Philosophy Of Nursing And Advanced Practice Writing Sample

Advanced Practice Nurses (APNs) are well known for the high degree of care and compassion that they usually offer to patients. In any case, all nurses are expected to offer a warm and welcoming environment to all categories of patients. My philosophy of nursing is geared towards offering caring and patient-focused services as well as developing a close relationship that may eventually expedite the healing process.

This implies that the focus should be completely directed to a patient when admitted to a healthcare facility (Dossey, 2010).

My broad objective as an Advanced Practice Nurse is to inform, offer care and give hope to patients who have been placed under my care. Needless to say, the hidden cause of sickness that is troubling a patient should be established and given prompt attention by an Advanced Practice Nurse. In this case, creating a credible relationship between a nurse and patient is fundamental in the life and practice of an APN.

At any given time, an APN is expected to act expeditiously in surprising the symptoms of a disease. The latter cannot be attained easily especially if the impediments to the process of healing are not tackled or addressed at the right time. When patients are admitted to a healthcare facility, they usually anticipate being granted prompt attention and of course, receive much-needed treatment. If an APN can meet this need beyond the expectation of a patient, then the above philosophy can be put into practice (Barker, 2015).

In my practice as an APN, I prefer the holistic treatment of a patient. This entails giving attention to both the physical and emotional healing processes of a patient. In addition, there are instances when conventional treatment options should be supplemented with modern treatment methods to yield the best results. Hence, my philosophy as a nurse is to make sure that assortments of methods are applied to the letter in meeting the emotional and physical needs of patients (Dossey, 2010).

When proving care to patients as an APN, therapeutic healing methods should also be valued and incorporated. There is no single effective healing process that can only rely on the administration of drugs. Individualized treatment plans should instead be preferred for each patient bearing in mind that conditions can differ significantly.

The healthcare sector stands to benefit a lot from the responsibilities of Doctorate of Nursing Practice (DNP). For a long time, patient outcomes have been jeopardized owing to the lack of commanding roles from such a position. Hence, evidence-based practice will be stirred up by the DNP especially at a time when the overall nursing practice is facing myriads of challenges (Barker, 2015).

The extra workload in regards to both diagnosis and treatment is inevitable when playing the roles of an Advanced Practice Nurse (APN). There are thousands of nurses who work under the guidance of APNs. Unless they are empowered and motivated to perform their nursing roles, the entire healthcare paradigm can be negatively affected. Complete patient care may not be possible if an APN works in isolation. Hence, I expect to collaborate even more with nurses below my rank.

On a final note, I must reiterate that nursing offers the best teaching and learning opportunities. As a professional working in this field, I am ready to be continually modeled and shaped by further education in advanced practice nursing. Besides, I am eager to share the knowledge acquired in the field to advance the aspirations and learning zeal of other nurses.


Barker, A. M. (2015). Advanced practice nursing. New York: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Dossey, B. (2010). Holistic nursing: from Florence Nightingale’s historical legacy to 21st-century global nursing. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 16(5), 14-16.

Relation Between Culture And Health In USA


Nowadays one of the major principles and standards for health care professionals is equity. For instance, Douglas et al. (2009, p. 258) put equity in the first place as the first “standard of practise for culturally competent nursing care” they define as social justice, which is based on the principle of equity. Betancourt (2006) also states that achieving equity in health care is one of the major goals for the contemporary health care.

Admittedly, it is important to fully understand what equity is. Thus, Chu and Goode (2009) provide a comprehensive definition. The researchers claim that equity is “system that provides high quality of care that does not vary because of personal characteristics such as gender, ethnicity, geographic location, and SES” (Chu & Goode, 2009, p. 9).

Admittedly, equity is closely connected with such issues as cultural diversity and cultural competence. For instance it is estimated that by 2050 more than a half of population of the USA will be people of color (Andrulis et al., 2010). Such a diverse society needs new standards.

