Philosophy – Copernican Revolution And Analytical/Synthetic Distinction Free Essay

Copernican Revolution

The Copernican Revolution was a shift in thinking, a shift in man’s perception of the cosmos and his place in it. It can alternatively be explained as the transition in astronomy from a geocentric (focused on the earth) to a heliocentric (centered on the sun) conception of the universe. Between 1500 and 1700, there was a significant shift in the learned public’s attitude towards to the natural world in Europe. At the end of the period, it was widely assumed that science was the judge of reality and that the world was rational and within human control.

Philip Frank contends that the primary problem with science philosophy is observation of real physical features in the cosmos on the one hand, and universally accepted scientific principles on the other. He claims that there is a huge disparity between the two sides that needs to be shown over and over to help scientific students grasp the cosmos.

The significance of the Copernican Revolution resides in its ability to enable human intellect to comprehend the fact that what we see with our eyes is distant from reality in actual life. Frank’s work made a significant contribution to understanding the gap between what our senses can comprehend in relation to a certain characteristic of the cosmos.

Example, Consider the long-held belief that our planet is at rest, which Copernicus disproved by proving that it is in motion. Copernicus, according to Frank, illustrated our senses’ misunderstandings. He came up with a new pattern of explanation for our observations as a result of this. Despite the fact that his idea was disproved, Frank claims that his approach represented a huge step forward in astronomy.

The philosophical significance of Copernicus’ revolution stemmed from his view that there was no established theory prior to his theory from which he felt free to create a theory that assumed motion of the earth and other planets with the sun at the center.


Analytic/synthetic is a distinction between two types of truth is referred to as distinction. Synthetic truths are true because of what they mean and how the world works, but analytic truths are only true because of what they mean. “Blood is red,” for example, is synthetic since it is true in part because of what it signifies and in part because blood has a specific hue. “Frozen water is ice,” on the other hand, is usually asserted to be true regardless of how things are in the world; it is true due to analytic meaning.

The use critic points out that analyticity is only interesting because it is supposed to imply other characteristics. There are as many definitions of analyticity as there are people, but none of them will do the work that analyticity is generally expected to do. Example, the argument over the presence of witches is an analogue (Gilbert Harman). Some may justify the existence of witches by pointing to those who are taken as represent cases of witches in their society (for example, people who have already been burned at the stake), stating that the term “witch ” is appropriate for anyone who is like them. As, a skeptic can counter that, while one can define “witch” however they want, people have been burned at the stake because of it.

To categorize propositions, philosopher Immanuel Kant employs the terms analytic and synthetic. (Critique of Pure Reason, A6/B10, 17781/1998). Analytic propositions predict that the subject concept is contained in it. “Frozen water is ice,” for example. This statement is a predicate judgment, and the subject concept contains the predicate concept. The idea “frozen” includes the concept “ice,” and the definition of the concept “frozen” includes the concept “ice.”

The predicate notion of synthetic propositions is not present in the subject concept. “All bachelors are alone,” for example. This is a subject-predicate judgment that is affirmative. The term “bachelor” does not include the word “alone,” and “alone” is not included in the definition of “bachelor.”

The analytic-synthetic theory is a cerebral asymmetry theory that proposes that there are two modes of thinking, synthetic and analytic, that have evolved into separate specialized activities in the right and left brains, respectively.


Analytic/Synthetic Distinction. (2022). Retrieved 29 January 2022, from \

Friedman, R. (1979). Kant’s Third Copernican Revolution. Laval Théologique Et Philosophique, 35(1), 21. doi: 10.7202/705699ar

“The Philosophical Meaning of the Copernican Revolution” by Frank – 1052 Words | Essay Example. (2022). Retrieved 29 January 2022, from

Revolutionary Change. (2022). Retrieved 29 January 2022, from

Philosophy Of Leadership Essay Sample For College

As a leader, it would be significant to consider the organization’s culture as the values, beliefs, and norms entrenched in culture affect the leadership behavior and strategies. Cultural norms within an organization can be fascinating and lead to good and bad consequences. For instance, individuals within the company observing negative behaviors may justify such negative actions and practices (Northouse, 1999). These negative behaviors may spread and worsen, leading to wrangles in the organization as a leader’s culture is one of the external variations which must be considered. This area would need personal reflection related to cultural heritage and influences. Thus, as a leader, it would be necessary to incorporate culture into the leadership strategy as leadership involves leaders self -acceptance.

