Filipinos have gained global admiration for their hospitality, diligence, bravery, and selflessness over the years. We are also recognized for our inherent qualities of being “God-fearing, humane, and patriotic”. The Philippines, our beloved country and home, has deeply impacted our mindset, actions, and existence as Pinoys. Although we maintain a strong bond with rural life and depend on agriculture for sustenance, the Philippines has also embraced advancements in science and technology to stay updated with rapidly changing worldwide trends.
In the essay “Philippine Visual Urban Culture” by Jaymee Siao, the author explores the various elements of urban space in the Philippines. This environment serves as the home for many Filipinos and is characterized by three key features: billboards, bridges, and monuments. Within this space, there is a proliferation of panopticons, liberal thinking, commercial and industrial establishments, smoke, and traffic. It is a space that reflects a mix of power dynamics, desires, and resistance, which is why it is commonly referred to as urban space.
Siao effectively showcased the Philippines as a space of rebellion through various means, such as billboards along EDSA, the representation of Postmodern Sociocultural Phenomenon as a bridge, and monuments that embody the National Imaginaire. I concur with the author’s interpretation of our society’s cultural values, specifically regarding the widespread commercialization and industrialization evident in the proliferation of billboards. These billboards serve as panopticons, spanning the entirety of Highway 54, now known as EDSA.
EDSA, formerly a site of historical significance and a symbol of the Filipino people’s revolution, has now transformed into a popular destination for the advertising industry. The streets are adorned with countless images of individuals wearing jeans and shoes, creating a disorienting display. However, despite the pervasive influence of mass media, people have managed to push back against the capitalist agenda of turning everything into merchandise. We continue to resist and make progress in challenging the conventional notions and misleading portrayals presented by these advertisements.
The bridge was originally considered a symbol of movement . However, when people started living on the bridge, it transformed from a mobile infrastructure into a stagnant “site”. I agree with Johnson , who argues that these urban expansions have become essential facilities in every city. Without them, the productive economy would be greatly handicapped, similar to a person born without limbs. These bridges offer various possibilities and facilitate interactions among different entities. They bring material, intellectual, and personal benefits, leading to development and a significant shift from a seemingly helpless past.
Contrary to Antipolo’s essay conclusion that infrastructure and spatial development is not unidirectional, I believe it is actually directly proportional. Development and facilities lead to liberation and subsequently freedom. I question Siao’s incorrect conceptualization that unlike Egypt, China, and Rome, the Philippines lacks monumental works to boast of . I also disagree with his statement that the Spaniards came to civilize the Filipinos .
Before the mestizos arrived and conquered our land, our Filipino ancestors had already been creating monuments known as “anitos” – wooden idols of their god, Bathala. They possessed not only a talent for farming but also exceptional craftsmanship, skillfully shaping stones into remarkable statues and ancient monuments dedicated to their gods. While it is undeniably true that the Spaniards introduced Christianity and successfully converted our ancestors who previously followed pagan/nature-based beliefs, it is important to acknowledge that our forebearers had already been leading civilized lives on their own terms.
Despite being colonized by the Spaniards and Americans, the influence of their presence is still apparent in our culture. The essence they brought can still be sensed in our streets, homes, and within us. Although our recollections of this era may be fading away, they will forever remain imprinted in our hearts. Monuments were constructed to safeguard our identity and history, acting as prompts for us to delve into and comprehend our past. They serve as a testament to our aspiration of establishing a nation that is authentically ours.
The billboards, bridges, and monuments all contribute to our understanding and appreciation of Filipino heritage and culture. These elements are prominently displayed in urban spaces, the streets we traverse, and the daily traffic jams and pollution we encounter. These aspects unconsciously become a part of our identity, enhancing our true Filipino spirit.
Types And Manner Of Production Of Noise In Russian
According to V. A. Vassilyev primary importance should be given to the type of obstruction and the manner of production noise. On this ground he distinguishes two large classes:
- occlusive, in the production of which a complete obstruction is formed;
- constrictive, in the production of which an in complete obstruction is formed.