Health care is one of those fields which already need these new standards. Increasing number of people of different cultural background has made health care professionals start paying more attention to cultural competency (Smith, 2005). Each group needs specific attention as these groups often need a bit different approaches in terms of communication patterns, psychological supports and even treatment itself.

The present report dwells upon a particular ethnic group of patients in the USA health care. The report addresses issues Asian Americans often face when addressing health care professionals. Health care professionals’ cultural competency and the professionals’ attitude towards cultural competency are also highlighted. Notably, here cultural competency will be narrowed down to some linguistic, cultural and medical skills. The report touches upon various standards and principles existing (or coming into existence) in this field.

The Elements and Principles of Cultural Competency

In the first place it is important to define the notion of cultural competency. Simmons et al. (2009, n.p.) state that cultural competency is health care professional’s “ability to work effectively with individuals and communities from different cultural and ethnic backgrounds”. The researchers point out that this notion also includes “awareness of one’s cultural influences, personal biases and prejudices” (Simmons et al., 2009, n.p.).

Sareen et al. (2005) report that issues concerning cultural diversity started being addressed only two decades ago. The researcher stresses that though there are some improvements in the field, the steps undertaken are not enough. Now health care professionals and educators understand the necessity to overcome linguistic gap and cultural gaps (Beach et al., 2005).

Thus, Betancourt et al. (2005) report that LCME (Liaison Committee on Medical Education) set specific standards which have led to considerable changes in curricula of many schools. Thus, many schools have integrated cultural competency in their curricula (Dogra, 2005). Betancourt et al. (2005) also mention that many hospitals launch training programs for their employees.

Betancourt et al. (2005) also state that the Agency for Healthcare and Quality in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health have funded numerous studies and educational programs in cultural competency. Therefore, cultural competency is being addressed to on institutional level.

Cultural competency is also manifested on individual level. Thus, health care professionals resort to the help of translators (Betancourt, 2006). Apart from this, various studies confirm that health care professionals understand the necessity to acquire cultural competence as they are eager to provide high quality service and meet patient’s demands and expectations.

Policies and Guidelines for Cultural Competency in Health Services

Importantly, the need to improve health care practices is acknowledged at different levels. Thus, various governmental and non-governmental organizations pay a lot of attention to the issue. For instance, The US Department of Health and Human Services worked out a plan “to reduce racial and ethnic health disparities” in 2011 (Ida et al., 2012).

The National Asian American Pacific Islander Mental Health Association has launched numerous programs and initiatives aimed at decreasing disparity in health care. Now various organizations aimed at needs of different ethnic groups exist. These organizations have specific standards which shape their activities. Notably, these standards and principles lie within the boundaries of specific domains (Olavarria et al., 2005).

For instance, Cultural Responsiveness Frame work was launched in 2009. This framework has a comprehensive approach to addressing the problem. The approach presupposes research, analysis, training and control over various processes taking place in terms of Victorian health services (“Cultural responsiveness framework,” 2009).

Another framework, Ethno-Racial Diversity Initiative, launched by Centretown Community Health Centre, was not that comprehensive. It focused on evaluation of existing practices and identification of possible gaps in the field (Olavarria et al., 2005). Of course, the first framework is exemplary as it does lead to improvements in the field. However, the second framework should not be considered useless as it helped to identify the need in particular standards.

Safe and Equitable Health Practice

Such comprehensive approaches have led to significant improvements. Of course, there remain a lot of issues to address. Researchers reveal various valuable data which can be used by health care professionals. For instance, it has been acknowledged that Asians (as well as other ethnic groups) can metabolize different medications differently which leads to “differences in drug and medication sensitivity and tolerance, side effects, and medication effectiveness” (Upsher, 2009, p. 3).

Boone et al. (2006) claim that Asians often experience lots of problems communicating with health care professionals. These patients often have difficulties when describing their symptoms and discussing history. Chu and Goode (2009) reveal several cases when there was misunderstanding between the health care professional and the patient. The researchers provide quite amusing stories concerning these cases of misunderstanding. Nonetheless, often the lack of understanding can lead to serious problems (Chu & Goode, 2009).

