Political Ideologies And Their Differences Sample Essay

Introduction

Every human society throughout history had to find its answer to the question of power, class, and institutional rule. Some of these answers were moderately more successful or remarkable than others, and have coalesced into political ideologies. Some of these ideologies are an example to follow, while some are a cautionary tale. They encompass most aspects of a nation’s structure: the economic policies, the citizens’ rights, and even the philosophical undercurrent of the community.

Main body

Communism is a political doctrine that was born out of the strife of the working class in the XIX century. The core idea of communism is the liberation of the working class by abolishing private property and collectivizing all institutions so that every citizen can benefit, instead of just capitalist property owners (Engels and Marx 50). In practice, that means absolute state control over every aspect of life and economy and state-dictated collectivism.

The most notable example of communism in the Soviet Union, in which the government-owned every enterprise, and undesirable classes were purged. The problem with communism is a simple fact that it never works, and has led to millions of deaths due to state-enforced famine (Hickman 225). A similar policy rooted in absolute communist state rule persists to this day and risks the same consequences, which is a prevalent political issue in developing nations.

Liberalism is an ideology that upholds the sanctity of private property, the rule of law, and the individual responsibility of each person (Douglass et al. 362). Classical liberals want to limit the discretionary power of the state and create an environment for private citizens and businesses to flourish. It can be argued that most developed nations today are liberal, as they uphold individual rights of citizens, tend towards a market economy, and are limited by law. Consequently, most modern political issues should be viewed in a liberal framework.

Libertarianism is an ideology that puts the individual rights of any person above the state. It stems from the natural law devised by Locke, which says, “being all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his life, liberty, or possessions” (Zwolinsky).

That law exists irrespective of the state and must be respected by both the individuals and the government. While not accepted wholesale by any state, these principles are influential and can be found in modern liberal societies. Perhaps the best-known political issue related to libertarianism is gun control in the United States, as the Second Amendment upholds the right for individuals to bear arms, and infringing upon individual rights goes against libertarian principles (Zick). Libertarian principles can be used to explain many individual rights granted by legislation.

Conservatism is an ideology that promotes the continuation of existing institutions, skepticism towards violent change, and the organic nature of society. It aims to uphold the natural development of the community and the state, without any violent upheavals, authoritarian dictatorships, or radical reforms (Quinton 286). Conservatism stems from tradition, national interests, and accumulated knowledge, rather than political theory. An example of conservatism is modern Russia, as most of its policies serve the continuation of the existing order and the status quo based on tradition while opposing liberal tendencies and collaborating with religious organizations.

Fascism is an ideology of national or ethnic supremacy, an authoritarian dictatorship, and military conquest. Fascism emphasizes the obedience of the citizens, the exertion of military power against other nations, and total control from the government (Quinton 305). Fascism has no serious theoretical base and exists only as a pathology. The prime example of fascism is the Third Reich. The political issues related to it are mostly based on the fear of its resurfacing, as modern societies are very suspicious of the ethnic supremacist discourse.

Conclusion

The political identity of each nation is a product of a long history and philosophical deliberation. It is essential to know the core beliefs of these ideologies, as they have developed as an answer to problems that still exist. They shape the nation as a whole and can create remarkable differences in otherwise similar societies.

Works Cited

Engels, Frederick, and Karl Marx. “The Communist Manifesto.” 1848. Web.

Douglass, R. Bruce, et al. Liberalism and the Good. Routledge, 2019.

Hickman, John. “Major Famines as Geopolitical Strategies.” Comparative Strategy, vol. 38, no. 3, 2019, pp. 224–233.

Quinton, Anthony. “Conservatism.” A Companion to Contemporary Political Philosophy, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2017, pp. 285–311.

Zick, Timothy. “Framing the Second Amendment: Gun Rights, Civil Rights and Civil Liberties”. 2019. Web.

Zwolinski, Matt. “Libertarianism”. 2007. Web.

Inclusive Teaching And Training: Project Analysis

The Context

Due to the growing demand for mainstream students with disabilities, many general education teachers are forced to become inclusion teachers without appropriate training and experience. Students with special needs often disrupt the learning process, which negatively affects the learners’ outcomes. Additionally, teachers become frustrated with the matter due to the lack of knowledge.

Research Literature

The review of research literature is critical in order to understand how the identified problem may be addressed. The attitude of teachers towards special needs students is mostly negative. Research by Fakolade, Adeniyi, and Tella (2017) shows that more than 55% percent of teachers are frustrated by children with special needs present in the classroom. The results were received by surveying 600 teachers in selected schools in Nigeria.

Even though the data is outside the US, it is still applicable for demonstrating the tendencies. The results demonstrate that the problem of teacher’s attitude is crucial and needs to be addressed to improve learners’ outcomes of students in mixed classrooms.

