Pornography, Hate Speech, And Censorship Sample Paper

Is a government justified in limiting the access of consenting adults to pornographic materials? Censorship laws seek to limit access to pornographic materials but preventing their distribution, sale, or exhibition. Censorship laws can also prohibit the production of pornography or even its possession Commission Reports on Pornography The 1970 Commission Had an explicit anticensorship stance.

Congress est the Commision on Obscenity and Pornography. Members had to do a thorough study of obscenity and pornography and on the basis of the study, submitting recommendations to regulate obscene and pornographic materials. Fundamental recommendation: all legislation prohiting the sale, exhibition, or distrubition of sexual materials to consenting adults be repealed.

Commission recommondeation: continue lesiglation intended to protect nonconsenting adults from being confronted with the materla through public displays and unsolicited mailings, continue lesiglationprohibiting commericial distribution of certain sexual material to juveniles.

They made these recommendations on this basis: Thereis no evidice to support the contention that exposure to explicit sexual material plays a significant role in the causation of either social harms or indivudal harms. Recommendation report cons 2/18 members supported the fundamental recommendation. President Nixon believed the report unsatisfactory. Public outcry that the conclusions were “morally bankrupt”. Conclusion: there was no significant movement to implement the fundamental recommendation.

The 1986 Commission Supported censorship and laws already criminalizing sale, distyrubtion, or exhibition of legally obscene pornographic material.  Later, an 11 member commission reexamined the problem of porn in society.

Attorney General’s Commission on Pornography submitted the final report:  Defines pornography: material that is predominantly sexually explicit and intended primary for the purpose of sexual arousal. Distinguish among violent pornography, non violent but degrading pornography, and nonvioland and nondegrading porography. Conclusion: both 1 and 2 but not 3 bear a causal relationship to undesirable attiduinal changes and acts of sexual violence.

Since production of child porn entails sexual abuse of children, commission pointed out that there is a distinctive rationale for laws that prohibit the production sale, exhibition, or distribution of child porn. Observed that over the past years, porn has become increasingly violent, degrading and pervasive.

According to the “Miller standard” material is legally obscene if 3 are satisfied:  average person would find that the work taken as a whole appeals to the lustful interest, the work depicts sexual conduct specifically defined by the applicable state law. Content must be explicit in nature, rather than merely suggestive the work as a whole lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value Liberty-Limiting Principles Limitation of individual liberty involves laws limiting the access of consenting adults to porn materials.

Four suggested liberty-limiting principles are noteworthy to justify the limitation of individual liberty: The harm principle – Individual liberty is justifiably limited to prevent harm to others a. Most widely accepted liberty-limiting principle b. This category involves both personal injury and general welfare of society c. John Stuart Mill believes that only the harm principle is a legitimate one d. Mill strongly rejects no and  The principle of legal paternalism – Individual liberty is justifiably limited to prevent harm to selfe.

Supporters believe this principle is like a parent limiting his or her child’s liberty in order to save the child from harm f. Non supporters such as Mill believe that the gov’t does not have the right to meddle in the private lives of citizens. Such meddling causes more harm than prevents The principle of legal moralism – Individual liberty is justifiably limited to prevent immoral behavior g. Law may be invoked to prevent immoral behavior or enforce morals. h. An appeal to the harm principle already provides a widely accepted independent justification i. As a result, this principle usually invoked only when there are so-called victimless crimes j. Mill rejects use of this principle as a basis for limiting liberty. In his view, accepting this principle would be allowing the “tyranny of the majority. “

The offense principle – Individual liberty is justifiably limited to prevent offense to others k. “Offensive behavior” is understood as behavior that causes shame, embarrassment, disgust or other psych. Discomforts l. It is not advanced to justify laws that would limit the access of consenting adults to pornographic materials m.

Sometimes advanced to justify laws that protect non-consenting adults from offensive displays of porn Is Censorship of Pornography Justified? Harm Principle The most important procensorship argument is based on the harm principle. Supporters argue that people exposed to porn will commit sex-related crimes. However, they fail to prove if crime is a causal result of exposure to porn. 1970 Commision reports that there is no evidence to support this causal connection. But, 1986 commision reported the existence of this causal connection. Overall, these are continued to be debated.

Since this is widely accepted principle, there is the argument that there is a causal connection between use/production of porn and harmful behavior. This can be harms involving actresses/actors in the production of porn. The Principle of Legal Paternalism Supporters argue that exposure to porn develops or reinforces emotional problems and that people can render themselves incapable of love and other human relationships necessary for a happy/satisfying life. Also, they argue that frequent exposure to porn “depersonalizes” or “dehumanizes. ”

This argument is answered in 2 ways: the alleged self-harm does not occur, regardless of how true or false this claim is, the principle of legal paternalism is not an acceptable liberty-limiting principle Principle of Legal Moralism The argument on this principle is answered in 2 ways: The alleged conseus of moral opionon is nonexistent. Regarless of how truth or false the calim of existing moral consensus is, the principle of legal moralism is not an acceptable liberty-limiting principle A gov’t can rightfully restrict the activity of consenting adults only on the grounds that such activity is harmful to others.

