Police Officers Imprisoned For Excessive Force Writing Sample

Public attention on the application of excessive force by police officers in the United States has surged in recent years. This follows numerous high-profile cases involving assaults and killings of unarmed civilians by police officers. According to Dallas (2022), law enforcement’s use of excessive force consists of applying force beyond the level of force considered justifiable by the law. This phenomenon can take various shapes and manifestations. It involves torture, beatings, and even, at times, killings. Through contextual evidence, the essay will discuss multiple incidences where police have exercised excessive force against individuals, resulting in imprisonment.

Among the recent cases where a police officer was imprisoned involves murder. According to the source, Amber Guyger, an ex-Dallas police officer, murdered Botham Jeans, who she mistook for an intruder in her home. Upon her trial in 2019, Guger testified that she had found Botham in what she thought was her apartment, and due to fear of being hearted by the perceived intruder, she shot twice.

The second case involves Everett Maynard, a police officer who was found guilty and sentenced to ten years. According to The United (2021), Maynard arrested a civilian using excessive force. During the arrest, the police officer attacked the arrestee in his bathroom and dragged him to the adjoining room. These events took place at the Logan police department. Also, the police hauled the arrestee and rammed his head which led to unconsciousness, breaking his shoulder, nose, and a cut on his head. Maynard’s act was against the constitutional human rights law prohibiting unlawful abuse of citizens by police officers. The police had also abandoned their authority and deceived the public’s trust by violating and arresting civil rights. By doing so, the police officer violated the community’s trust and the oath he took during his appointment. This led to him facing a 10-year imprisonment penalty.

Another case consists of Ryan Mclnerney, a former Michigan Police Officer imprisoned for three years. Ryan had applied unreasonable excess force to arrest a civilian. According to the jury, he violated civil rights by breaking the arrestee’s face. In addition, the police officer had pistol-whipped two arrestees on two different occasions, an act against the law. The Attorney General states, “The defendant abused the trust given to him as a law enforcement officer when he pistol-whipped two arrestees on two separate occasions.” (The United States, 2021). The police accused admitted that on June 22, 2014, he approached D.M’s car and ordered him to put his hands up. The assaulted complied, and without justifications, the accused pistol-whipped him severally in the face through the window, causing injuries and a broken face. According to the law, there was no justification for pistol-whipping hence the arrest of the accused for excessive use of force even when no wrong D.M. committed.

To sum up, the cases involving Amber Guyger, Everett Maynard, and Ryan Mclnerney involve the application of lethal force against unarmed civilians, resulting in their imprisonment. Based on this evidence, it seems that this is a recurring phenomenon in the U.S. In my opinion, the Federal government should be more cautious with such cases. More severe penalties should be introduced to the laws regulating the use of excessive force by law enforcement. This will aid in minimizing or preventing such cases.

References

Dallas police officer who shot her unarmed, black neighbor found guilty. PBS NewsHour. (2022). Retrieved October 11 2022, from https://www.pbs.org/newshour/nation/dallas-police-officer-who-shot-her-unarmed-black-neighbor-found-guilty.

Former Michigan police officer sentenced to three years for using unreasonable excessive force during an arrest. The United States Department of Justice. (2021, September 9). Retrieved October 12, 2022, from https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/former-michigan-police-officer-sentenced-three-years-using-unreasonable-excessive-force

Former West Virginia police officer sentenced for using excessive force. The United States Department of Justice. (2022, March 17). Retrieved October 12, 2022, from https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/former-west-virginia-police-officer-sentenced-using-excessive-force

Policies To Adress The Greenhouse Gas Emissions Externality Sample Paper

Greenhouse gases are gases in the atmosphere which trap and emit radiation into the atmosphere. They mainly include carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane. Greenhouse gas emissions have increasingly become a major concern as they have increased atmospheric pollution, which has caused some severe climate change on Earth. Increased emission of these greenhouse gases to the atmosphere increases trapping and emission of heat energy causing global warming. Additionally, some of these gases, like nitrogen dioxide, resulting from the oxidation of nitrous oxide, can cause respiratory diseases. Others like fluorinated and chlorinated gases have caused the depletion of the ozone layer. Therefore, greenhouse gas emissions are a negative externality that needs to be addressed. This essay explains the common measures like carbon tax and goals that address the issue and concludes why common measures, precisely the combination of taxations and subsidies, are the better solution.

