Photographing Objects As Queer Archival Practice Sample Essay

“Photographing Objects as Queer Archival Practice” is an article written by Ann Cvetkovich which compels an argument for the use of photography as a queer archival practice. She suggests that photography can be used in the creation of alternative archives that are in a position to resist dominant narratives and contribute to a broader understanding of queer history.

Ann Cvetkovich centres her argument around the concept of queer archives. She defines it as artefacts and documents that are collected together to preserve a history of queer life. Traditional archival practices are often exclusionary and do not represent communities which are marginalized, including queer communities, is an argument she points outs. According to her, the loss of important historical knowledge and cultural heritage has resulted from the exclusionary nature of traditional archival practices.

Cvetkovich suggests that using photography as a tool for the creation of archives will be a solution to addressing the problem. She argues that taking photographs is suitable in a unique way for this task since it can help in capturing the essence of queer identity and culture as well as being used in creation of new narrative that challenges dominant cultural norms.

Cvetkovich examines the work of several contemporary photographers who use photography as a tool for queer archival practice as one of the ways she supports her argument. In demonstrating ways in which photography can be used to document and preserve queer histories, she cites photographers works such as Catherine Opie, Zoe Leonard, and Cheryl Dunye.

Furthermore, Cvetkovich elaborates on how the things pictured in this library are of high importance. She argues that the objects of significance are in the archiving processes since they remind of the past and can help in telling stories of people who have been left out of history. Cvetkovich says alternative archives can be made by taking pictures of these things that show how queer communities live and question the dominant cultural stories.

The fact that she talks about the role played by appropriation in queer archival is also of importance in building parts of her case. She says that mainstream society produces a lot of pictures and objects used in queer archives.

In general, Ann Cvetkovich’s point of view in this article is convincing. The articles show how standard archival practices have failed to represent communities which are marginalized, like the queer communities. In her article, she also suggests the use of photography as a better tool than can be used to fix this problem. She further says that we can learn more about queer history and identify if we use photos in making alternative archives that can challenge dominant cultural stories.

Cvetkovich’s case for appropriation as a form of art has important repercussions. Appropriation has been a controversial way to make art in the past, but Cvetkovich says it can be used to challenge dominant cultural narratives and make new ones that reflect the experiences of marginalized groups. Artists can help people learn more about queer history and identity by taking items and images from mainstream culture and using them in queer archival work.

In the end, Ann Cvetkovich’s piece “Photographing Objects as Queer Archival Practice” makes a strong case for using photography as a tool for queer archival practice. Cvetkovich shows how photography can be used to challenge dominant cultural narratives and help us learn more about queer history and identity by looking at how modern photographers are using photography to make alternative archives. Her argument has important implications for appropriation as an artistic technique, suggesting that it can be used to make new stories that represent the experiences of marginalized communities.


Cvetkovich, A. (2014). 11 Photographing Objects as Queer Archival Practice. In Feeling photography (pp. 273-296). Duke University Press.

Essay On Positive Communication Sample College Essay

Fundamentally, positive communication entails human interactions that espouse positive emotions, empathy, and respect for human cultures. In other words, positive communication is not the absence of hostile verbal and nonverbal communication but the presence of enhancing, positive, and facilitative talk that aims to generate social and psychological wellness (Martin & Nakayama, 2021). It is an essential type of communication that helps cultivate trust and collaboration in a globalized world where people from various backgrounds meet and interact at places of work and public spaces. Proverbs 12: 18 says, “The words of the reckless pierce like swords, but the tongue of the wise brings healing.” It shows that negative communication can lead to undesirable outcomes that impact interpersonal relations and peaceful coexistence. Thus, communicating positively is a vital skill that every person should possess to initiate and sustain interpersonal relationships that help one to develop personally and professionally.

