Physical Anthropology In “Family Man” By Will Hively Essay Example

The article by Will Hively entitled “Family man” discusses family-oriented behavior of birds (the species is called bee-eaters) and applies these patterns to human society. One of the aspects of bee-eaters’ behavior which surprised the scientist Emlen was their great motivation for helping the other members of their community, e.g. with setting new nests and raising and feeding smaller individuals (Hively, p.29). The scientific observations of the researchers suggested that all the bird involved into the network of mutual help and support were relatives, parents and children, uncles, aunts, cousins and nephews, brothers and sisters and so forth. Therefore, the initial idea of altruism that challenged the popular theory of the selfish gene was rebutted, as helping others on the basis of kinship means ensuring the survival of one’s own genes at 50-percent, 25-percent or other level, depending on the closeness of the kinship. Interestingly, bee-eaters are monogamous tend to create stable families for the whole life. As the study suggests, when certain individuals form their offspring tried to establish their own nests with a mate, the whole family, from parents to cousins, interfere with the life of the young couple and in order to increase the probability of the failure of this nest so that the “youngsters” return to their parents or other relatives and continue helping them. Moreover, the relationships between different families are quite strained, and pairing with the individuals from other families is not welcomed. All these natural mechanisms show that the major goal of an activity of a living being in this world is preservation of the individual’s genes, which is more effective in families. This principle applies to human beings, as before the 20th century, extended families were common due to the uneven distribution of resources among individuals. Nowadays, a human being is much more independent, but it is hard to break natural laws: for instance, in the families of both birds and humans where a “remarriage” takes place, there is less evidence of helping among half-brothers and half-sisters.

The most interesting point of the article is the simple and well-supported explanation of the functioning of the “selfish gene” and the related drives. In fact, before reading this paper, I had believed the main cause of the formation of families was the scarcity of resources and difficulties with getting them (e.g., hunting, fishing), whereas the presence of hunters, gatherers and housekeepers increased life expectancy of the individual. This article also demonstrates that the existence of similar genes in family members can be viewed as an additional natural pillar of the family union , as long as it guarantees the appropriate protection of this genetic potential. I was also surprised to learn that the social behavior of birds is extremely complicated and they actually follow the principles like monogamy, value of an extended family and the importance of pairing with peers from the same territory, which are commonly attributed to the traditional society. Therefore, the evolution of physical protection mechanisms in humans took much longer time than it seemed to me first.

In the context of physical anthropology, the article provides a research-based explanation of family as a union of individuals and extended family in particular. The paper is also instrumental in understanding the social change associated with industrialization, which actually facilitated the process of earning one’s living and thus removed a need for a large family. Later, this change in the resources allocation determined the spread of single-parent families, remarriages and stepfamilies. Due to the “calling” of the selfish gene, children from the dissolved marriage leave their newly remarried mother or father quite early, as it is more effective from the perspective of gene survival to create their own families instead of helping with rearing half-brothers and half-sisters. At the same time, the rates of violence perpetuated by stepparents against their stepchildren is much higher as compared to the same indicator in the relationships between biological parents and children, which means that the stepparent is also more interested in the spread and strengthening of his/her own genes that the protection of genes which belong to other individuals. If a stepparent has a sexually mature stepchild of the opposite gender, the former is likely to encounter a tension or competition between his/her spouse and the child, due to the fact that the stepchild does not recognize the stepparent as a parent, but rather as a new sexual object.

The strongest point of the article is the scientific explanation and evaluation of the data derived from the observations. Moreover, the author uses reasonable and relevant generalizations in order to show the relationship between animal behavior and more universal natural laws like gene survival. The article is available even to a non-expert , due to the fact that it addresses even such simple biological constructs as the nature of gene and the methods of identifying relatives used by animals. The report also build a logical bridge from animal behavior to the human by comparing the patterns of the two species listing all the similarities between the traditional human family and those of the birds. However, two findings presented in the paper seem to certain extent ambiguous. Firstly, the author describes “Romeo and Juliet”, found among bee-eaters, i.e. young couple of birds who originated from different families. Although the case is interesting and intriguing, the author fails to fully clarify the biological drives which regulate hostility towards the members of other families, and the reader may only suppose that individuals with a different set of genes are not so easily accepted to the other family. In addition, the article does not include a comprehensive explanation of the sexual ideation which appears in stepchildren in relation to their stepparents of the opposite sex.