Each of the two classes is subdivided into noise consonants and sonorants. Another point of view is shared by a group of Russian phoneticians. They suggest that the first and basic principle of classification should be degree of noise.
Such consideration leads to dividing English consonants into two general kinds:
- noise consonants;
There are no sonorants in the classifications suggested by British and American scholars. D. Jones and H. Gleason, for example, give separate groups of nasals [m, n, ? ], lateral [l] and semi-vowels, or glides [w, r, j (y)]. B. Bloch and G. Trager besides nasals and lateral give trilled [r]. According to Russian phoneticians sonorants are considered to be consonants from articulatory, acoustic and phonological point of view.
The place of articulation. This principle of classification is rather universal. English consonants are divided into:
There is, however, controversy about terming the active organs of speech. Russian phoneticians divide the tongue into the following parts:
- front with the tip,
Russian scholars consider the principle of classification according to the manner of articulation to be one of the most important. They suggest a classification from the point of view of the closure. It may be:
- complete closure, then occlusive consonants are produced;
- incomplete closure, then constrictive consonants are produced;
- the combination of the two closures, then occlusive-constrictive consonants, or affricates, are produced;
- intermittent closure, then rolled, or trilled consonants are produced.
A. Gimson, H. Gleason, D. Jones and other foreign phoneticians include in the manner of noise production groups of lateral, nasals, and semi-vowels which do not belong to a single class.
Russian phoneticians subdivide consonants into unicentral (pronounced with one focus) and bicentral (pronounced with two foci), according to the number of noise producing centers, or foci. According to the shape of narrowing constrictive consonants and affricates are subdivided into sounds with flat narrowing and round narrowing.
Russian phoneticians suggest a classification of vowels according to the following principles:
- stability of articulation;
- tongue position;
- lip position;
- character of the vowel
Stability of articulation. This principle is not singled out by British and American phoneticians. According to Russian scholars vowels are subdivided into:
- monophthongs (the tongue position is stable);
- diphthongs (it changes, that is the tongue moves from one position to another);
- diphthongoids (an intermediate case, when the change in the position is fairly weak).
Diphthongs are defined differently by different authors. A. C. Gimson, for example, distinguishes 20 vocalic phonemes which are made of vowels and vowel glides. Jones defines diphthongs as unisyllabic gliding sounds in the articulation of which the organs of speech start from one position and then glide to another position. There are two vowels in English [i:, u:] that may have a diphthongal glide where they have full length, and the tendency for diphthongization is becoming gradually stronger.
The position of the tongue. According to the horizontal movement Russian phoneticians distinguish five classes:
British phoneticians do not single out the classes of front-retracted and back-advanced vowels. So both [i:] and are classed as front, and both [u:] and [? ] are classed as back. The way British and Russian phoneticians approach the vertical movement of the tongue is also slightly different. British scholars distinguish three classes of vowels: high (or close), mid (or half-open) and low (or open) vowels.
Russian phoneticians made the classification more detailed distinguishing two subclasses in each class, i. e. broad and narrow variations of the three vertical positions. Consequently, six groups of vowels are distinguished. Traditionally three lip positions are distinguished: spread, neutral, rounded. Lip rounding takes place due to physiological reasons rather than to any other.
Any back vowel in English is produced with rounded lips, the degree of rounding is different and depends on the height of the raised part of the tongue; the higher it is raised the more rounded the lips are.
Then it lost its local characteristics and was finally fixed as a ruling-class accent, often referred to as “King’s English”. It was also the accent taught at public schools. With the spread of education, cultured people not belonging to upper classes were eager to modify their accent in the direction of social standards. We know that teaching practice as well as a pronouncing dictionary must base their recommendations on one or more models. A pronunciation model is a carefully chosen and defined accent of a language.