Another significant obstacle is the gap between cultures. Vaughn et al. (2009) point out that collectivism is a peculiar feature of Asians, which should be taken into account by health care professionals. Luckily, these cultural peculiarities are highlighted during various courses. However, one of the most difficult issues concerning ethnic groups is social. Of course, this is unacceptable.


Notably, now health care professionals, educators and officials are trying to achieve equity in health care. Certain steps can help the Australian society to progress. In the first place, it is important to continue reshaping educational system. Future health care professionals should be ready to face various issues.

Thus, curricula in medical schools should include various courses aimed at developing cultural competency. Notably, it can be helpful to provide more information on certain ethnic groups in accordance with demographic situation in the area. Thus, if a school is situated in the area where Aboriginal people dwell, it is but natural that there should be enough training courses devoted to specific ethnic groups’ cultural peculiarities.

Though, it is still important to remember that student should be aware of various important features of different ethnic groups as demographic situation is very changeable. Importantly, students should not only know some facts about people coming from different ethnic groups. Students should be able to accept these differences. Students should understand that there can be a lot of bias and students should be ready to overcome any prejudices. These measures will help future health care professionals get ready for their future work in a culturally diverse environment.

Apart from this, health care professionals should be “allocated” wisely. Medical school graduates should have the necessary information on job opportunities. It can be effective to create some resources which could help students to make the right decision (which hospital and community can benefit from hiring the student). This system of interchange between schools and hospitals can be beneficial for all involved. This will increase effectiveness of medical training as novice health care professionals will be able to use their skills and abilities to the fullest.


On balance, it is possible to state that now health care professionals, officials, researchers and educator have started paying a lot of attention to cultural competency and equity in health care. There are many governmental and non-governmental organizations which have specific principles and standards.

Admittedly, a lot has been improved. The most burning issues have been acknowledged, which is one of the major achievements in the field. Now health care professionals are aware of domains which should be addressed. It is necessary to note that education plays the crucial role in solving problems related to ethnic and cultural diversity.

Reference List

Andrulis, D.P., Siddiqui, N.J., Purtle, J.P., Duchon, L. (2010,). Patient protection and affordable care act of 2010: Advancing health equity for racially and ethnically diverse populations. Web.

Beach, M.C., Price, E.G., Gary, T.L., Robinson, K.A., Gozu, A., Placio, A., Smarth, C., Jenckes, M.W., Feuerstein, C., Bass, E.B., Power, N.R. & Cooper, L.A. (2005). Cultural competence: A systematic review of health care provider educational interventions. Medical Care, 43(4), 356-373.

Betancourt, J.R., Green, A.R., Carrillo, J.E. & Park, E.R. (2005). Cultural competency and health care disparities: Key perspectives and trends. American Journal of Health Studies, 24(2), 499-505.

Betancourt, J.R. (2006, October). Improving quality and achieving equity: The role of cultural competence in reducing racial and ethnic disparities in health care. Web.

Boone, L.R., Mayberry, R.M., Betancourt, J.R., Coggins, P.C., Yancey, E.M. (2006). Cultural competency in the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. American Journal of Health Studies, 21(3-4), 199-208.

Chu, Y.K.G. & Goode, T.. (2009). Cultural and linguistic competence. Optometric Care within the Public Health Community. Web.

Cultural responsiveness framework. (2009). Department of Health. Web.

Dogra, N. (2005). Cultural diversity teaching in the medical undergraduate curriculum. Diversity in Health and Social Care, 2, 233-245.

Douglas, M.K., Pierce, J.U., Rosenkoetter, M., Callister, L.C., Hattar-Pollara, M., Lauderdale, J., Miller, J., Nardi, D.A., Pacquiao, D. (2009). Standards of practice for culturally competent nursing care: A request for comments. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 20(3), 257-269.