Common measures to address the externality

The adoption of common measures by all countries worldwide is one of the two policies debated for application against this externality of pollution. “The common measures include taxation, subsidy alternatives, permits, and regulations” (Erickson 2017, 12599). How these measures reduce greenhouse gas emissions and pollution will be discussed in this section.

Taxation measures like carbon and petrol taxes

Taxation is an idea that involves imposing payment costs for pollution. Examples include carbon and petrol taxes. Such taxations are very influential in reducing pollution as they focus on increasing the costs incurred by producers, prompting them to reduce their production level. “For instance, a carbon tax involves imposing levies on the carbon contents released by emitters which raises the price of carbon emitted per unit of fossil fuel. This causes internalization of the externality because the prices reflect the actual cost of releasing carbon dioxide” (Erickson 2017, 12601). A graphical illustration of a carbon tax is attached at the end of this essay.

The distributional effects are determined by changes in the magnitude of carbon tax budget shares across revenue groups. The tax will be regressive if the budget portion reduces as we move up the income distribution, and will be progressive if the budget shares increase with income.

Pollution Permits

The requirement of having a pollution permit is another common measure that focuses on the market to set prices for permits that allow only the release of a specific quantity of greenhouse gases by industries. “An example is the emissions trading scheme, where enterprises buy and sell pollution rights” (Blackman and Harrington 2017). In theory, this is an effective reduction method as it involves the establishment of a maximum cap to regulate the number of pollutants a particular emitter can release. Achieving this cap means that the emitter cannot emit any more contaminants but has the right to buy an extra permit from another permitted firm or industry that has not achieved its pollution cap. Having to buy additional licenses increases production costs for industries and companies. It forces them to reduce the cost whereby the only quick way is by reducing pollution costs. Practically, it is challenging to implement this measure because pollution is difficult to be measured, and the economy can severely be affected if the government is not too generous with the permits.

Government subsidies

Government subsidies on alternative energy sources like renewable energy sources, for example, solar energy, to improve their affordability and competitiveness against fossil fuels. Governments can use this more practical and efficient measure as producers are more willing to participate in this policy than permits. This measure aims to reward reduced pollution rather than charging, as in the case of taxes and permits. “Examples of subsidies include low-interest loans for renewable sources of energy that act as alternatives to fossil fuels with high carbon contents” (Tampubolon and Setyoko 2019, 4). At the same time, high fossil fuel subsidies in some countries can be reduced to eliminate the increased use of fossil fuels by decreasing the supply and the demand owed to affordability.

Common goals for addressing greenhouse gas emissions

The major goal to address the externality is to reduce emissions per year according to the set targets. This follows the Paris Agreement that required countries to cut their carbon dioxide emissions from 2016 to 2019. “To reduce the effects of greenhouse gases, the emissions should be reduced to roughly 1.6 billion metric tons annually on a global scale. This is much greater than the achieved goal of 160 million tons annually” (Lindsey and Santos 2020, 100691). About 64 countries have been involved in the agreement, all working to achieve the reduction goal. However, practically this is quite difficult considering the economic implications on most countries should they enact reduction measures like taxations and pollution permits.

Proposal of the best policy

Various considerations will be made to determine the best policy for addressing the externality, such as the policies’ economic impact, effectiveness, and equitability. Combining government subsidies and taxation is the best policy for addressing the externality based on this criterion. All the discussed policies have a high potential to reduce pollution and the effects of greenhouse gas emissions. However, they all have disadvantages and projections of severe adverse consequences, thus eliminating them from being the best policies. Pollution permits have a major challenge of implementation and execution, which prove ineffective compared to other policies. This challenge involves measuring pollution created by a particular firm, and therefore, it would be difficult to determine how effective it is in reducing emissions. Economically, firms can complain about issuing permits if they feel it is insufficient to meet their profit goals. This is a challenge as different firms are more likely to have different opinions on the right cap.

Regarding taxation specifically, carbon tax, one of the major advantages is that governments have a revenue-generating scheme that could be used to finance other environmental policies like subsidies. Additionally, this policy promotes industries to offer more environmentally friendly engines due to market incentives. For example, “the petrol tax has provided a channel for consumers to seek other less polluting fuels and machines that do not need petrol specifically” (Lindsey and Santos 2020,100671). One of the major disadvantages, although not that significant, of this policy is compliance with taxation. Erickson (2017) argues that firms may shift production to other countries, a major economic issue associated with this policy. However, with the combination of government subsidies, this potential financial implication can be averted as the firms can focus on the incentives offered to generate renewable energy sources and at the same time help in innovations which lead to more profits and fewer emissions to the atmosphere.

