Policy Process In Nursing: The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Essay Sample For College

The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Policies

The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (2018) works towards improving the state of healthcare in the United States. The foundation explores many spheres of healthcare, including nursing. In its initiative, called “Charting Nursing’s Future,” the foundation examines and prioritizes a number of issues. First of all, nursing education is the central sphere of interest for policymaking. As nurses’ performance directly impacts the quality of care for patients, nursing education should be continuously improved.

The foundation’s reports state that clinical education should be transformed to improve quality. The foundation also outlines the collaboration of nurses and interprofessional communication as a way to influence healthcare. Nursing leadership is prioritized as well. The foundation also argues for the diversity of nursing staff to accommodate different populations and communities.

The practice of advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) is also highlighted as a sphere, where policy has to be changed (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2018). The foundation argues that APRNs should be allowed to provide their patients with a full scope of services. Thus, all restrictions and regulations that currently limit their practice should be removed. The topic of innovation is also present in the discussion, as the foundation seeks to improve the patient’s safety through healthcare technology.

Nurses should be able to influence the path to innovation in hospitals as they are the primary users of all new devices. Here, the foundation highlights the importance of evidence-based practice (EBP). Finally, the organization tries to provide nurses with a broader reach of its programs to different communities through public initiatives and advocacy.

The Role of PAC in the Policy Process

The process of creating a policy has multiple steps (Rambur, 2015). First of all, it is necessary to identify the issue for which a change is needed. Second, the problems need to be defined and assessed. Next, the policy has to be formulated to address all details and possible actions for improvement appropriately. During the adoption phase, the refined version of the proposal is approved. The policy is then implemented and evaluated to see whether it is efficient and helpful. Political action committees (PAC) provide financial resources to support the policy process. Such organizations as the American Association of Nurse Practitioners (2018) often have their own PACs to promote government workers with interests in improving healthcare.

Mentoring in Nursing

Nursing education does not stop when nurses graduate from a learning course and continue during their practice. Therefore, mentorship becomes an integral part of every nurse’s life. According to Eller, Lev, and Feurer (2014), mentors guide students and working nurses and provide support in situations where new specialists may lack experience. Moreover, they help new nurses to adjust to an unfamiliar setting and promote professional development. Nurses have to adhere to a set of moral and ethical principles, and mentors often become role models for new workers to help them discover their professional identity. Finally, the nursing profession may be stressful for new workers, and mentorship provides moral guidance and support.

How a Bill Becomes Law

A bill can become law in multiple steps (Rambur, 2015). First, Members of Congress present an idea for a new bill and establish whether it is public or private. When the bill’s details are determined, Members of Congress can sponsor it to be reviewed by other Members. Then, after the bill’s introduction to the House, it becomes assigned to a particular committee and a subcommittee that is interested in promoting a specific area of interest. The bill goes through revisions to be accepted by the committee. Members of the House and the Senate vote to pass the bill and send it to the President, who signs or vetoes it. The Houses’ votes can overrule the veto.

References

American Association of Nurse Practitioners. (2018). Political action committee (PAC). Web.

Eller, L. S., Lev, E. L., & Feurer, A. (2014). Key components of an effective mentoring relationship: A qualitative study. Nurse Education Today, 34(5), 815-820.

Rambur, B. (2015). Health care finance, economics, and policy for nurses: A foundational guide. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (2018). Charting Nursing’s Future. Web.

Logical Fallacies And Sound Arguments In Introduction

Introduction

The purpose of this paper is to examine various logical fallacies to avoid when developing an introduction. First, an introduction with fallacious arguments will be presented. In the next section, those fallacious arguments will be identified and discussed using margin comments. Finally, a revised version of the introduction will be presented using sound arguments.

Introduction with Fallacious Arguments

The current educational model adopted in the majority of elementary schools in the USA is highly inefficient and provokes negative outcomes in the students’ performance. According to statistic data, in 2012, the US students’ performance in mathematics was below average. Therefore, the departmentalized structure can unarguably provide a better way of teaching.