Works cited

Hively, W. “Family Man”. Discover magazine, October 1997, pp.80-84, 89-90.

The Planet Saturn And Its Rings

Saturn is one of the fascinating planets in our solar system. It is the sixth planet from the Sun situated between Jupiter and Uranus. The positioning of this captivating planet is at about 840 million miles from the Sun, compared to our planet that is about nine times less this distance. Saturn is the most prominent due to its astonishing array of rings around it. Locating it up in the sky is very easy since it is one of the brilliant lights in the sky. Its pale green color enables it to stand out from the rest of the objects in the solar system. It is the second largest planet after Jupiter. It has the highest number of moons in the solar system: eighteen. Man has attempted to investigate the mystery of this planet by carrying out three voyages, currently one is in progress (Hamilton). In September 1979, The Pioneer II journeyed to Saturn, about a year later The Voyager mission occurred, and in October 1997, the Cassini Probe started its journey. Numerous features of this planet make it one of the most astounding in our solar system.

Saturn’s diameter measures about 72 thousand miles, which is about ten times greater than the size of our planet. Despite of its huge size, it weighs much less. It is a planet filled with gas. It can float on water! Hydrogen and helium gases are the main components of the planet and it is less dense. Its lightweight coupled with its fast rotation makes it to stretch, or oblate against its center. The planet lacks a solid surface due to its gas-filled atmosphere. Spaceships are incapable of landing on this kind of surface. The clouds that is visible when observing this planet forms the top component of a very deep layer of liquid hydrogen. Steady winds propel the clouds and attain velocities of approximately one thousand miles per hour.

The systems of rings of Saturn are categorized into five main constituents: “the G, F, A, B, and C rings” (Henbest and Marten 34). In reality, the divisions of these main components are into thousands of independent ringlets. The visibility of F and G rings is impaired since they are not wide enough, while the presence of extensive thickness enables the rest to be clearly visible. Speculation has it that the rings are as old as Saturn itself is. This has led to the development of two major theories to explain the formation of these rings. Edouard Roche proposed in the 19th century that the rings were originally a moon of the planet whose orbit underwent deterioration up to the point that it approached a convenient distance that the tidal forces were able to shred it. A slight deviation from this school of thought suggests that the moon fell to pieces after having a collision from a huge comet or asteroid. The subsequent theory proposes that the rings never at any time formed part of the moon, but instead were components of bits and pieces that remained during the process of formation of the planet.

Saturn reflects the rays of the sun, and hence increases its brightness; but aided vision increases the visibility of the planet’s rings from the Earth. The astronomer, Galileo Galilei became the first person to observe Saturn’s array of rings in the year 1610. He did not identify them as rings because he only observed their edges. He falsely deduced that the system of rings were two moons the same as those he had observed around the planet Jupiter. About four and half decades later, Christian Huygens, a Dutch astronomer, discovered that what Galileo originally described as moons were in fact rings. Huygens had the advantage of using a much-advanced telescope than was used by his predecessor. Even though Saturn’s spectacular rings are very wide, spreading from the top of its surface to well past the orbits of the nearest moons, they are thin in diameter, equivalent to approximately one mile in width. The voyage by Pioneer 11 flyby discovered several attributes about the rings. They are composed of dust-sized particles up to huge mountain-sized particles. Their standard size is about four inches. These particles are tremendously cold and frozen water and different types of ices probably make them up. Observations also indicated a widespread cloud of liquid hydrogen that surrounds the rings.

The mission by Voyager I shade more light on the beauty, intricacy, and the occasional baffling character of the rings. Saturn’s rings are composed of thousands of little, thin ringlets with superseding spaces, hence the system of rings are noticeable to resemble the furrows in a phonographic record. Even the once perceived vacant space between ring A and B, the Cassini Division measuring 4,800 km in breadth, has many dozens of ringlets. Saturn’s dense major rings spread out from 7,000 km to 80,000 km beyond its equator. The major rings have components that range in diameter from less than one centimeter to a few meters. The rings have a mass of about 3 × 1019 kg. This mass is small compared to the massive weight of Saturn. The mission by Cassini space probe discovered that Saturn’s rings have their own independent atmosphere from that of the planet. Molecular oxygen gas (O2) forms the atmosphere. The gas is produced from reaction of ice water in the rings with the ultraviolet rays from the Sun. Hydrogen gas (H2) is also present. The planet exhibits intricate models of its brightness. Most of the changeability is derived from the varying nature of the rings, and this takes place after two phases of each orbit. Nevertheless, added to this is changeability because of the peculiarity of Saturn’s orbit that makes it to show dazzling lights in its northern hemisphere more than it displays in the southern hemisphere.