Ida, D.J., SooHoo, J., Chapa, T. (2012). Integrated care for Asian American, Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islanders communities: A blueprint for action. Web.

Olavarria, M., Beaulac, J., Belanger, A., Young, M. & Aubry, T. (2005). Standards of organizational cultural competence for community health and social service organizations. Web.

Sareen, H., Vicensio, D., Russ, S. & Halfon, N. (2005). The role of state early childhood comprehensive systems in promoting cultural competence and effective cross-cultural communication. Web.

Simmons, R., Chernett, N., Yuen, E., Toth-Cohen, S. (2009). Cultural competency: A growing need to better serve our diverse populations. Health Policy Newsletter, 22(4). Web.

Smith, M.K. (2005). Competence and competency. Informal Education Homepage. Web.

Upsher, C. (2009). Cultural competency and its impact on addiction treatment and recovery. Resource Links, 7(2), 1-4.

Vaughn, L.M., Jacquez, F. & Baker, R.C. (2009). Cultural health attributions, beliefs, and practices: Effects on healthcare and medical education. The Open Medical Education Journal, 2, 64-74.

Resistance Training And A Diet-Induced Weight Loss

The objective of this article is to determine whether resistance training can conserve fat-free mass and resting energy expenditure under a diet-induced weight loss. In normal circumstances, fat-free mass is known to decrease under diet-induced weight loss of approximately 7kg or so. The decrease of fat-free mass is normally accompanied by a decrease in resting energy expenditure (Gary et at. 1045). This could be the reason why this research was conducted to determine the effect of exercise training as that of induced weight loss was known.

The article has traced the effects of resistance training on FFM and REE in its introduction section which shows that there was no particular research that had concise results. That possibly accelerated this research to be carried out. The introduction of this article is well written since it has explained why the researchers used African-American and European-American Women as their subjects. For instance, the introduction part has indicated that African-American women have a lower percentage of body fat and more lean tissue in their arms and legs than European-American women of similar age and BMI (1045). The introduction section helps the reader to understand why the research was conducted.

The methods and procedures used to conduct this research were comprehensive since they involved aerobic training, resistance training, and no exercise training (1046). The induced weight loss was randomized to ensure that the results obtained will help the researchers to draw their conclusions. Methods and procedures are well explained making it easier for the readers to understand how the research was conducted. All the details concerning the subjects which were used in this research are given. The authors of this article have described this section very well giving every detail of methods and procedures which were carried out in the experiment.

The results of the experiment are well analyzed using different types of analysis. Statistical analysis was used to display the quantitative data of the research and this will help the readers to comprehend the results without any assistance. Non-quantitative data results are described in a clear manner using layman language thus assisting readers to understand the essence of the experiment. The use of figures in the discussion section to illustrate the description of the results makes it easier to understand them. The article is well-referenced and the format employed is excellent as it allows free flow of ideas brought out in the research from the introduction section to discussion of the results.

The authors have employed simple language which makes it easier to understand the article though some terms are complex for someone who is not well conversant with the physiology field. The description of the experiment in simple language facilitates the understanding of the subject matter of the article. The arrangement of all the sections is well put from the abstract section to references. The abstract of this article explains everything and a reader does not necessarily require reading the whole article to understand why and how the experiment was carried out. The abstract section explains everything including the objective of the research, methods, and procedures used, results, and the discussion.

This article is well written and I would recommend it to anyone interested in the physiology field and in particular understanding whether resistance training can conserve fat-free mass and resting energy expenditure under a diet-induced weight loss. The article has explained very well how resistance training conserves FFM and REE irrespective of race.

Works Cited

Gary R. Hunter, Naula M. Byrne, Bovorn Sirikul, Jose R. Fernandez, Paul A. Zuckerman, Betty E. Darnell and Barbara A. Gower. “Resistance Training Conserves Fat-free Mass and Resting Energy Expenditure Following Weight Loss.” Obesity Journal (2008): 1045-1051. Print.

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