An increasing number of writers now prefer to refer to the standard English pronunciation as a BBC accent. This model accent for British English is represented in the 15th (1997), the 16th (2003) and 17th (2006) editions of EPD. This is the pronunciation of professional speakers employed by the BBC as newsreaders and announcers. The model of British English pronunciation recorded in LPD is a modernized version of RP. For American English, EPD also follows what is frequently heard from professional voices on national network news and information programmes.
It is similar to what has been termed General American, which refers to a geographically (largely non-coastal) and socially based set of pronunciation features. It is important to note that no single dialect – regional or social – has been singled out as an American standard. Even national media with professionally trained voices have speakers with regionally mixed features. However, ‘Network English’, in its most colourless form, can be described as a relatively homogeneous dialect that reflects the ongoing development of progressive American dialects. This ‘dialect’ itself contains some variant forms. J. C. Wells prefers the term General American. According to him, this is what is spoken by the majority of Americans, namely those who do not have a noticeable eastern or southern accent.
In the opposition I enjoyed it – I enjoyed it the pitch pattern operates over the whole phrase adding in the second phrase the notion that the speaker has reservations (implying a continuation something like ‘but it could have been a lot better’). Any section of the intonation pattern, any of its three constituents can perform the distinctive function thus being phonological units. The most powerful phonological unit is the terminal tone.
The opposition of terminal tones distinguishes different types of sentence. The same sequence of words may be interpreted as a different syntactical type, i. e. statement or a question, a question or an exclamation being pronounced with different terminal tones, e. g. : Tom saw it (statement) – Tom saw it? (general question) Didn’t you enjoy it? (general question) – Didn’t you enjoy it? (exclamation) Will you be quiet? (request) – Will you be quiet? (command).
The number of terminal tones indicates the number of intonation groups. Together with the increase of loudness terminal tones serve to single out the semantic centre of the utterance. By semantic centre we mean the information centre which may simultaneously concentrate the expression of attitudes and feelings.
The words in an utterance do not necessarily all contribute an equal amount of information, some are more important to the meaning than others. This largely depends on the context or situation in which the intonation group or a phrase is said. Some words are predisposed by their function in the language to be stressed. In English lexical (content) words are generally accented while grammatical (form) words are more likely to be unaccented although words belonging to both of these groups may be unaccented or accented if the meaning requires it.
How Does Fatigue Affect Pilot Decision Making
Introduction Fatigue plagues all of us at some point in our lives. In aviation, fatigue may cause a pilot to fall asleep during cruise flight or it may impact alertness during take-off or landing. Pilots have a huge responsibility due to the fact they have a lot lives in their hands. This paper will discuss what fatigue is, how it affects the pilot decision making process, and what the government is doing to help combat fatigue and protect the flying public. What is Fatigue?
According to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) fatigue is a physiological state in which there is a decreased capacity to perform cognitive tasks and an increased variability in performance as a function of time on task. Fatigue is also associated with tiredness, weakness, lack of energy, lethargy, depression, lack of motivation, and sleepiness (Federal Aviation Administration, 2010). Some signs that a pilot may be fatigued are: Lack of alertness, impaired physical and mental performance, poor decision-making skills, slow reaction time, forgetfulness, lack of interest, moodiness, diminished creativity.
There are two types of fatigue: acute, and chronic. Acute fatigue is short-lived and is a normal occurrence in everyday living. It is the kind of tiredness you feel after a period of strenuous effort, excitement, or lack of sleep. Rest after exertion and 8 hours of sound steep ordinarily cures this condition. Acute fatigue degrades attention, coordination, concentration and just the overall decision-making process. Simple tasks become overwhelmingly difficult and all of the remaining energy is channeled into apparently menial tasks.