Among the known rings of Saturn, the B ring is the most outstanding in terms of largeness, brightness, and mass. It is approximately 5 to 15 meters thick, 2.8 × 1019 kg in mass. Obstruction of most of the light that passes across some parts of this ring is due to it having an optical depth that fluctuates from 0.4 to 2.5. The B ring has a massive deal of disparity concerning its density and brilliance, almost all of these still remains unexplained. Even though the B ring lacks spaces, the rings come into view as concentric ringlets. The arrangement of Saturn’s system of rings was until 1979 described as being completely the result of the action of gravitational forces. Then Voyager spaceship discovered radial elements in the B ring, called spokes. The description of the spokes cannot be in the similar manner since their persistence and movement in the region of the rings was not in line with the principles of orbital mechanics. The spokes become visible as dark in a backscattered illumination of light, and appear bright in forward-scattered illumination. The phase at which the change occurs is 45o.

Scientific investigation has not clearly come to terms with the spokes composition. The most acceptable theory proposes that they are made up of minute particles of dust, which through electrostatic forces of repulsion, makes them to float away from the main ring as they make turnings approximately synchronously with the magnetic atmosphere of this adorned planet. Scientific investigation has suggested that the electrical disturbances that generate the spokes are due to meteoroid collisions or lightning bolts in the planet’s surface. The spokes first appeared in Saturn’s B ring in 1979 rotating as a solid wheel. The mission by the Cassini spaceship noticed the spokes again after about two and half decades of waiting. When the spacecraft arrived at Saturn in early 2004, the spokes were not noticeable yet. Some astronomers suggested that the phenomenon of the spokes come into sight again in 2007. They based their speculative arguments on models trying to explain their development.

Regardless of this, the Cassini astronomers continued anticipating for the spokes in images of the B ring. Their relentless efforts bore fruit on 5 September 2005, when they saw images of the spokes. The phenomenon of the spokes appears to occur periodically (Beatty et al. 240). They vanish in the Saturnian midwinter/midsummer season and become visible as the planet approaches equinox. During the Cassini space probe mission, confirmations were made of the widely accepted suggestions that Saturn’s spokes are a periodic event that fluctuate with the planet’s 29.7-year orbit.

Works cited

Beatty et al. The new solar system. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. Print.

Hamilton, Calvin. “Saturn.” Views of the Solar System. 2009. Web.

Henbest, Nigel and Marten, Michael. The new astronomy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. Print.

Gender Mainstreaming For Effective Development Of Our Company


Gender mainstreaming entails assessing the effects to both men and women of any planed undertaking be it legislative, a program or policies covering all levels and areas of development. It is aimed at ensuring that both men and women are involved in designing, implementing, evaluating and monitoring all policies and programs related to political, social or economic fields thus ensuring that they all benefit equally. It involves bringing the contributions, ideas and rights of both genders to the center of focus in order to come up with the design, realization, strategies and results of policies and programs. It is a vital consideration not only in achieving gender equality but also in promoting development on the side of economy. Most of the microeconomic policies fail to meet their goals due to undermining factors pertaining gender. Efforts aimed at introducing gender consideration in most of current institutions have little effect on their own. This underlines the need of mainstreaming gender perspectives in order to achieve gender equality and improve the significance and efficiency of development agendas as a whole for the good of both women and men (International Labour Organization, 2009, par.1-4).

Brief history on gender mainstreaming

The idea of mainstreaming emerged in early 1980s when international women’s movement felt that most of the programs that involved women were neglected thus yielding poor results. The little resources that were being set aside for projects spearheaded by women, resulted in small, inferior ventures leading to women being ignored when it came to development issues. After women discovered this, they started looking for alternative measures to ensure that their views were not sidelined any more but they were also integrated in decision-making. At this time, the term mainstreaming had varied meaning among different people. Some perceived it to mean integrating women in coming up with development plans and their realization while others took it to mean ensuring that institutions allocated resources for women programmes. This resulted in surfacing of debates about the significance of the activities that targeted women and the need of involving them in other programs (United Nations Fund for Women, 2005, par. 1-5).