At the present time however, it has not been est that the access of consenting adults to porn stuff presents a “clear and present danger. ” Thus, censorship will be abused and is clearly unwarranted Feminism and Pornography Feminists do not ordinarily object to the sexual explicitness that is found in porn. Rather they are concern with 2 principles: porn typically portrays women in a degrading and dehumanizing way, there is sufficient evidence that the production of porn violates Mill’s harm principle in many ways

Longino defines porn as materal that explicity represents degrading and abusive sexual behavior so as to endorse/recommend the behavior as described. In contrast, Brison emphasizes the connections between porn and harm. She beleaves that there is ample evidence that porn causes a variety of harms primarily to “participants” in porn. Wicclair defends anticensorship where he values the principle of freedom of expression. He argues that the connection between porn and harm to women is too theoretical to warrant the social costs of censorship. Regulating Hate Speech

Mill argues for complete freedom of expression where societal attempts to suppress unpopular/unorthodox opinions are more productive of harm than are unregulated opinions. He also is not committed to the view that no restrictions on expressions of opinion are justified, meaning sometimes expressions of opinion are actually harmful to others (ie. When speech is used to provoke angry mob to violence). This is where he believes the harm principle would come in to allow restrictions. Corry v. Stanford University Village of Skokie v. National Socialist Party of America

On Liberty – John Stuart Mill Mill argues that society is warranted in restricting individual liberty only if an action is harmful to other, not when an action is harmful to the person who performs it. He rejects both the legal paternalism and legal moralism principles and argues on utilitarian grounds that society will be better off by tolerating expressions of individual liberty involving no harm to others. He also has an overall argument for the free expression of opinion.

Call Centers – “Call Now, Operators Are Standing By”

When you see a commercial with an announcer stating, “Call now, operators are standing by,” your call is being answered by a call center. Call centers are locations that can perform a variety of tasks for a business. According to, A call centre or call center is a centralised office used for the purpose of receiving or transmitting a large volume of requests by telephone.” An inbound call centre is operated by a company to administer incoming product support or information inquiries from consumers.

Outbound call centers are operated for telemarketing, soliciting charitable or political donations, debt collection, and market research (source). Call center staffing is as important as any other job within a business. Often, the call center is the first point of contact for customers interacting with a company. Finding employees with the right set of skills for this crucial role can be challenging.

Employees in call centers must possess good customer service skills and knowledge of the product they are supporting or selling. Below is a sample job description for a senior call center operator at ViewPoint Bank in Plano, Texas. ( This position is similar to that of a senior teller at a traditional bank.

Summary: The senior call center operator will be responsible for providing customer service to clients and assisting with administrative functions.

Assists Call Center Managers in executing daily activities to ensure customer service objectives are met, clients are served professionally, and team members comply with all policies and procedures. Takes the lead in the office when Customer Service Managers are absent.

Essential Duties and Responsibilities:

  • Oversees projects related to the Call Center.
  • Reinforces superior customer service through their example, appropriate observations, and follow-through with customers and employees.
  • Conducts periodic training to ensure optimal knowledge for all staff.


  • Maintain knowledge of phone system and reporting capabilities.
  • Provide supervision, guidance, coaching, recognition, motivation and training to department personnel.
  • Accept and resolve escalated customer calls.
  • Ensure audit compliance and quality control of all work processed within the department.
  • Attend various product knowledge and customer service training presentations.
  • Ensure effective communication to staff and implementation of all policy and procedure changes as approved by Senior Management.
  • Consistently answer questions and recommend solutions regarding customer inquiries.


  • Obtain approvals and process requests in accordance with established policies and procedures.
  • Assume responsibility for various department functions when managers or staff members are absent.
  • Be flexible to work alternate schedules as needed.
  • Perform other duties as assigned within assigned limits.


  • The ability to multitask and pay close attention to detail is a must-have skill.
  • Demonstrate excellent proficiency in personal computer applications such as Microsoft Word, Excel, and PowerPoint.
  • A minimum of three years of related experience and/or training is required.</l1

Work related experience must consist of call center and/or financial industry. The ideal candidate should possess organizational and time management skills, along with the ability to provide leadership, supervision, and training. They should have a demonstrated ability in organization and delegation skills. Additionally, they should have excellent verbal, written, and interpersonal communication skills with the ability to carry out instructions and instruct others. The candidate should also be able to train personnel effectively, read, analyze and interpret documents accurately while understanding procedures well enough to write reports clearly. They must be able to speak clearly to customers and employees as well.

The ideal candidate for this position should also possess the ability to deal with problems involving multiple facets and variables in non-standardized situations.

