mason, OH.

Sharf, R. (2008). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy: Cases and concepts, Belmont, C.A.

Sterberg, R. (2003). Cognitive psychology, 3rd Ed, Thomson Wadsworth.

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