A special type of acute fatigue, called “skill fatigue,” is a form of fatigue that pilots are more susceptible to. Skill fatigue has two main effects upon the pilot’s performance: The first one is timing disruption . This is where the pilot appears to perform a task as usual, but the timing of each component is slightly off. This makes the pattern of the operation less smooth, because the pilot performs each component as though it were separate, instead of part of an integrated activity. The second effect is the disruption of the perceptual field.
The pilot concentrates their attention upon movements or objects in the center of their vision and neglects those in the periphery. This may be accompanied by loss of accuracy and smoothness in control movements. Acute fatigue is brought on by many causes, but the following are among the most important for the pilot: 1) Mild hypoxia (oxygen deficiency). 2) Physical stresses produced by the aircraft, such as fighting severe turbulence, icing conditions, malfunctioning of the equipment. 3) Psychological stress, some of it emotional and some resulting from the emanding intellectual activity required for successful flight operations. 4) Depletion of physical energy resulting from psychological stress. Sustained psychological stress accelerates the glandular secretions which prepare the body for quick reactions during an emergency. These secretions make the circulatory and respiratory systems work harder, and the liver releases energy to provide the extra fuel needed for brain and muscle work. When this reserve energy supply is depleted, the body lapses into generalized and severe fatigue (Pilot Fatigue).
Chronic fatigue accumulates over time and is caused by lack of sleep, stress and jetlag. Chronic fatigue usually has psychological roots. Continuous strain on the pilot’s job, for example, can produce chronic fatigue. The pilot may experience this condition in the form of weakness, tiredness, palpitations of the heart, breathlessness, headaches, or irritability. Sometimes chronic fatigue even creates stomach or intestinal problems and generalized aches and pains throughout the body. When the condition becomes serious enough, it can lead to emotional illness (Novacek, 2003).
How does fatigue affect pilot decision making Maintaining optimal alertness and neurobehavioral functioning in operational environments is critical for achieving high levels of safety, efficiency, and success. High levels of alertness and performance are necessary to operate complex technology and machinery as well as to make critical task decisions on a sustained basis. Individuals working erratic schedules experience conflicts between the biological circadian rhythm and environmental time cues and work demands.
This physiological conflict can cause a sense of drowsiness (subjective fatigue), mood changes, performance degradation, and physiological upset. Two adverse effects of the circadian conflict between the sleep/wake pattern and the biological rhythm worsen performance levels and sleepiness: Trying to sleep when a person’s biology is highly energized, and Attempting to maintain alertness and high cognitive functioning at a time when a person’s biological clock is programming the body to sleep (Federal Aviation Administration, 2010).
In 1994 Neville, Bisson, French, Boll, and Storm performed a study of pilot fatigue by the military. They studied airline crews that were exposed to extended work periods, reduced sleep, night work, and circadian dysrhythmia caused by shift work and time zone crossings during Desert Storm. Their research showed that recent sleep and f light histories are correlated with high subjective fatigue levels. They also found a tendency for fatigue to correspond with pilot error. Pilot fatigue can also be studied in aircraft simulators.
A recent study at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research tested flight performance of eight pilots on a flight simulator based on time awake. The study examined pilot air refueling flight performance across 27 hours of continuous wakefulness. Preliminary analysis suggests that severe performance deficits occurred after one night of continuous wakefulness (Goode, 2003). Another study performed by Caldwell, Hall, Erickson in 2002 determined whether the electroencephalographic (EEG) changes associated with sleep deprivation could be reliably recorded from aviators flying standardized maneuvers in an aircraft.
In-flight EEG data were recorded from 10UH-60 helicopter pilots who were kept awake for approximately 26 hr. In addition, resting EEGs and mood data were collected in the laboratory between flights. Results indicate that EEG theta activity, and to some extent delta activity, increases as a function of sleep deprivation in both settings. In addition, mood decrements were associated with the fatigue from sleep loss. These results indicate it is possible to monitor a pilot’s general fatigue levels via the EEG without interfering with the primary duty of flying the aircraft (Caldwell, Hall, & Erickson, 2002).