According to researchers’ claims, the generalized or self-contained model implemented in the schools provokes many problems both for teachers and students (Diamond, Maerten-Rivera, & Rohrer, 2013; Strohl, Schmertzing, & Schmertzing, 2014; Nelson, 2014). In the self-contained settings, a group of students receives instructions on the multiple subjects from the same teacher every day. Although the generalized organization is implemented in the majority of elementary schools across the country, the previous research papers have indicated some disadvantages of the given model that affect the teacher’s and students’ performance negatively (Strohl, Schmertzing, Schmertzing, & Hsiao, 2014). The negative results on teachers include the lack of in-depth knowledge of subjects, heavy workloads, low self-efficacy, and a high level of stress that leads to a decline in job satisfaction (Stewart, 2015). Based on this evidence, the schools’ administration should implement the alternative models of education, i.e. departmentalization.

The findings and observations demonstrated in the statistic reports and the previous research make it clear that the elementary education model’s efficiency is an up-to-date issue, and the alternative educational structures must be investigated. Departmentalization of elementary school can be regarded as a potential method for the existing dilemmas resolving (Strohl, Schmertzing, Schmertzing, & Hsiao). Evaluation of the positive and negative impacts on the teaching and learning processes is of increasing interest and importance because it can support the detection of the areas that need to be improved, and the understanding of how these improvements are to be made.

According to Nelson (2014), teaching in departmentalized settings provokes teachers’ professional development (p. 8). In opposition to teaching in the self-contained model, the different groups of students receive instructions from the same specialist in one class. When the educational process is organized this way, teachers are provided with sufficient time for the lessons’ preparation and design (Strohl, Schmertzing, & Schmertzing, 2014). Other advantages of departmentalization include the decrease of workloads that reduce the chance of teachers’ burnouts, higher level of professionalism and knowledge of the subject content, improvement of teachers’ professional self-perception and confidence (Strohl, Schmertzing, Schmertzing, & Hsiao). After a transition towards the departmentalized organization of education in elementary schools, the students’ performance will be drastically enhanced because of the positive changes in the teachers’ functioning and abilities.

Although there is a sufficient amount of investigation devoted to the impacts on the teachers’ efficacy in the departmentalized settings, the findings in the research of changes in students’ performance in this educational structure are controversial. The lack of arguments and clear-cut facts about the departmentalization’s positive impacts on students’ level of knowledge create the obstacles for the adoption and recognition of the model by the schools’ administration.

According to Parker (2009), in the period of transition from the self-contained form of education to the secondary departmentalized structure, the students are exposed to stress that interferes with their successful acclimatization in the new educational environment and absorption of knowledge (p. 325). As a result, academic performance may be deteriorated. The students’ performance in mathematics and science classes is low in both elementary and secondary school. The adult U.S. citizens are not interested in science and cannot make a contribution to the American and global society.

Based on the results of the literature review, it is possible to say that the further research of the issues related to the improvement of the students’ self-perception, abilities to learn and absorb knowledge, communicate with peers and adults, and perform in the variety of subjects in the one-content settings will help to provide more evidence for the potentials of the model. The research needs to investigate the causal factors that influence the improvement of the students learning abilities. It may support verification of the previous research results and may stimulate the model’s acceptance in schools.

Identifying the Fallacies

The current educational model adopted in the majority of elementary schools in the USA is highly inefficient and provokes negative outcomes in the students’ performance.

Fallacy

The statement isn’t valid and is not properly defended. The relevance rule is violated. Some numbers or statistics could be used to advance the argument.

According to statistic data, in 2012, the US students’ performance in mathematics was below average. Therefore, the departmentalized structure can unarguably provide a better way of teaching.

Fallacy

The freedom rule is violated. The statement is arguable.