One of the reasons for teachers’ negative attitude is the absence of management skills in classes where special needs students are present. However, the education and training are insufficient for acquiring relevant classroom management skills. According to Stough, Montague, Landmark, and Williams-Diehm (2015), 83% of teachers with specialized education for working with disabled children have class management issues. Therefore, it may be stated that formal education is not the key to addressing the problem. However, children may benefit from guidance from experienced specialists in the field (Stough et al., 2015).

Since traditional forms of teacher training are inapplicable for addressing the problem, teacher collaborations with their experienced colleagues are a viable alternative for the matter. However, due to the shortage of time and lack of experienced teachers on school grounds, the collaborations can be moved to the internet. In particular, Tzivinikou (2015) conducted research that demonstrated positive outcomes when teachers use mobile devices for collaboration purposes. According to Tzivinikou (2015), the method helps to make collaborations time-efficient and cost-effective.

There is a technology that helps to merge the traditional approach to education and teacher collaborations. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC) is a technology that helps anyone, including teachers, acquire knowledge while communicating with peers and trainers online. A study by Panero, Aldon, Trgalova, and Trouche (2017) shows that MOOC is a convenient method for learning new skills.

Since MOOCs allow both internal and external feedback, the collaboration process is natural, and all the members of the learning community benefit from such collaborations regardless of their cultural background, which is confirmed by a similar study conducted by Taranto, Arzarello, and Robutti (2017). Even though MOOCs are expensive in development, they are a worthy investment that can improve learners’ outcomes in inclusion classrooms.

Professional Literature

Classroom inclusion is becoming a trend in modern education in the US and worldwide. There are more than 6 million students with disabilities in the United States, among which 40% are children with learning disabilities (Diament, 2016).

However, according to Diament (2019), nearly 95% of all students with disabilities spend at least some part of their learning time in regular education classrooms. Inclusive classrooms benefit both children with special needs and ordinary students. According to Cheminais (2013), students without disabilities benefit by learning tolerance, support for others, and acceptance of differences. At the same time, special needs students have improved academic success and social outcomes (Cheminais, 2013). However, all the positive outcomes are possible only if the teachers have appropriate skills and qualifications.

There are two ways of receiving inclusion training for teachers: initial education and integrated training. Teachers who have not received inclusion training in universities need to attend integrated courses for inclusion, which have proven to provide positive outcomes for both teachers and learners (European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education [EADSNE], 2011. During these courses, educators are taught to apply multi-intelligence theory, incorporate life-skills training, and employ collaborative teaching techniques (Special Education Guide, n.d.).

However, such courses are usually expensive and time-consuming, and most of the time, they presuppose that teachers will be interrupted from the teaching process (EADSNE, 2011). Therefore, MOOCs can be introduced as a cost-efficient alternative. While there are no official inclusion MOOC courses available for teachers in the US, there are private courses, like Kids Included Together (2019), created for teaching educators to manage inclusion classrooms. The cost of the course is as low as $70 per person, which makes it a viable option for helping teachers learn appropriate techniques.

The Outcome

  • 50% reduced anxiety and stress from the absence of inclusion training in 6 months;
  • 20% improved learners’ outcomes in students with disabilities in 6 months;
  • 10% improved learners’ outcomes in students without disabilities in 60 months.

The Stakeholders

There are several groups of stakeholders that have a vested interest in the project. First, in learner-centered education, the primary beneficiaries are the students with and without disabilities. Second, the target audience is teachers, who will receive integrated inclusion training to reduce stress and frustration. Third, secondary beneficiaries are children’s parents and the community, and general, since the project will help to teach children to be better members of society. Fourth, school authorities will need to get additional funding from the government to pay for the courses. Finally, there will be service providers, who will elaborate MOOC courses for the teachers to receive appropriate training.

The Restraints

The primary restraints are cost and time limits set by the nature of the teaching profession. First, the courses need to be cost-efficient for the project to be accepted by education authorities. Therefore, even though developing a unique evidence-based MOOC would be the most effective strategy, it will most likely be unacceptable since it is time-consuming and expensive. Shopping for existing inclusion courses seems to be a more viable alternative, especially since there are ready-made courses available online. However, these courses may need to be modified to adhere to US inclusion educational standards and provide teachers with the ability to collaborate.

Conclusion

Specialized training for educators teaching in inclusive classrooms is vital for improving learners’ outcomes and decreasing stress and anxiety among teachers. The latest research evidence shows that MOOCs with access from mobile devices are the most viable option for providing integrated training for teachers. The review of professional literature confirms the matter by stating that formal courses may be time-consuming and expensive. A project that uses the services of third parties who provide access to online courses for inclusion training can benefit all groups of stakeholders.