Essential traits characterize positive communication. First, it is characterized by empathetic listening, which entails listening openly and fully to a person, listening through words, avoiding interruption when speaking, and using positive words to reflect and respond. When engaging in a communication process, showing empathy makes the other person feel valued and appreciated, explaining why empathy is essential, especially when the two individuals come from different cultural and social backgrounds (Martin & Nakayama, 2021). The scriptures remind Christians about showing empathy in 1 Peter 3:8, “All of you, have unity of mind, sympathy, brotherly love, a tender heart, and a humble mind.” The scriptures stress the importance of compassion, sympathy, tenderness, and humility, which should be exhibited during communication. Showing compassion and empathy helps foster peaceful coexistence making communities and societies safer for all individuals, regardless of their social and cultural backgrounds.

Positive communication is characterized by positive nonverbal communication. This constitutes the presence of positive, enhancing, and facilitative gestures that indicate commitment, interest, and excitement. Though nonverbal communication varies from place to place, a communicator must show positive gestures, such as head nodding, maintaining eye contact, open body positioning, close distance, speech fluidity, and relaxed laughter. Studies show that positive nonverbal communication is vital in facilitating a goal-oriented communication process because it shows the parties are interested in keeping it going (Elsevier, 2019). It motivates the parties to continue engaging in a communication process. This aligns with the scriptures in Colossians 3:8, “But now you must rid yourselves of all such things as these: anger, rage, slander, and filthy language from your lips.” All these negative traits show negative verbal and nonverbal communication, which interfere with the smooth flow of communication.

Positive communication espouses active listening. The scriptures in Proverbs 18:2 state, “Fools find no pleasure in understanding but delight in airing their own opinions.” The scriptures stress the importance of listening openly and actively to others to hear and understand their point of view. As stated, active listening is a crucial component of a positive communication process where the parties actively listen to each other. In a social context, active listening helps solve conflicts as the conflicting parties can each tell their side, enabling them to find and solve the root cause of a problem (Bubb & Jones, 2020). More so, studies have demonstrated that active listening could help individuals understand and appreciate diversity, as they will learn important information about people from diverse cultural and social backgrounds (Bubb & Jones, 2020). It explains why individuals and groups require open discussions and talks about issues affecting minorities to make the broader society learn about them and their issues.

Further, positive communication espouses honesty and transparency. When communicating, a person should communicate not only positively but also honestly, which helps depict respect for humans and cultures. Even when a person is required to deliver bad news, they should deliver them in a friendly and respectful way. A communicator must avoid dishonesty in all situations and contexts. The scriptures in 2 Timothy 2:16 says, “Avoid godless chatter because those who indulge in it will become more and more ungodly.” The scriptures emphasize the need for positive human values, such as honesty, integrity, and transparency, during a communication process. Also, they warn that a person who engages in negative traits is likely to continue exhibiting the behavior, which significantly impacts the way they interact and communicate. Every person is responsible for depicting positive human values, which fosters harmonious living and peaceful coexistence.

In essence, positive communication is vital in all human contexts. All individuals should depict human values, show positive nonverbal communication, listen actively, and commit to a communication process. Humans want to feel valued and appreciated, which can be done during an interaction. A communicator and a listener should exhibit positive traits that make the other party or parties feel valued. This aligns with the scriptures, which have stressed the importance of showing positive traits and respect for human values and cultures. They warn about negative communication, which results in deteriorating human relationships.


Bubb, S., & Jones, M.-A. (2020). Learning from the COVID-19 home-schooling experience: Listening to pupils, parents/carers and teachers. Improving Schools, 23(3), 209–222.

Elsevier. (2019). Effective Communication for Health Professionals. New York, NY: Elsevier.

English Standard Version Bible. (2001).

Martin, J., & Nakayama, T. (2021). Intercultural Communication in Contexts (8th ed). New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

Reaction Paper: Islamic View Of Human Rights: A Comparative Study Sample Essay

The article titled Islamic View of Human Rights: A Comparative Study by Rafi provides a glimpse into Islamic views on human rights, including refuting the opposing views. The author’s overall argument is that Islam conforms to human rights enshrined in internal laws relating to the right to life, non-discrimination on race, gender, and religion, prohibition of murder, and the privacy of property. Looking at the presented arguments, it is evident that the author was selective in his use of texts and examples and, therefore, does not effectively paint the Islamic human rights view towards the right to life, non-discrimination, and prohibition of murder.