Leadership has been undergoing various transformational changes meant to improve leadership styles. In most instances, the leadership has two major leadership styles: transformational and transactional. The transformational leadership style focuses on the leaders encouraging, motivating, and instigating employees to be innovative and create change that will help grow and shape the organization’s future success. This style needs the leader to be a role model to employees to encourage them to work hard (Bass & Riggio, 2006). The style finds a solution to old problems and is future-oriented. This style provides mentoring and coaching, focuses on authentic communication, and fosters motivation.

On the other hand, in a transactional leader type of leadership, the followers intend to exchange one thing for another, for instance, jobs for votes or subsidies. These transactions involve the bulk of the relationship among relationships, are concerned with the give and take economic model concerned with the development of the individual, and identify and glances for potential motives in followers, seeking to satisfy higher needs and engages the individuals. Transactional leadership majors on the role of management, organization, and team performance. Leaders who use this style of leadership focus on various projects and take and use rewards and punishments to motivate the followers. With punishments and gifts, the followers can be motivated quickly. This type of leadership style is used during crises and emergencies, and projects that need to be carried out in a certain way. This leadership creates an efficient and constructive relationship between leaders and followers. Therefore as a leader, transformational leadership for long-term achievements should be adopted to be a role model and coach mentor, and transform other employees into becoming better in the organization for success.

Additionally, as a leadership philosophy, all employees should be provided with an equal opportunity in promotion based on their academic qualification, achievement in the organization, and motivation. Biasness in the leadership based on ethnicity, gender, age, and race should not be the basis of promotion or receiving wards or punishment (Northouse, 1999). Biased leadership leads to battles and fights within the organization as most deserving people are denied opportunities in a particular position. For instance, most female employees are denied the right to reach certain levels of leadership as they are claimed to have reached the ceiling. Depending on their skills, education, and contribution to the organization, a steward leader needs to involve all the employees in the promotion, rewards, and punishment without bias.

Moreover, leadership should entail involving the employees in decision-making. The employees should be involved in decision-making to assist and be aware of their roles in achieving the organizational goals. The involvement of employees in decision-making fosters their engagement as they develop trust and feel valued by the company. This would promote handwork among the employees, which can lead to the organization’s success. Engaging the employees helps the employees be more responsible about their work and push themselves to find better results. It would also help enhance innovation and invention of new ideas to help tackles problems in the workplace. It would be necessary for a leader to be democratic to capitalize on their talents and strengths while benefiting the company. In involving the employees, it would be easy to understand the strength and weaknesses of each employee; this would help identify the best area for the employees to work on. Working on areas where they are best talented and have strength would improve their performance, which would have a significant impact on the organization, leading to more growth and development.

Adapting a democratic leadership style would promote teamwork through engagement and participation. In this style, the performances of each worker are rewarded and honored, which promotes (Bhatti et al., 2012). Through teamwork, it is significant because it allows the employees to share ideas and responsibilities, which helps to reduce stress to individual employees. This makes the employees more thorough and conscientious when completing their tasks. This would help them to achieve their individualistic goals. Moreover, democratic leadership, which fosters teamwork, increases the accountability of every member of the team as the employees feel they should be accountable to each other and tend to be highly honest due to observation. Teamwork promotes learning among the employees; the employees will learn new skills from their colleagues and use them towards the company’s development.

Also, as a leader, it would be significant to conduct regular communication with the employees as this would boost unity and remind them of their responsibilities and roles in the organization. The communication with the employees should be formal and specific; this would ensure the proper flow of information in the workplace. As a leader, it would be significant to inform the workers to be aligned with the business goals and objectives. This fosters production among the workers and promotes handwork as workers will be reminded of their roles in the organization, which should be aligned with the organization (Covelli & Mason, 2017). As a leader, communicating regularly with the employees would be of great significance since it will help address any issues arising from work. Through communication, either written or oral, a leader can delegate duties. The duties should be assigned by the employee’s talents, strengths, and skills. Entrusting employees in various sectors require high skills in evaluating the learners’ skills and competency; as a leader, it would be significant to understand each employee’s strengths and weaknesses to delegate duties effectively.

Additionally, influence in leadership is paramount; this entails the motivation and the inspiration a leader provides to the other employees. A leader should be a good role model and ensure that his actions and work are within the organizational culture and structure. When leaders act as per the organizational constitution, they promote the same culture among the other junior workers. Thus, a leader should be work-oriented, work hard, and be a team player. These attributes should be imitated by the other junior workers, which would help achieve the organization’s mission.