Another significant advantage of combining the two policies to generate the best policy is that the process becomes equitable. This is because all firms will be taxed complying with the taxation rules, and therefore no company will be favored by the government. Additionally, for companies that shift to the application of renewable energy sources, incentives from governments will be offered as they try to promote the use of energy sources that have a reduced effect on the environment.

Unintended consequences of combining taxation with subsidies

Petrol and other fossil fuels emit carbon dioxide and nitrous oxides into the atmosphere in transportation emissions. The combination of the two policies focuses on taxing petrol and “providing ethanol incentives, which would cause a large shift to agriculture, causing unexpected social costs” (Herath and Tyner 2019, 109342). In addition, according to Jensen et al. (2017), disparities are likely to arise due to the procedure used to provide incentives leading to shifts of firms to other countries leading to reduced revenue to the government affecting the economy of that particular country.

Conclusion

This essay has discussed the common measures and goals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions externality. Moreover, graphs are attached to explain the emission trends over the years and how a carbon tax is used to reduce the emission of gases with carbon content. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of each policy were used to determine the best effective policy in reducing the externality and its effects. The best policy to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases and pollution is the combination of taxes like petrol and carbon taxes with government subsidies. This is based on the above-discussed criterion of identifying the best policy for reducing the externality. Also addressed in this essay are the various unintended consequences of the combination of subsidies and taxation, like the large shift into agriculture.

Appendix

Graphs used for Illustrations

Graphs used for Illustrations

The graph below shows the world’s trend of emission of greenhouse house from 1990 to 2018. As a result, the observed trend emphasizes the need to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide, which is the most released of all greenhouse gases. The graph is obtained from Greenhouse gas emissions – Our World in Data.

 Table: Carbon Tax Implementation in OECD countries
Country        Year of Implementation        Gini at Implementation status
Finland            1990 21.0 in place
Sweden            1991 22.6 in place
Norway            1991 22.8 in place
Denmark            1992 23.4 in place
Switzerland            2008 29.5 in place
Iceland            2010 26.0 in place
Australia            2012 32.7 repealed
France            2014 29.8 in place

The main source is the Carbon Pricing Dashboard from the World Bank. Gini coefficients are taken from the SWIID database.

Carbon tax graph: The social marginal cost (SMC) of manufacturing the good is higher than the private marginal cost in this situation (PMC). The difference is the pollution’s external cost. Because the tax moves the supply curve to S2, customers must pay the full social marginal fee. This reduces consumption to Q2, which is the most socially optimal result.

Carbon tax graph

If demand is elastic, a subsidy will result in a greater percentage increase in demand. The price has only dropped somewhat. Producers benefit from the subsidy in this situation because their production surplus grows faster than the consumer surplus. If demand is price inelastic, a subsidy provides a significant drop in price but only a minor increase in demand.

Subsidy with elastic and inelastic demand

References

Blackman, Allen, and Winston Harrington. 2017. “The Use Of Economic Incentives In Developing Countries: Lessons From International Experience With Industrial Air Pollution”. The Journal Of Environment &Amp; Development 9 (1): 5-44. doi:10.1177/107049650000900102.

Erickson, Larry E. 2017. “Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions And Improving Air Quality: Two Global Challenges”. Environmental Progress &Amp; Sustainable Energy 36 (4): 982-988. doi:10.1002/ep.12665.

Herath, N., and W.E. Tyner. 2019. “Intended And Unintended Consequences Of US Renewable Energy Policies”. Renewable And Sustainable Energy Reviews 115: 109385. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2019.109385.

Jensen, Svenn, Kristina Mohlin, Karen Pittel, and Thomas Sterner. 2017. “An Introduction To The Green Paradox: The Unintended Consequences Of Climate Policies”. Review Of Environmental Economics And Policy 9 (2): 246-265. doi:10.1093/reep/rev010.

Lindsey, Robin, and Georgina Santos. 2020. “Addressing Transportation And Environmental Externalities With Economics: Are Policy Makers Listening?”. Research In Transportation Economics 82: 100872. doi:10.1016/j.retrec.2020.100872.

Tampubolon, Biatna Dulbert, and Ajun Tri Setyoko. 2019. “Controlling Policies On Fossil Fuels Subsidies To Overcome Climate Change”. Energy Economics Letters 6 (1): 1-16. doi:10.18488/journal.82.2019.61.1.16.