Addressing the issue of freedom and equality, the author argues that Islam is non-discriminatory on race, tribe, and gender. This sentiment is supported by Sofi (2016, 40), who states that the concept of human rights has existed in Islamic society from the earliest times. The author points out that Islam views all people as equal. However, this element is addressed in a general sense. For instance, the reference to brotherhood in the Islamic sense is not fully expounded. Brotherhood in Islam portrays a sense of belonging. It applies to those who identify with the religion of Islam and who obey the tenets of the religion. Experiences throughout the world demonstrate that whereas race and tribe may not matter, religion and gender do matter. Therefore, the author must pair his assertions with the realities confronting contemporary society. Bringing out a religious worldview is impossible by focusing on what the religious texts pronounce. The level of exclusion is seen from the use of the term Kafir, which refers to those who do not identify with the religion. Therefore, while accepting that there is no discrimination on race, there must be an acknowledgement that discrimination exists in religion. Under gender, it is explicitly presented in the Islamic religious texts on what women can and cannot do. The author pre-empts any indictments of discrimination by pointing out that men and women enjoy equal considerations under Islam but acknowledges that human beings sometimes fall short of divine will. Therefore, from a purely religious point of view, Islam observes non-racial and non-tribal practices.

Another human rights issue addressed is the right to life. Here, the author chooses what to report regarding the Islamic view. According to the author, the sanctity of life must be protected for everyone “as long as he refrains from involving in opposition or conspiracy against Islam” (55). There is no doubt that this is not what the author presents when he holds that Islam is purely for the right to life. By agreeing that there is a condition to the right to life (that one must not oppose Islam), the author opens the door for several questions to the argument. That the argument is from the personal emotions of the author is seen in the way he presents Islam’s opposition to suicide. On this point, he cites no religious texts to support his assertions, which weakens them. On the contrary, it is the reality that people have used faith to commit acts that equate to suicide, especially suicide bombings. Thus, this would have been a good opportunity to address the issue of suicide bombing.

On torture, the reading presents a well-balanced and enriching discussion. From the Prophet’s declaration that torturing others is an investment that will be repaid to Islamic readings on mercy and the commandments that condemn torture, the author makes a compelling argument, mainly using texts and the Prophet’s words to anchor the point. The reading is informative as it elaborates that torture includes imprisoning someone or an animal or denying them food. These examples are central to helping the reader to connect with the issues. However, the only challenge is that most of the examples used directly relate to treating animals and not humans. The right to privacy, especially as it relates to entry into private property, is also addressed in the reading. The author quotes a reading that directs one to seek approval for entry into private property. This point is firmed up by discussions on how permissions should be sought. The reading presents the Prophet’s words on personal letters’ privacy. Overall, there is a balanced and informative discussion on this issue, mainly because of the variety of the sources cited and the authorities used. Thus, Islam propagates high regard and respect for privacy and private property, especially for non-family members.

In conclusion, this discussion identifies that the reading is relatively balanced and informative on the issue of murder and protection against slavery while presenting a relatively weak and unsupported argument on human rights relating to gender, suicide, and the right to life. It is imperative to note that the selective use of religious texts and citations from the Prophet makes the reading more of a one-sided discussion that barely passes the informative test. To this end, the article can be judged as argumentatively fair on the human rights issue but strong in intent to explain Islam to those who do not subscribe to the religion. The reading can be made more balanced by using a more expanded discussion approach, where texts, quotes, and discussions are used together.


Rafi, M., Islamic View of Human Rights: A Comparative Study.3rd International Seminar on Islamic Thought. pp. 53-62.

Sofi, S., 2016. A comparative study of human rights in Islam and universal declaration of human rights.  Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization, 6(1), pp. 37-46.