Resources

Cheminais, R. (2013). How to create the inclusive classroom: Removing barriers to learning. London, UK: David Fulton Publishers.

Diament, M. (2019). Inclusion increasingly the norm for students with disabilities. Disability Scoop. Web.

Kids Included Together. (2019). Inclusive class self-paced module. Web.

European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education. (2011). Teacher education for inclusion across Europe: Challenges and opportunities. Odense, Denmark: European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education.

Fakolade, O. A., Adeniyi, S. O., & Tella, A. (2017). The attitude of teachers towards the inclusion of special needs children in general education classroom: The case of teachers in some selected schools in Nigeria. International Electronic Journal of elementary education, 1(3), 155-169.

Panero, M., Aldon, G., Trgalova, J., & Trouche, L. (2017). Analysing MOOCs in terms of their potential for teacher collaboration: the French experience. In TWG15 of the 10th Conference of European Research on Mathematics Education (CERME). Dublin, Ireland.

Special Education Guide. (n.d.). The general ed teacher’s guide to the inclusive classroom. Web.

Stough, L. M., Montague, M. L., Landmark, L. J., & Williams-Diehm, K. (2015). Persistent classroom management training needs of experienced teachers. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 15(5), 36-48.

Taranto, E., Arzarello, F., & Robutti, O. (2017). Analysing MOOCs in terms of their potential for teacher collaboration: The Italian experience. In TWG15 of the 10th Conference of European Research on Mathematics Education (CERME). Dublin, Ireland.

Tzivinikou, S. (2015). Collaboration between general and special education teachers: Developing co-teaching skills in heterogeneous classes. Problems of Education in the 21st Century, 64, 108-119.

“The Communist Manifesto” Book By Marx And Engels

Introduction

Despite the intentions of people to live in an equal society, there will always be some social differences. In the middle of the 19th century, Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, the two well-known German philosophers and social scientists introduced their vision of class struggles through the prism of the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. In this essay, the analysis of the first chapter of their Manifesto of the Communist Party will be offered to understand the essence of communism and capitalism.

Summary

There are no clearly defined sections in the chapter under evaluation, but the reader can divide it into four parts like class struggles, the bourgeoisie, the proletariat, and the bourgeois-proletarian relationships. Marx and Engels explained that there are many antagonisms that are rooted in feudal society. Although people strived for development and industrial growth, new classifications, oppression conditions, and forms of relationships were created in regard to available resources, values, and interests. Society cannot avoid the outcomes of their actions, which enhanced the promotion of the bourgeoisie and proletariat.

The bourgeoisie is a product of social development that controls the production and distribution of materials. Its expansion around the globe was explained by the necessity to share products and discover new wants. The main bourgeois principles were the use of force against production and the challenge of property relations. The proletariat was another significant weapon in the social class struggle.

It played a critical role in development, but it gained no power to control the production of materials. The representatives of this group could only sell their labor to the bourgeoisie. The bourgeoisie used machinery, which led to a decrease in wages for the working class. In addition, gender inequalities disappeared because the less-skilled workers could replace the skilled ones and have lower salaries. The proletariat had nothing to fortify but must work hard, and the bourgeoisie should insure private property without making hard efforts, which resulted in the development of a veiled civil war.

Critical Evaluation

The relationships between freemen and slaves are frequently discussed in modern society to find out the roots of social inequality. After reading The Manifesto of the Communist Party, I got a good chance to understand why Marx and Engels chose the bourgeoisie and the proletariat as the main groups for analysis. I agree with the authors that the presence of closed guilds enhanced the monopolization of industrial production and the inability of ordinary working people to gain some power.

When the demand rises, the bourgeoisie has to keep the markets growing. Machinery revolutions are supported by the bourgeoisie to make sure their needs and expectations are met. However, these people are the authors of the ideas, and the proletariat is the group of people who actually produce the necessary things. I support the approach of Marx and Engels to define both classes as the architects of the weapons that destroy themselves.

Finally, the authors introduced a thought that industrial progress has positive and negative characteristics and impact on the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. Marx and Engels stated that the use of machinery aimed at facilitating a working process and improving the quality of working life at the beginning. With time, machinery removed the distinctions in labor, as well as the reasons to increase wages. In the end, new revolutions, crises, and public discontent occurred, focusing on new working conditions and changes. I believe that this idea depicts the true nature of modern society. Despite the already obtained level of knowledge and experience, people are still not able to understand how not to harm themselves with their own achievements.

Conclusion

Being one of the most complex readings in the course, The Manifesto of the Communist Party reveals a number of interesting aspects of modern life. People cannot forget their goal to obliterate inequality, but all their steps forward removed the idea of human freedom far away. The chosen reading explained the worth of the bourgeois and proletarian activities in communist society and showed how human labor could challenge either rich or poor people.

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