Policy On Human Papillomavirus (HPV) For Healthy People 2020/2030 Sample Essay

Introduction

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Over 100 different types of HPV are infected, and over 30 million Americans. Although most HPV-infected people have no symptoms, the virus can cause cervical cancer in women and other cancers in both men and women (Bassett, 2020). Other health issues associated with HPV include genital warts, infertility, and reduced fertility. To help prevent the spread of HPV and protect people from developing cancer due to the virus, the CDC has set a goal of eliminating HPV-related cancers in healthy women aged 25 to 64 in the United States by 2030 (Bosch et al., 2015). By 2030, the agency hopes to reduce the prevalence of other HPV-related health conditions by 30% among women aged 18 to 24 and 60% among women aged 25 to 34 (Hariton & Locascio, 2018). This essay will provide a sociocultural reflection on HPV policy, the faith worldview, and the social-economic implications of eliminating HPV worldwide by 2020/2030.

Sociocultural Ethical Implications of the HPV Health-related Policy

The health-related policy of HPV vaccination for healthy people has some sociocultural ethical implications. One critical question is whether it is fair to immunize healthy people against a disease they may never contract (Bosch et al., 2015). Another concern is the vaccine’s potential for adverse side effects, which could do more harm than good (Hariton & Locascio, 2018). There is also the question of whether the HPV vaccine will lead to more promiscuity among young people, who may believe they are now immune to the virus(Bosch et al., 2015). These issues must be considered before implementing any HPV vaccination health policy. It is critical to ensure that the policy is ethical, in line with social values, and effective in preventing disease spread.

Faith Worldview of the Health Policy

According to the Faith worldview of health policy, individuals are responsible for their health and well-being. This includes caring for their bodies and minds and adopting a healthy lifestyle. This worldview also believes that individuals are responsible for caring for others and that society has a role to play in promoting and protecting health. It also supports using evidence-based approaches to health policymaking and preventative measures to reduce disease prevalence(Markowitz, 2014).

Furthermore, the Faith worldview believes that everyone has a role to play in promoting healthy communities and that society should collaborate to address social determinants of health. It also holds that humans are made in God’s image and that we are called to live in harmony with nature. This means we should work to protect the environment, promote social justice, and assist those in need. This worldview is founded on compassion, hope, forgiveness, and love. It believes these principles can help us achieve our health policy objectives (Swihart et al., 2021).

Based on this principle to the 2020/2030 HPV policy for healthy people, the Faith worldview would support a policy that focuses on educating people about HPV and its risks. This would entail including HPV information in school health education curricula and public health websites (Best et al., 2019). The Faith worldview would also support a policy that encourages people to vaccinate against HPV, particularly young people most vulnerable to the disease. Furthermore, the Faith worldview would support a policy that encourages people to get tested for HPV regularly and seek treatment if infected. Finally, the Faith worldview would support a policy encouraging people to avoid sexual contact with HPV-infected people(Hariton & Locascio, 2018).

The legal, social, and economic implications of the policy

The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is one of the most controversial vaccines in recent years. The HPV vaccine is a preventative measure against the human papillomavirus, a sexually transmitted infection that can cause cervical cancer. The HPV vaccine is given to girls and young women as young as nine and is safe and effective (Lahijani et al., 2021). However, some argue that the HPV vaccine has potential legal, social, and economic implications.


  • Legal Implications

Some argue that the HPV vaccine should not be mandatory, as it could potentially infringe on an individual’s right to bodily autonomy. Others argue that because the HPV virus is sexually transmitted, vaccinating children could be seen as condoning pre-marital sex. Some concerns are that mandating the HPV vaccine could lead to more parents opting out of vaccinating their children altogether (Bassett, 2020).


  • Social Implications

There are also social implications to consider with the HPV vaccine. Some worry that vaccinating girls at such a young age could send the message that they are expected to be sexually active at a young age. There is also concern that boys will not feel the need to get vaccinated if they know that girls will be vaccinated, which could lead to further disparities in health outcomes between men and women (Lahijani et al., 2021).


  • Economic Implication

Finally, there are economic implications to consider with the HPV vaccine. The cost of the HPV vaccine can be prohibitive for some families, and there is concern that mandating the vaccine could further exacerbate socioeconomic disparities in health outcomes. For example, low-income families cannot afford the HPV vaccine, so their children could be at a higher risk of developing cervical cancer(Bosch et al., 2015).