There is a complication in understanding past accidents and in preventing future ones is that airline accidents rarely have a single cause. Rather, accidents are usually the culmination of a sequence of events that involve multiple causes and contributing factors. Assessing the role that pilot fatigue may have played in an accident is a challenge because of other potential contributing factors. In some cases, the cockpit voice recorder may reveal that pilots talked about being fatigued during the flight or there may have been other signs of fatigue from the cockpit voice recorder.
In other cases, the record may be clear that a pilot received very little sleep prior to the flight. There is strong evidence that fatigue can result in deteriorated pilot performance even in such cases, the fact that a pilot is likely to have been fatigued does not necessarily mean that the pilot’s fatigue resulted in errors made during the accident sequence or contributed to the cause of the accident. Well-rested pilots have been involved in airplane crashes and fatigued pilots have completed flights without accidents.
However, because the contribution of fatigue can be difficult to detect during an accident investigation, it is quite possible that fatigue may have contributed to accidents even when there is no clear evidence of pilot fatigue in the accident record (Council, 2011). Below are two charts that show fatigue related accidents from 1982 to 2010. Injury CategoryTotal AccidentsFatigue Accidents Part 121 Fatal952 Part 121 Serious4234 Part 121 Minor780 Part 121 None3373 Total8639 Total Accidents and Fatigue Accidents by Injury Category 1982-2010 (Council, 2011)
Event DateOperator NameCategory of OperationFlight PhaseFatal/Non Fatal 18-Aug-93CONNIE KALITTA SERVICESNON-SCHEDULEDAPPROACHSERIOUS 8-May-99AMERICAN EAGLESCHEDULEDLANDING- ROLLSERIOUS 1-Jun-99AMERICAN AIRLINESSCHEDULEDLANDINGFATAL 26-Jul-02FEDERAL EXPRESS CORPNON-SCHEDULEDAPPROACHSERIOUS 19-Oct-04CORPORATE AIRLINESSCHEDULEDAPPROACHFATAL 18-Feb-07SHUTTLE AMERICA CORPORATIONSCHEDULEDLANDING- ROLLNONE 12-Apr-07PINNACLE AIRLINESSCHEDULEDLANDINGNONE 27-Jan-09EMPIRE AIRLINESNON-SCHEDULEDLANDINGSERIOUS 6-May-09WORLD AIRWAYSNON-SCHEDULEDLANDING- FLARESERIOUS
Fatigue Related Accidents 1982-2010 (Council, 2011) What is being done to combat fatigue? The best weapon to defeat fatigue is to get plenty of sleep. It is advised that the average person requires at least 8 hours of sleep (Federal Aviation Administration, 2010). Lifestyle is another way to help defeat fatigue. There are new technologies in the form of cockpit design to help eliminate mental workload fatigue of the pilot. The biggest tactic to combat fatigue would be the FAA. The FAA has regulations in place to help the pilot combat fatigue but accidents and mistakes still occur.
The FAA has proposed a stricter regulation and is now in the decision making process. The current regulation limits flight time and pilot rest and has been in place since the 1940s. The rules for domestic flights do not explicitly address the amount of time a pilot can be on duty. Rather, the rules address flight time limitations and required rest periods. Current FAA regulations for domestic flights generally limit pilots to eight hours of flight time during a 24-hour period. This limit may be extended provided the pilot receives additional rest at the end of the flight.
However, a pilot is not allowed to accept, nor is an airline allowed to assign, a flight if the pilot has not has at least eight continuous hours of rest during the 24-hour period. In other words, the pilot needs to be able to look back in any preceding 24-hour period and find that he/she has had an opportunity for at least eight hours of rest. If a pilot’s actual rest is less than nine hours in the 24-hour period, the next rest period must be lengthened to provide for the appropriate compensatory rest. Airline rules may be stricter than the FAA’s regulations if the issue is part of a collective bargaining agreement.