As the recession widens and become severe in the world economy, all genders will suffer the labour force penalties and gender biasness is likely to be accelerated by this catastrophe. In this period, women are most likely going to be affected negatively than men. Most of the Europeans are focusing on ensuring that they have secured their jobs without regard to issues such as impartiality in pay among the gender, elastic working hours to harmonize work and family life and protection of parenthood rights. With most of the industries closing down, women are the most adversely affected. This calls for gender mainstreaming to enhance social sustainability and development. There is need to ensure that both men and women meet their aspirations in participating in working force in order to safeguard the economy of any country.

To ensure that there is gender mainstreaming, the government and other non-governmental organizations use several measures such as safeguarding employment and providing education and training to workers in the supply chains where most of women are employed under insecure terms without any security hence vulnerable to being fired. They also stop reduction in public spending which threatens most of public institutions which have the majority of the employees as women and encourage stakeholders to reinforce and expand social protection through ensuring equitable pensions, unemployment benefits and quality health care to all regardless of gender (ETUC, 2009, par. 1-7).

With this in mind, let we bring to your attention the need for gender mainstreaming in our company. All the participants in this company are requested to give greater attention to gender perspectives when it comes to work programmes and to support the effort of the company executives in seeing that these objectives have been attained. Experience from other companies have proved that allowing sharing of ideas, experiences and emphasizing on gender mainstreaming is a viable means of ensuring commitment, awareness and developing capacity among the employees. There is need for the company to organize for a series of workshops on gender mainstreaming to educate our employees on its importance and how to implement it. Based on the findings from the workshops held on the Asian and Pacific region which brought together eighty representatives fro the government, civil societies and organizations and United Nation bodies for constructive dialogue on gender mainstreaming, workshops proves to be productive in ensuring the success of the company’s endeavor. The workshop consisted of six important sessions that covered the forty-sixth session of the commission on the position of women in eradicating poverty through empowering them. The great focus on the advancement of women and gender equality throughout the United Nation over the past decades brings about an increased recognition that there are significant gender perspectives with relation to development. Among them includes, human rights, good governance, suppressing poverty, ensuring sustainable development and promoting peace and security. The company needs to deliberate on the prospective results of planed projects on women and men before making decisions pertaining resource allocation, targets and the steps to be followed.

As we are aware, bringing gender perspectives to the center of deliberation will not only lead to gender equality but will also facilitate in achieving other development goals of our company. It has been noted that women makes major contribution in management issues in areas such as agriculture and water resources supervision in most of the countries. Therefore, neglecting women in decision making and implementation within our company will lead to retarded growth of key sectors within our company in which we will be doing harm to our company and to ourselves. We have to put into consideration the needs of all genders within our company if we wish to accomplish our development goals. In sectors such as macroeconomics and trade, where gender views were initially considered immaterial, people have started realizing the importance of assessing the contributions of women and men in making these sectors productive. There is a concrete increase in evidence that gender disparities and inequalities directly and indirectly play a major role in achievement of overall organizational development goals (Tiessen, 2005, pp.1-8).

However, we should be careful not to use gender mainstreaming as the only tool for achieving development goals within our company while assuming gender equality. Gender mainstreaming should be perceived as a means of promoting gender equality that, subsequently, will promote in the achievement of our company’s development goals. Gender mainstreaming does not concern including women in growth agendas that have already been drafted by others. It demands for alteration of the objectives and plans of operations to ensure that both men and women partake, control and gain from development programs. It also calls for changes in the company configurations and customs to nurture a gender equitable environment. Gender mainstreaming does not pertain increasing the number of women in our company, but ensuring that both women and men are accorded equal opportunities in making decisions concerning the running of our company.

There has been a misconception within our employees on gender mainstreaming. This prompts us to make some clarifications here and now. Gender mainstreaming is not about gender balance within our company, though this is an important feature in promoting gender equality. It focuses on the activities of our company that is the goals, strategies, resource distribution, organization and execution processes. In addition, specific activities assigned to women within our company do not imply that there is gender mainstreaming but a basic accompaniment of it. Gender mainstreaming will therefore be employed in programmes where the main objectives will be allied to development goals and enhancing gender equality (Hannah, 2003, pp.12-14).