According to researchers’ claims, the generalized or self-contained model implemented in the schools provokes many problems both for teachers and students (Diamond, Maerten-Rivera, & Rohrer, 2013; Strohl, Schmertzing, & Schmertzing, 2014; Nelson, 2014). In the self-contained settings, a group of students receives instructions on the multiple subjects from the same teacher every day. Although the generalized organization is implemented in the majority of elementary schools across the country, the previous research papers have indicated some disadvantages of the given model that affect the teacher’s and students’ performance negatively (Strohl, Schmertzing, Schmertzing, & Hsiao, 2014). The negative results on teachers include the lack of in-depth knowledge of subjects, heavy workloads, low self-efficacy, and a high level of stress that leads to a decline in job satisfaction (Stewart, 2015). Based on this evidence, the schools’ administration should implement the alternative models of education, i.e. departmentalization.

Fallacy

The argument scheme isn’t applied correctly. The conclusion made in the paragraph cannot lacks credibility, and the claims do not necessarily lead to this conclusion.

The findings and observations demonstrated in the statistic reports and the previous research make it clear that the elementary education model’s efficiency is an up-to-date issue, and the alternative educational structures must be investigated. Departmentalization of elementary school can be regarded as a potential method for the existing dilemmas resolving (Strohl, Schmertzing, Schmertzing, & Hsiao). Evaluation of the positive and negative impacts on the teaching and learning processes is of increasing interest and importance because it can support the detection of the areas that need to be improved, and the understanding of how these improvements are to be made.

According to Nelson (2014), teaching in departmentalized settings provokes teachers’ professional development (p. 8). In opposition to teaching in the self-contained model, the different groups of students receive instructions from the same specialist in one class. When the educational process is organized this way, teachers are provided with sufficient time for the lessons’ preparation and design (Strohl, Schmertzing, & Schmertzing, 2014). Other advantages of departmentalization include the decrease of workloads that reduce the chance of teachers’ burnouts, higher level of professionalism and knowledge of the subject content, improvement of teachers’ professional self-perception and confidence (Strohl, Schmertzing, Schmertzing, & Hsiao). After a transition towards the departmentalized organization of education in elementary schools, the students’ performance will be drastically enhanced because of the positive changes in the teachers’ functioning and abilities.

Fallacy

Poor argumentation. Lack of evidence.

Although there is a sufficient amount of investigation devoted to the impacts on the teachers’ efficacy in the departmentalized settings, the findings in the research of changes in students’ performance in this educational structure are controversial. The lack of arguments and clear-cut facts about the departmentalization’s positive impacts on students’ level of knowledge create the obstacles for the adoption and recognition of the model by the schools’ administration.

According to Parker (2009), in the period of transition from the self-contained form of education to the secondary departmentalized structure, the students are exposed to stress that interferes with their successful acclimatization in the new educational environment and absorption of knowledge (p. 325). As a result, academic performance may be deteriorated. The students’ performance in mathematics and science classes is low in both elementary and secondary school. The adult U.S. citizens are not interested in science and cannot make a contribution to the American and global society.

Fallacy

No relevance to the theme of the paper.

Based on the results of the literature review, it is possible to say that the further research of the issues related to the improvement of the students’ self-perception, abilities to learn and absorb knowledge, communicate with peers and adults, and perform in the variety of subjects in the one-content settings will help to provide more evidence for the potentials of the model. The research needs to investigate the causal factors that influence the improvement of the students learning abilities. It may support verification of the previous research results and may stimulate the model’s acceptance in schools.

Introduction with Sound Arguments

According to statistic data, in 2012, the US students’ performance in mathematics was below average. Among all the thirty-four countries represented in Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), such as Germany, Japan, and Israel, the United States was ranked only twenty-seventh (Results from PISA, 2012).