Flight time and rest rules for U. S. air carrier international flights are different from the rules for domestic flights. International flights can involve more than the standard two-pilot crew and are more complex due to the scope of the operations. For international flights that require more than 12 hours of flight time, air carriers must establish rest periods and provide adequate sleeping facilities outside of the cockpit for in-flight rest (Federal Aviation Administration, 2010). The new regulation proposal reflects the universal nature of fatigue.
The proposed rules would be the same for all types of Part 121 flights (passenger and cargo airlines): domestic, flag (international), or supplemental (unscheduled). There are currently different requirements for each of these categories of operations. The proposed rule does not apply to Part 135 operators, but FAA may address fatigue for Part 135 operators in the future. Unlike the current rules, the proposal provides a circadian component for reducing the flight time and duty time when the pilot is operating in his or her window of circadian low.
The proposal clearly states that fatigue mitigation is the joint responsibility of both the airline and the pilot. A pilot may not accept an assignment if that pilot is too fatigued to fly. The proposal would give airlines the flexibility to adopt individual Fatigue Risk Management Systems. Fatigue Risk Management Plans, recently mandated by Congress and now addressed by FAA policy, would set out a carrier’s own policies and procedures for reducing the risk of fatigue and improving alertness.
These plans are specific to an air carrier’s type of operations, are subject to the FAA’s review and acceptance, and include fatigue education and awareness training. The FAA proposes to set a nine-hour minimum for rest prior to flying-related duty, a one-hour increase over the minimum in current rules along with certain flight and duty time. Flight time will consist of the following: Weekly: The proposal provides pilots with at least 30 consecutive hours per week free from all duty, compared to the current 24 hours free from all duty on a weekly basis – a 25 percent increase.
Monthly: Under the proposal, there is a 100-hour maximum for flight time in any 28 days. Current rules set a limit of 100 hours for every 30 days. Yearly: There is a current limit of 1,000 hours in any calendar year for domestic flights. Under the proposal, all types of operations will now be limited to 1,000 hours per 365 days. For duty time there is currently a 16-hour duty period between rest periods. The proposal would limit the daily flight duty period to 13-hours, which could slide to nine hours at night (Federal Aviation Administration/September, 2010). Conclusion
Pilot fatigue is a problem that can evolve into bigger problems if it is not properly taken care of. This is a problem that has caused the loss of people’s lives. Hopefully with proposal of new regulations, technologies, and with some training pilots and passengers alike will be safer. This paper has answered the questions it set out to answer. “My mind clicks on and off. I try letting one eyelid close at a time while I prop the other with my will. But the effect is too much, sleep is winning, my whole body argues dully that nothing, nothing life can attain is quite so desirable as sleep.
My mind is losing resolution and control. ” Charles Lindbergh about his 1927 transatlantic flight Works Cited (n. d. ). Retrieved August 24, 2011, from studentpilot. com: http://www. studentpilot. com/articles/medical_articles/article. php? medical_id=27 Caldwell, J. A. , Hall, K. K. , & Erickson, B. S. (2002). EEG Data Collected From Helicopter Pilots in Flight Are Sufficiently Sensitive to Detect Increased Fatigue From Sleep Deprivation. THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AVIATION PSYCHOLOGY 12:1 , 19-32. Council, N. R. (2011).
The Effects of Commuting on Pilot Fatigue. Washington,DC: National Academies Press. Federal Aviation Administration. (2010). AC 120-100 Basics of Aviation Fatigue. US Department of Transportation. Federal Aviation Administration. (2010). Fact Sheet- Pilot Fatigue/ January. FAA. Federal Aviation Administration/September. (2010). Fact Sheet- Pilot Fatigue. FAA. Goode, J. H. (2003). Are pilots at risk of accidents due to fatigue? Journal of Safety Research 34 , 309-313. Novacek, P. (2003, april). How can avionics help reduce pilot fatigue. Avionics news , pp. 50-54.