Result of gender mainstreaming

Gender mainstreaming will lead to all our staff members developing the attitude of participating in policy making of our company. This is because it will require the policy makers to make decisions by evaluating every single policy according to its impact on individual staffs in the company and the overall company. This will create new methods to replace the traditional ways of making decision where we used theoretical economic and ideological indices. The policy makers will also learn on how to pay attention to the wide impacts of policies on the employee’s life within the company. We will also be able to introduce other very important features to the employees’ lives here in the company, features that have been ignored by the management in the past.

The mode of management in our company will also be enhanced through better informed policy making process. This is because it will confront the general belief that policies have no connection to the gender, unraveling the concealed assumptions on veracity and ideals. As gender mainstreaming involves both men and women, it makes full use of human resources. Since currently most of the women are the ones fighting for gender equality in our company, implementing gender mainstreaming will see an increase in the number of people fighting for this both men and women. This will lead to our employees understanding that for the sake of progress within our company, there is need for them to seek the experience of both men and women. Gender mainstreaming will also lead to appreciation of the diversity between women and men within our company thus improving its growth. To achieve this, policy makers should come up with policies taking in to consideration the varied diversities between men and women. To highlight, other benefits accompanied with gender mainstreaming that our company is likely to experience includes:

  • The company will be able to foster equal opportunities in matters to do with resources distribution and ensuring that the interests, views and ambitions of all employees are taken into account.
  • We will be able to support policies that spearhead the establishment of equal opportunities at all levels within our company.
  • We will be able to instill awareness, skills and approach on liberation and gender equality as well as developing skills on gender mainstreaming and gender equality among our staffs (Ministry of Foreign Affairs, foreign Information and Communication, the Netherlands, 2002, pp. 2-5).

Implementing gender mainstreaming

Although gender mainstreaming has been established as a world strategy for ensuring gender equality, we have a lot to do in our company before gender perspectives are regularly considered in all areas of development. Its implementation proves difficult than we originally thought. This is because it will require us to make great changes in the way we have been running our company. There is need for the company to ensure that all its issues and problems with respect to operations are defined in a manner that will help in identifying gender differences and disparities. We should never make assumptions that issues and or problems are free from gender views. We should make analysis on gender issues and our recommendations on operations and policies made based on the analysis keeping in account gender disparities. Once all gender perspectives have been identified in varied areas of development, we should come up with a strategy to address these problems. We should ensure that we successfully include gender perspectives into our work-tasks in a way that helps in attaining the ultimate goals, resource distribution and overall outcomes.

To support gender mainstreaming, there is also need for company to advance in terms of identifying roles and responsibilities, developing guidelines, consulting gender experts and improving the competence of all personnel. To achieve this, we intend to distribute various responsibilities to different arms of administration within our company. The duty of ensuring that mainstreaming is achieved will be bestowed to the directors with the management team bearing the responsibility of coming up with methods to monitor the advancement of mainstreaming. This will be through devising the indicators to be used over time in determining the progress being made by our company. The policies should explicitly elaborate the goals of our company, procedures to be used to conceptualize these goals and the expected outcomes. There should also be a common agreement among the staffs on what our company will be aiming to achieve with respect to gender equality matters. The staffs need to have a clear understanding on what is expected from their respective areas of operations (Hannah, 2003, pp. 15-7).

This asks for a political will among the management in promoting gender mainstreaming. The company should define gender equality as one of its major aims. Gender mainstreaming has been made a political issue through the help of non-governmental organizations. The management is required to issue a clear statement of its undertaking in ensuring that all policies are developed based on gender equality. It should also come up with clear criteria to be used in achieving gender mainstreaming to help the policy makers come up with effective policies. The management ought to be willing to question present gender affairs and the framework, regulations and processes encouraging inequality and to respond to them accordingly. The policy makers need to have a comprehensive knowledge of gender issues before they embark on making policies. This will require them to conduct thorough research on gender matters by analyzing the current gender disparities in all fields within our company as well as predicting on how future undertakings will affect women and men.

Financial support is an unconditional requirement in implementing gender mainstreaming as it is to other policies. Mainstreaming means reallotment of existing funds. Even if the company exhibit the political will and have all-inclusive gender equality policies and competent knowledge on gender at its disposal, this will not facilitate in it adapting the presented policies or provide the necessary gender education to policy makers, as all these require money.