Finally, decision-making skills should be practical and according to the organization’s constitutions and vision as a leader. It would be significant to assess a situation and determine how the organization should proceed as a leader. Thus, as a leader, it would first be essential to identify critical factors that would affect a decision (Waldman et al., 2019). Also, it would be significant to evaluate the available options and establish the organization’s priorities. Thirdly, it would be significant to anticipate outcomes, see rational consequences, and effectively navigate risk and uncertainty. Finally, it would be effective to reason well in a context requiring quantitative analyses before arriving at a decision.


Bass, B. M., & Riggio, R. E. (2006). Transformational leadership. Psychology Press.

Bhatti, N., Maitlo, G. M., Shaikh, N., Hashmi, M. A., & Shaikh, F. M. (2012). The impact of autocratic and democratic leadership style on job satisfaction. International business research5(2), 192.

Covelli, B. J., & Mason, I. (2017). Linking theory to practice: Authentic leadership. Academy of Strategic Management Journal16(3), 1-10.

Northouse, P. G. (1999). Leadership: Theory and practice (p. xxiii). E-Content Generic Vendor.

Waldman, D. A., Putnam, L. L., Miron-Spektor, E., & Siegel, D. (2019). The role of paradox theory in decision making and management research. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes155, 1-6.

Policy Development Draft Assignment Sample Assignment


The use of social media in the low enforcement industry has realized numerous benefits and drawbacks. One of the drawbacks that has been realized is the misuse of social media by the law enforcers. How the law enforcers are misusing social media is intentional while some are unintentional. In the recent past, social media abuse has been realized by sharing personal and confidential information on a case and sharing sexually explicit content, among others. Due to the actions, the law enforcers may face issues with credibility. To ensure that such occurrences are rare, the law enforcement agencies must regulate how officers use social media platforms during and after work. Development of a policy statement is vital in the case. The policy to be developed should be implemented to the latter.

Policy Development Draft Assignment


In the modern-day, technology has impacted human life in various positive and negative ways. The internet is one of the most recent innovations that has impacted humans significantly. Through the internet, communication has been made efficient, faster, and more effective through the use of tools such as social media platforms. The use of social media platforms has been widespread to the point that more than half the world’s population use at least one social media platform. Names of various social media platforms have been used synonymously for communication. For instance, people say that they are Facebooking, meaning using Facebook for communication. Unfortunately, the use of social aid platforms not only realizes benefits but also has major drawbacks, which vary (Fallik et al., 2020). The law enforcement agencies have embraced the use of social media, which has seen the agencies benefit and lose at the same time. In the paper, the benefits and drawbacks of social media to law enforcement will be discussed alongside strategies and policies that can be implemented to ensure the negative effects of social media in law enforcement are not experienced.

Law Enforcement Abuse of Social Media

Law enforcement agencies are having a tough time dealing with the use of social media among law enforcement. In the recent past, the world has witnessed a tremendous increase in the use of social media platforms across all areas, including law enforcement agencies. Without a doubt, social media platforms have helped numerous organizations and agencies. However, the use of social media poses a threat to the smooth operations of agencies and organizations. One of the reasons social media poses a threat to the success of various organizations and agencies is that people abuse social media (Sodhi et al., 2020). The abuse of social media platforms can be said to be intentional and unintentional, but regardless of the intentions, the negative effect of social media abuse is significant. In the law enforcement agency, the abuse is achieved on a personal and organizational level.

Personal and organizational abuse of social media in the law enforcement agency has experienced numerous undesirable effects. For instance, through posts made on social media, the law enforcement agencies and specific individuals in the agencies have had to answer tough questions regarding the use of social media. Some activities practiced on social media have seen law enforcement agencies lose credibility. For instance, in 2020, the police in the United States (US), specifically Minnesota, was under huge pressure for the activity performed y one f their own. A police officer from Minneapolis killed an African-American during an arrest, and a video taken by an amateur was shared on social media platforms. The video saw the rise of protests in various states in the US and heightened debates on racism, discrimination, and police brutality (Boateng & Chenane, 2020). The protests and debates reached the whole world through social media, which saw the US law enforcement agency under scrutiny from various entities worldwide.