The statistical numbers make it clear that the current US educational system may be regarded as ineffective and inefficient. Many researchers see the ground of the problem in the commonly accepted elementary school teaching model that is called a self-contained or generalized model (Diamond, Maerten-Rivera, & Rohrer, 2013; Strohl, Schmertzing, & Schmertzing, 2014; Nelson, 2014). In the self-contained settings, a group of students receives instructions on the multiple subjects from the same teacher every day. Although the generalized organization is implemented in the majority of elementary schools across the country, the previous research papers have indicated some disadvantages of the given model that affect the teacher’s and students’ performance negatively (Strohl, Schmertzing, Schmertzing, & Hsiao, 2014). The negative results on teachers include the lack of in-depth knowledge of subjects, heavy workloads, low self-efficacy, and a high level of stress that leads to a decline in job satisfaction (Stewart, 2015). Since the teachers play a crucial role in the effectiveness of the knowledge transition to students, their inability to perform at a high level negatively affects the students’ performance in class as well.

The findings and observations demonstrated in the statistic reports and the previous research make it clear that the elementary education model’s efficiency is an up-to-date issue, and the alternative educational structures must be investigated. Departmentalization of elementary school can be regarded as a potential method for the existing dilemmas resolving (Strohl, Schmertzing, Schmertzing, & Hsiao). Evaluation of the positive and negative impacts on the teaching and learning processes is of increasing interest and importance because it can support the detection of the areas that need to be improved, and the understanding of how these improvements are to be made.

According to Nelson (2014), teaching in departmentalized settings provokes teachers’ professional development (p. 8). In opposition to teaching in the self-contained model, the different groups of students receive instructions from the same specialist in one class. When the educational process is organized this way, teachers are provided with sufficient time for the lessons’ preparation and design (Strohl, Schmertzing, & Schmertzing, 2014). Other advantages of departmentalization include the decrease of workloads that reduce the chance of teachers’ burnouts, higher level of professionalism and knowledge of the subject content, improvement of teachers’ professional self-perception and confidence (Strohl, Schmertzing, Schmertzing, & Hsiao). The claims in the multiple studies show that after the transition towards the departmentalized organization of education in some elementary schools, the students’ performance has drastically enhanced mainly because of the positive changes in the teachers’ functioning and abilities (Nelson, 2014; Stewart, 2015).

Although there is a sufficient amount of investigation devoted to the impacts on the teachers’ efficacy in the departmentalized settings, the findings in the research of changes in students’ performance in this educational structure are controversial. The lack of arguments and clear-cut facts about the departmentalization’s positive impacts on students’ level of knowledge create the obstacles for the adoption and recognition of the model by the schools’ administration.

According to Parker (2009), in the period of transition from the self-contained form of education to the secondary departmentalized structure, the students are exposed to stress that interferes with their successful acclimatization in the new educational environment and absorption of knowledge (p. 325). As a result, academic performance may be deteriorated. Therefore, it is possible to say, that implementation of departmentalization in elementary education can enhance the situation in a secondary school as well because, in this case, the students will become familiar with the modes and standards of studying and communication accepted in the middle-school.

Based on the results of the literature review, it is possible to say that the further research of the issues related to the improvement of the students’ self-perception, abilities to learn and absorb knowledge, communicate with peers and adults, and perform in the variety of subjects in the one-content settings will help to provide more evidence for the potentials of the model. The research needs to investigate the causal factors that influence the improvement of the students learning abilities. It may support verification of the previous research results and may stimulate the model’s acceptance in schools.

References

Diamond, B. S., Maerten-Rivera, J., & Rohrer, R. (2013). Elementary teachers’ science content knowledge: Relationships among multiple measures. Florida Journal of Educational Research, 51, 1-20.

Nelson, K. (2014). A Study Comparing Fifth Grade Student Achievement in Mathematics in Departmentalized and Non-Departmentalized Settings. Doctoral Dissertations and Projects, 829, 1-194. Web.

Parker, A. K. (2009). Elementary organizational structures and young adolescents’ self-concept and classroom environment perceptions across the transition to middle school. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 23(3), 325-339. Web.

Results from PISA. (2012). Web.

Stewart, L. L. (2015). Teachers’ perspectives on self-contained and departmentalized instructional models. Web.