Exploring the faith perspective on the HPV Health policy

A faith worldview would likely lend a perspective of compassion and care for those affected by the public health problem of HPV, which may also extend to working toward preventing HPV through education and awareness. Faith communities may also advocate for HPV vaccination programs to protect populations from the health risks associated with the virus (Lahijani et al., 2021). Besides, faith communities may also work towards creating social support systems for those affected by HPV, such as providing counseling and support groups. Faith communities may play an essential role in advocating for policies that will improve the public health of populations affected by HPV (Best et al., 2019).

Furthermore, a faith worldview may also lend a perspective of social justice and concern for the impact of HPV on marginalized populations, such as low-income individuals and communities of color (Best et al., 2019). Faith communities may advocate for equitable access to HPV vaccination programs and other health-related services for those affected by the virus (Lahijani et al., 2021). Additionally, faith communities may work towards creating social support systems to help those affected by HPV cope with the health risks and social stigma associated with the virus. In addition, faith communities may also work to advocate for public policies that will improve the health of populations affected by HPV(Hariton & Locascio, 2018).

A personal reflection on the relationship between HPV health policy and environmental justice

There are many ways that the HPV vaccine can help to improve and maintain a healthy environment. One way is by reducing the number of cases of HPV-related cancers, which can help to reduce health disparities. Another way is by preventing the spread of HPV, which can help reduce the number of people exposed to the virus and at risk for developing cancer (Chen & Wong, 2019).

The HPV vaccine is an essential tool in the fight against cancer, and as many people as possible must be vaccinated. However, some groups of people are at higher risk for HPV-related cancers, including those who are immune-compromised or have other health conditions that make them more vulnerable to the virus(Hariton & Locascio, 2018). Hence, it is vital to continue to work on improving access to the HPV vaccine so that everyone has a chance to receive it.

Conclusion

This paper investigated HPV and how it affects people of all ages. It has also looked into the possibility of using vaccination to prevent HPV infections. While there is no guarantee that all HPV infections can be avoided, the CDC recommends that humans get vaccinated as one of the best ways to protect themselves from this virus. Although HPV can cause various health issues, many people can live a very healthy life with early detection and treatment. As a result, everyone must be aware of HPV and get vaccinated if they are at risk. Preventing HPV is the best way to protect oneself, and it is something that everyone should think about and reflect on.

References

Bassett, M. (2020, September 14). HPV Vax Uptake Increasing But Fails to Meet ’Healthy People 2020’ Goal – Physician’s Weekly. Physician’s Weekly – a Trusted Source of Medical Information for Healthcare Professional. https://www.physiciansweekly.com/hpv-vax-uptake-increasing-but-fails-to-meet-healthy-people-2020-goal

Best, A. L., Thompson, E. L., Adamu, A. M., Logan, R., Delva, J., Thomas, M., Cunningham, E., Vamos, C., & Daley, E. (2019). Examining the Influence of Religious and Spiritual Beliefs on HPV Vaccine Uptake Among College Women. Journal of Religion and Health58(6), 2196–2207. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-019-00890-y

Bosch, F. X., Robles, C., Díaz, M., Arbyn, M., Baussano, I., Clavel, C., Ronco, G., Dillner, J., Lehtinen, M., Petry, K.-U., Poljak, M., Kjaer, S. K., Meijer, C. J. L. M., Garland, S. M., Salmerón, J., Castellsagué, X., Bruni, L., de Sanjosé, S., & Cuzick, J. (2015). HPV-FASTER: broadening the scope for prevention of HPV-related cancer. Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology13(2), 119–132. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrclinonc.2015.146

Chen, R., & Wong, E. (2019). The feasibility of universal HPV vaccination program in Shenzhen, China: a health policy analysis. BMC Public Health19(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7120-7

Hariton, E., & Locascio, J. J. (2018). Randomized controlled trials – the gold standard for effectiveness research. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology125(13), 1716–1716. https://doi.org/10.1111/1471-0528.15199

Lahijani, A. Y., King, A. R., Gullatte, M. M., Hennink, M., & Bednarczyk, R. A. (2021). HPV Vaccine Promotion: The church as an agent of change. Social Science & Medicine268, 113375. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113375

Markowitz. (2014). Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR. Recommendations and Reports: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Recommendations and Reports56(RR-2). https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17380109/

Swihart, D. L., Siva, & Martin, R. L. (2021, December 2). Cultural Religious Competence In Clinical Practice. Nih.gov; StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK493216/

error: Content is protected !!