Apart from the effects realized due to the use of social media by the public, various negative effects have been realized due to misuse of social media platforms. Law enforcement can misuse social media in various ways, including sharing confidential information, sexually explicit communication, defamatory messages, and impeachment of police witnesses (Boateng & Chenane, 2020). Through social media, police can share information unintentionally or knowingly. Regardless, once confidential information is shared with the public, the agency’s effectiveness is put at risk. The information can be posted by law enforcement individuals or people who have access to the information. In an era that cases of sexual abuse are rampant, sharing sexually explicit messages on social media brings about the incitement and normalization of undesired sexual behavior. Unfortunately, some law enforcement agencies have taken part in sharing such messages, making law enforcement lack credibility in such cases. A police officer’s social media activity can lead to their credibility being questioned (Fallik et al., 2020). For instance, if a police officer posts a photo while he or she is at a club, their statement in favor of a suspected drug dealer can be questioned. As a result, an innocent person may face punishment for a crime they did not commit.

Organizational Use of Social Media

Like in any other organization, social media brings about positive and negative effects on law enforcement agencies. Currently, law enforcement agencies are using social media to do investigations. For instance, the department of fraud and financial crimes are dependent on social media to investigate the lifestyle of various people. Financial institutions are using social media platforms such as Instagram and Facebook to investigate people involved in financial crimes, including tax evasion money laundering, among others. Through social media, law enforcement agencies have been able to find and arrest people involved in such crimes. Social media has also helped law enforcement reach out to the community they serve. Through the outreach programs, the law enforcement agencies can communicate vital information on security issues, including education. Social media has also helped law enforcement agencies to recruit and employ young people (Boateng & Chenane, 2020). Most young people are using social media daily, making it a sure way of reaching out to the population during recruitment.

Law Enforcement Best Practice for the Regulation Officer Social Media Activity

Since social media has helped law enforcement agencies in numerous ways, it is impossible and impractical to do away with social media in law enforcement agencies. Therefore, it is vital to look at the negative effects and come up with ways that can be implemented to ensure that the law enforcement agencies do not experience the undesirable effects of abuse or wrong use of social media among law enforcement agencies am individuals. The first best practice that would be recommended is to raise awareness of the positive and negative effects of social media. The law enforcement officers will understand why social media is important in the law enforcement industry. The next step is to ensure that the law enforcement officers are trained on using social media responsibly. It will entail training law enforcement on ways to use social media to help them in their work and give them insights on what activities can lead to the misuse and abuse of social media (Sodhi et al., 2020). Last but not least, law enforcement should discourage officers from using social media while at work as it may make them less attentive and increase their probability of abusing social media.

Departmental Policy Outline

Title: Social Media Policy

Purpose Statement: Social media has become an integral apt of the modern human population. It has seen the realization of numerous positive and negative effects in the law enforcement agencies. To deal with some of the negative effects of social media use, all law enforcement agencies shall adhere to the policy statement listed below.

Policy Statement:

  1. There is no use of social media platforms for personal consumption during work hours, except during breaks such as tea and lunch breaks.
  2. The organization’s social media platforms for official use, such as investigations, should be done only after consulting the relevant authority concerning the same.
  3. There should be no sharing of any case files, whether ongoing or closed, on any social media platform.


Communication technology has changed how people interact with each other. Modern communication technologies have seen communication become more effective and efficient, with people communicating with just a click on a button. Unfortunately, the ease in communication comes with numerous shortcomings, which must be looked into to ensure that the effectiveness realized as a result of the communication technology is enjoyed to the fullest. In law enforcement, officers are using social media platforms on a personal and organizational level. The officers can experience social media’s positive and negative effects by doing so. Some of the positive effects realized as a result of using social media include investigations, outreach programs, recruitment, and employment. Law enforcement can misuse social media in various ways, including sharing confidential information, sexually explicit communication, defamatory messages, and impeachment of police witnesses. To ensure that law enforcement agencies achieve only the desirable effects of social media, the organization should implement best practices and a policy statement to regulate the use of social media.


Boateng, F. D., & Chenane, J. (2020). Policing and social media: A mixed-method investigation of social media use by a small-town police department. International Journal of Police Science & Management, 22(3), 263–273.

Fallik, S. W., Deuchar, R., Crichlow, V. J., & Hodges, H. (2020). Policing through social media: a qualitative exploration. International Journal of Police Science & Management, 22(2), 208–218.

Sodhi, A., Aguilar, N., Choma, D. E., Steve, J. M., Patton, D., & Crandall, M. (2020). Social Media Representations of Law Enforcement within Four Diverse Chicago Neighborhoods. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 49(6), 832–852.