A high school diploma or GED is required for this job, with some college education preferred. One may question how businesses can offshore this type of skill set based on the job description. However, many American manufacturing jobs have been outsourced and moved overseas, and call centers reflect a major industry that has also made the shift. Companies should approach this move with caution as there can be a negative impact if it is solely based on profit. According to the textbook (page 144), As of 2011, entry-level customer service representatives in India earn between $4,200 and $5,200 per year,” which is considered a good salary by India’s standards.

However, in a 2010 article posted on, Carolyn Beeler stated that high inflation and double-digit annual raises in some sectors were pushing up the cost of labor in India. At the same time, wages in the U.S. were falling and companies were rethinking the trade-offs associated with outsourcing (source). In 2004, HP Computers opened a call center in India despite other tech companies such as Dell pulling out of these operations due to their impact on customers (source).

A recent article on HP’s decision to set up a call center in India (source: has led to customer dissatisfaction with the level of service. This raises the question: what skills are necessary for a call center employee? According to an article on, it seems that only having a non-Indian or American accent is required for employment at Indian call centers (source: This article provides insight into how Indian call centers choose and train their employees. Salary information was not provided.

According to, the median salary range for a U.S. call center representative – inbound is around $30,000. This number is nowhere near the double-digit raise stated. However, perhaps that amount can be resolved by a statement on call center representatives working at home from the same article: “It provides a lower cost point than other traditional means of onshore customer service,” says Chris Carrington, who runs Alpine Access, the Denver-based company that Quigley-Hogan works for.

Carrington states that the low overhead of having home-based workers enables him to charge 20% less for the same services provided by brick-and-mortar call centers in the U.S. Alpine Access is not alone in following this trend. According to the textbook (page 162), JetBlue and American Airlines are also implementing this strategy for their call centers. This trend has been shown to increase retention, and performance is comparable to that of traditional call centers.

Impact Of Automobiles Of 1920s

Mrs. Gaska English 3B 14 April 2013 Impact of Automobile In 1920s The automobile. This one introduction changed America’s history forever, not only economically but socially as well by exploding business opportunities and broadening the independence of all ages. America’s economy propagated leaps and bounds during the 1920s due to the introduction of the automobile by expanding the horizons of business tenfold. Firstly, the automobile industry gave way to jobs never seen before.

In regards to new business, “New jobs due to the impact of the automobile such as fast food, city/highway construction, state police, convenient stores, auto repair shops, and auto part shops” (Brancheau). The new availabilities in professions enabled a more diverse job sector and a proliferation of career choices. Further more, another huge area of expansion that boosted the economy was the agricultural industry. The new accommodations for farmers were countless; “Farmers can ship easily and economically by truck and can drive to town when it is convenient” (Brancheau).

The easy accessibility of produce drove the supply through the roof, which in return caused prices to fall and became easier for everyday folk to buy a bigger bulk. Lastly, ease and speed were two characteristics businesses needed to hold in order to keep pace with the new American family. In regards to food, “Drivers wanted cheap, relatively fast food so they could be on their way in a hurry, which was answered by diners” (ushistory. org).

Throughout America’s history, few inventions have had such a positive impact on the economy as the automobile, creating jobs, increasing agricultural abilities, and creating brand new sectors in business. The 1920s social scene was made possible by one thing, and one thing only and that is the automobile. For example, a reverse in the move to the city trend occurred, as people were able to live anywhere and still get to the city to work. Moving out to the outskirts became normal, “Has radically changed city life by accelerating the outward expansion of population into

the suburbs” (ushistory. org). Having the easy access to city life without actually living in the city became extremely appealing to families. Additionally, automobiles granted the ability to travel further distances in much less time than ever before. When talking about far travels, “Freedom of choice encouraged many family vacations to places previously impossible to reach” (Brancheau). Vacations became important for families during the 20s and acted as a great bonding experience along with entertainment.

Lastly, parents, teenagers and young adults were able to feel this newfound autonomy. Being alone changed a lot, “Teens gained more and more independence with driving, and initiated more freedom among dating couples” (ushistory. org). The new indulgences felt by teens would continue to snowball into the counterculture seen throughout the 20s. No social order was held after the automobile came around by making things achievable never before feasible. All in all, the automobile fabricated the social and economic stratums of America during the 1920s.

Changing any previously held traditions, creating all new possibilities for every age increasing freedoms and starting the roaring 20s. As time continued, the automobile has grown into a cornerstone of America and manages everyday life of modern families. ushistory. org, . “The Age of the Automobile. ” U. S. History Online Textbook. ushistory. org. Web. 15 Apr 2013. &lt;http://www. ushistory. org/us/46a. asp&gt;. Brancheau, John. “The History of the Automobile. ” The Impact of the Automobile In the 20th Century. University of Colorado Boulder. Web. 15 Apr 2013.

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