Pollution: Expository Cause And Effect Essay Sample For College

Pollution, including both natural and human-made sources such as motor vehicles, littering, construction, mining, and agriculture industries, significantly contributes to the increase in global warming. It also has adverse effects on the environment and disrupts habitats of living organisms.

Motor vehicle pollution is a significant contributor to environmental pollution, especially in terms of global warming. The emissions released by cars not only pollute the air and damage the atmosphere but also pose risks to respiratory health and cause severe medical conditions.

Littering is a significant contributor to pollution due to careless disposal of trash and laziness among individuals. This practice leads to the consumption of litter by animals, posing health risks and resulting in their death. Additionally, the cleanup process for litter is costly, diverting funds that could otherwise be allocated for various purposes such as repairing deteriorated roads, recruiting additional police officers, and supporting firefighters.

Companies like BP, Pepsi-Cola, and Nestle bear responsibility for polluting the environment through activities such as waste dumping in water bodies, as seen with incidents like BP’s oil spill. The release of harmful pollutants into the water not only damages animals and the environment but also contributes significantly to global warming. In order to preserve a clean environment, companies are making efforts to create strategies. To prevent further degradation, individuals must engage in actions such as reducing driving, recycling, and adopting safer approaches to waste disposal.

The Social Process Triangle

Firms endeavoring to expand into foreign countries need to evaluate the country through both traditional quantitative means and also through a qualitative socioeconomic perspective. In his book, Borderless Business, Clarence Mann introduced the concept of the Social Process Triangle (SPT) to facilitate analysis of the “underlying dynamics of any society” (2006). According to Mann, those dynamics can be described as the interactions between culture, economy and politics (2006). Culture addresses the influence and dynamics of values on a market, such as religion, philosophy, and social relationships. These aspects of culture drive market preferences; for example, in India, Hinduism influences products in international restaurant chains such as McDonald’s, where beef is not on the menu (Alon & Jaffe, 2013). Similarly, Coca-Cola has rebranded Diet Coke as Coke Light in certain European countries to appeal to the local lingo used to describe low-calorie food and beverages (http://www.coca-colacompany.com/contact-us/faqs).

Economy examines the specific industry and factors of production, such as availability of materials, education and skill levels of human resources, infrastructure and distribution channels. Political factors, such as how decisions are made and controlled, show the influence of government on business, and the perceived responsibility of business and/or government to support social needs is addressed (Mann & Goetz, 2006 needs is addressed (Mann & Goetz, 2006).

Once a firm determines the culture, economy and politics of a country and its industry within that country, the firm can use the results to compare that market to its home market as well as other markets in which it already does business, and other potential markets to determine the best next steps for expansion. Not all aspects of the SPT have equal weight in each country, nor do they look the same from country to country. For example, in the United States, freedom acts as our guiding principle and is the most dominant idea in our market. It can be seen not only in the cultural realm, but also in the economic realm where freedom of movement has allowed a strong infrastructure for distribution to be built, but also in the political realm, where the will of the people reigns supreme.

However, in Japan, production efficiency is the most dominant feature of the market, anchoring the country in the economic realm. In Germany, the socialist politics of the country dominate, where high taxes and social safety nets can drive up the cost of doing business (Mann & Goetz, 2006). While multinational enterprises (MNEs) can use the social process triangle to evaluate and manage country risk, they can also use the SPT to evaluate potential business partners in those countries. Once management has a good feel for the country environment that it is entering into from using the social process triangle, it can evaluate where strategic partnerships can be made that will best suit the business in that country. If a country’s political realm is the dominant realm, for example, a business will need to form the appropriate relationships with government entities to ensure success.

For example, in China, guanxi is a term that describes the relationships needed for business and personal success. Doing business there requires that a firm build relationships with government officials and a network of suppliers. The cultural realm of the SPT explains to a business how to build those relationships in adhering to social mores and understanding Confucian influence on worker mentality.