Strohl, A., Schmertzing, L., & Schmertzing, R. (2014). Elementary teachers’ experiences and perceptions of departmentalized instruction: A case study. Journal of Case Studies in Education, 6, 1-17.

Strohl, A., Schmertzing, L., Schmertzing, R., & Hsiao, E. (2014). Comparison of self-contained and departmentalized elementary teachers’ perceptions of classroom structure and job satisfaction. Journal of Studies in Education, 4(1), 109-127.

The Caliphate, Its Foundation And Justification

Introduction

Prophet Muhammad is rightfully regarded as the central figure in the history of Islam. He is the person who introduced this religion to the Arabs in the 7th century and starting working to create a united Arab empire. Since founding Islam, Muhammad took on the role of principal leader and his claim to power was unquestioned for he led by the authority of God. Following the death of the Prophet in 632AD, the need arose to come up with a government system based on Islam. The system of governance created by his followers is what came to be known as the Caliphate. This paper will discuss the founding of the Caliphate with an emphasis on why this system was necessary and the actions of the early Caliphs.

The Birth of an Islamic Empire

Prophet Muhammad first preached the religion of Islam to the Arabs of Mecca in the early years of the 7th century. However, the leaders of Mecca rejected his teachings since acceptance would have threatened their power and prosperity. To prevent the spread of Muhammad’s message, the leaders engaged in violent reprisals of believers of this new faith. Lapidus documents that by 615AD, the situation in Mecca had deteriorated greatly and Muslims were facing widespread persecution (35).

This persecution forced them to flee Mecca in 622 and eventually settle in Medina where Muhammad acquired a significant number of followers. The prophet ordered his followers to fight against the unbelieving city of Mecca. Gearon documents that Islam was able to gather a number of impressive victories on the battlefield under the leadership of Prophet Muhammad (47).

Due to the strength of the Muslim forces, Mecca surrendered in 630, which enabled Muhammad and his followers to make the journey back to Mecca. Following the surrender of Mecca, Islam gained great significance in the Arabian Peninsula and was on a path to becoming the dominant religion. However, the Prophet suffered a brief illness in 632AD and died shortly afterwards. This created a major situation since Muhammad had not named a successor or set up a system of government that could be used by his followers.

The Foundation of the Caliphate

The Caliphate was founded as a direct reaction to the death of Prophet Muhammad. Esposito explains that when Muhammad died, the Muslim community needed leadership (77). Since the Prophet had not made any succession plans, it was up to his followers to come up with a feasible system to ensure the growth and prosperity of the religion.

The Caliphate was the political-religious government system established after the death of Muhammad to rule over the Islamic empire. Within 24hours following the death of Muhammad, a number of Medinan leaders and three of the Prophets close friends met to discuss the succession issue. They agreed that Abu Bakr, who was Muhammad’s father-in-law, should succeed him.

Abu Bakr was a favorite candidate since he not only had kinship ties to Muhammad, but he was also one of the first followers of the Prophet. Esposito acknowledges that the father-in-law’s close personal relationship with Muhammad combined with his religious devotion made him the favorite choice for successor (78). Abu Bakr took on the title of Khalifa, or “successor” and the English version of this term is caliph.

While the first Caliph was given the title successor, his role could not be similar to that of Muhammad. The followers understood that only Muhammad could receive revelations from God. The position of the Caliphs could therefore not be similar to that of the Prophet. Lapidus reveals that when Abu Bakr assumed the office of the Caliphate, he swore to obey the precedent of the Prophet and that the people were only to obey him as long as he obeyed it (65).

After taking office, Abu Bakr reinforced the religious practices that had been established by Muhammad. He stressed on the importance of the Five Pillars of Islam to all Muslims. In addition to this, he reestablished the authority of Islam over communities in the Arabian Peninsula just as Muhammad had. This action was deemed necessary since some Arab communities had begun to abandon their allegiance to Islam after the death of the Prophet.