We would also urge our women to be participating in political and public life as well as in decision making processes within our society. It is true that it will be hard to get political will for gender mainstreaming if women will not participate in its decision making. By women getting involved in public life and decision-making process, they will gain ideas regarding gender equality and this will help in ensuring that when we come to decision making in our company, the different interests, principles and life understanding of women are not left out. There is concrete evidence from experience that most of the companies where women participate in great numbers in decision making processes, changes are more effective and are effected at a faster rate (Gender mainstreaming, 2006, pp. 15-17).

Having said these, it is vital to present to you some of imperative conditions that the company has to meet for the success of this assignment:

  • The company has to come up with clear definition of all policies regarding equal opportunities and development especially those that concerns women.
  • The directors and departmental heads should sacrifice their time to address issues to do with equality and equal privileges within the company, as the ultimate goal is to promote justice and integrity within our company.
  • The project will not be a success if all the stakeholders of our company are not willing to actively participate. Every one in the company must know the role he or she is entitled to play in his or her respective area.
  • The company needs to consult gender experts in some areas as currently it does not have such experts in order to ensure that all gender based problems are fully addressed in our policies.
  • The project will not yield if the company is not willing to fully support it financially. It is therefore the duty of finance manager to ensure that the company avails enough money to facilitate this mission.
  • The company also intend to come up with a committee that will be assessing the progress of this venture stage by stage and alerting us where we appear to go out of the guidelines (Ministry of Foreign Affairs, foreign Information and Communication, the Netherlands, 2002, pp. 1-2).

Challenges we are likely to meet

As the company embarks on implementing this crucial endeavor, there are different challenges that it should be ready to face. There is great misunderstanding among the staffs on the concept of gender mainstreaming and this might lead to conflicts between them. Some of the staffs might take it as a new undertaking aimed at replacing specific gender equality policies and hence use it as reason for not going on with the implementation of other policies aimed at ensuring gender equality within the company. This requires the company to clearly distinguish the difference between gender mainstreaming and gender equality to the staffs to avoid cases of conflicts happening as well as ensuring that they are not exploited by the management staffs. Another problem the company is likely to meet concerns its current approach to policy-making. There is a significant difference between mainstreaming and various equality policies with respect to those who implement the policies. As gender mainstreaming involves integrating new approaches such as gender equality approach to what was perceived to be thematic approach, it calls for a strong cooperation between policy making departments. It will involve restructuring various policy-making guidelines as well as cooperating with other external organizations such as non-governmental organizations in coming up with policies that address are areas of concern. It will also require us to make changes in our approaches on matters pertaining to our company’s culture and to look for new sources of consultation and cooperation (Wells and McEwan, 2009, pp. 2-7)

There might be a danger of the company talking about gender mainstreaming without taking the initiative to implement it. The executive team might decide that equality will be incorporated in all policies without taking steps to ensure that it has been done as per their proposal. This requires the will and stiff commitment from all our policy makers to redress not only the present disparity in gender but also to deal with the causes of these disparities. This asks for the determination to avail the required financial and human resources. Without enough resources both financial and manpower, we will not be able to achieve our goals (Gender mainstreaming, 2006, pp. 13-4).


With all the above challenges, the company needs to look for means to triumph them. As gender mainstreaming seem to focus more on empowering women, men folk might feel to be threatened and hence be reluctant in implementing proposed policies. The company needs to educate all the employees on the importance of gender mainstreaming. They have to realize that we are aiming at improving our company and the status of the employees but not discriminating people along gender lines. Money also needs to be set aside in advance to ensure that we do not delay our scheme due to financial constraints. If we keep to these recommendations, our venture will be successful and we will be able to work in harmony throughout the company.


European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC). (2009). ETUC calls for gender mainstreaming in handling the economic crisis. Web.

Gender Mainstreaming. (2006). Conceptual framework, methodology and presentation of good practices. 2009. Web.

Hannan, C. (2003). Putting gender mainstreaming into practice. 2009. Web.

International Labour Organization. (2009). Definition of Gender Mainstreaming. Web.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, foreign Information and Communication, the Netherlands. (2002). Institutional and Organizational Change: Gender Mainstreaming. 2009. Web.

Tiessen, R. (2005). Mainstreaming Gender in HIV/AIDS Programs: Ongoing Challenges and New Opportunities in Malawi. Journal of International Women’s Studies, 7(1),1-8.

Wells, J. and McEwan, T. (2009). Gender mainstreaming: Moving from principles to implementation — The difficulties. Web.

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