German Expressionism & Soviet Montage

Before World War I, the cinema was largely an international affair. The war, however, disrupted the free flow of films across borders. Domestic production rose in countries like Germany and Russia.

Cinema became largely influenced by the prominence of fine arts (e.g. painting) movements, referred to collectively as Avant-garde. Avant-grade contained styles that rejected the realistic depiction of a concrete world, movements such as German Expressionism and Soviet Montage.

German Expressionism attempted to express raw, extreme emotions, in painting through garish colors and distortion and in theatre through “emphasized gestures, loud declamation of lines, staring eyes, and choreographed movements” (Thompson and Bordwell 69.

During WWI, Germany experienced industry success through expansion, largely due to the government’s isolation and ban of foreign films in 1916. This led to the rise of producing companies: 25 in 1914 to 130 in 1918, and 300 by 1921 (Thompson and Bordwell 87). The ban on imports also gave producers minimal competition in the domestic market.

After WWI, Germany suffered greatly politically and economically. The “war guilt” clause signed by the nation left them solely responsible for the war, and expected to pay all wartime damages caused, this left Germany in financial crisis, eventually causing hyperinflation (Thompson and Bordwell 88). The grief of the economy left wage earners sorrowful. In turn, film attendance rose and more theatres were built, ultimately increasing success of the industry. The German expressionist style grew and made its way into cinema during this time as a reaction to the largely defeated economy as well as a reaction to the dominating cinema that Hollywood produced. By 1922, German cinema became famous internationally, especially through the new stylistic attributes of The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari. The unique German expressionist film used stylized sets, with strange, distorted buildings painted on canvas backdrops and flats in a theatrical manner. “The actors made little attempt at a realistic performance; instead, they exhibited jerky or dancelike movements” (Thompson and Bordwell 93). The film displayed extreme distortion to express an inner emotional reality rather than surface appearances. Moreover, the film illustrated techniques through technology never seen before, such as elongated figures, sagging or leaning buildings with tilted ground in rebellion of traditional perspective, livid green colors and faces with “grotesque” or “anguished” expressions. German Expressionism in cinema lasted largely until about 1927. Concurrently, another element of the Avant-garde movement in cinema was proving just as powerful in Russia. Soviet Montage emerged around 1925, but before this time, Russia had experienced multiple revolts. The population was unhappy with their lack of freedom under the Tsar’s govern, and wanted him to give up control. Eventually, a new communist government took over- one heavily interested in the development of filmmaking and he film industry. At the time, film equipment was not easily came by due to lack of revenue so students had begun to experiment with older film footage and Hollywood imports. They re-cut them and put them back together in different ways.

Thus, Montage was born as filmmakers began to radically change the meaning of image just through the editing and juxtaposition of them. Early montage films featured dynamic depictions of Tsarist period oppression and historical rebellion. Later, montage films were used to embody the new ideals of the Communist government so that they could be conveyed to the population. The new wave of films not only helped build revenue for the Soviet films industry, but was also relied on as the most powerful tool for propaganda and education toward a country that was mostly illiterate (Thompson and Bordwell 109-111). Sergei Eisenstein was one man who revolutionized Soviet Montage through his method of juxtaposition and “collisionary montage”. He would create sharp, volting, and even violent films through use of this method to create a universal effect of conflict, something the population would heavily relate to (Thompson and Bordwell 117-119). In his film, Strike (1925), the use of montage is clear. Spliced together images of men at work being shot down by machine guns juxtaposed by images of oxen being killed. The oxen were not on the location where the story takes place. The image was cut in for metaphorical purposes. Both avant-garde film movements proved heavily influential and significant globally. Although Expressionism and Montage in cinema both arose in times of political and economic hardships for both Germany and Russia, the cinematic arts did not suffer. Both movements have even influenced the dominating cinema of Hollywood.

CITATIONS

1. Thompson, , and Bordwell. Film History. 3rd. McGraw Hill, 42-127. Print.

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