Early Direction

The First caliph engaged in some steps that defined the direction of the newly established Islamic regime. He established a system of taxation on all tribes formerly allied to the Prophet. The caliph made this payment a mandatory tax that was collected by the Empire. Some of the tribes refused to fulfill this financial obligation. Abu Bakr waged war on the resisting tribes and installed new governors in the conquered territories.

The Caliphate also sought to unify the religion by establishing an authoritative holy book. Abu Bakr began the project that would eventually lead to the creation of the Quran. He instructed his men to collect all the material available on the Prophet’s revelations for compilation. This led to the eventual acquisition of the Quran in the year 650. The first caliph died in 634 and he was succeeded by his colleague Umar Ibn al-Khattab.

The second Caliph was able to reign from 634 to 644. Under the rule of Umar, Muslims engaged in impressive battles for conquest. Gearon documents that under the rule of this caliph, the Arab forces set out to conquer Egypt in the name of Islam (47). The Arabs were successful and in 641, the Egyptian city of Alexandria fell to the Islamic forces.

Umar set out a number of important laws that continued to define the Caliphate for centuries. According to Lapidus, this caliph formalized laws abolishing temporary marriages and increased punishment for adultery (65). In addition to this, he promoted religious identity throughout the Islamic empire by building many mosques in the conquered territories. He also appointed numerous religious officials to increase the influence of religion in the society.

Umar was succeeded by Uthman who was an aristocrat from Mecca. During his reign, Uthman increased central control over the revenues of the Caliphate. It was in this caliphate that the standard edition of the Quran was publicized. The caliph’s actions alienated him from other companions of the Prophet who did not like his claim to religious authority. Uthman tried to enlarge his authority in order to effect socioeconomic and religious changes within the caliphate. This provoked bitter opposition to his rule and led to his assassination in 656.

Uthman was succeeded by Ali, who was Muhammad’s first cousin and son in law. From the onset, Ali’s caliphate was troubled for he had come to power with the support of his predecessor’s assassins. The governor of Syria, who was related to the slain Uthman, challenged Ali’s right to be Caliph. This led to protracted battles between the followers of Ali and the Umayyad clan. The conflicts had a negative impact on Islam as they led to divisions among the followers. The warring parties agreed to negotiate and have an inquiry into the assassination of Uthman. Ali’s reign came to an end in 661 when he was assassinated by his own supporters for agreeing to the arbitration.

Changes

These first four caliphs are considered the “Rightly Guided Caliphs” for they perpetuated the teachings of Muhammad. These leaders represented the political and religious leadership of the Prophet. The succeeding caliphs did not follow the political and religious goals of the first four. Future caliphs were mostly interested in the political power and economic benefits of the position. For example, the Umayyad caliphate that succeeded Ali and ruled from 661 to 750 was politically motivated.

To begin with, it ruled over the Arab people instead of being a religious empire. Gillani and Tahir assert that the Umayyads were little more than heads of a turbulent Arabian aristocracy (565). The Empire’s army was made almost entirely of Muslim Arabs and non-Muslim administrators were allowed to continue working in conquered territories. This diminished the authority of the Caliphate and precipitated the decline of the institute of the caliph as the head of the Islamic Community (Gillani and Tahir 565).

Conclusion

This paper set out to discuss the foundation of the Caliphate following the death of Prophet Muhammad. It began by giving a background of the development of the Islamic Empire and explained why a caliphate was necessary. The paper documented some of the actions of the first four caliphs to underscore the fact that this government system held both political and religious authority. The caliphate underwent major changes following the death of the forth caliph and this marked a fateful change in the history of Islam.

Works Cited

Esposito, John. The Islamic World: Past and Present. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. Print.

Gearon, Eamonn. “The Arab Invasions.” History Today 61.6 (2011): 47-52. Print.

Gillani, Aftab and Mohammad Tahir. “The Administration of Abbasids Caliphate: A Fateful Change in the Muslim History.” Pakistan Journal of Commerce & Social Sciences 8.2 (2014): 565-571. Print.

Lapidus, Ira. A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. Print.

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