Potential Danger To Human Life: Comets And Asteroids Essay Example For College

This paper is a summary of the fear of human extinction as it happened with the dinosaurs; as a result of the development of extraordinary skills used in the manufacture of complicated systems and superior weapons which lead to mass destruction based on the claims that they are meant for protection. A symbiotic relationship between the military and scientific societies can now clearly be seen; for at any time these two groups convene military leaders are aggravated by the scientific impracticality, as is the case with the atomic bomb creator Oppenheimer who afterward rejected his creation (Bobrowsk, 2007).

The fear that humankind will one day come to an end is based on the contention that; unless members of society join forces to find a sustainable solution about the making of ammunition then extinction is awaiting. Based on real-time happenings, a timely warning is passed about the great men like scientists becoming ‘Kings of Terror’; where they are plunging towards the earth an immense heap of rock, ice, or metal. An illustration in this case is the ‘death rock’ talked of in the year 1999; which would mean the extinction of all human life on earth in its millions (Bobrowsk, 2007).

However the challenge in this case is that future leaders will be faced with the difficult task of ensuring a sustainable security for the earth because of technical harms; that would be threatening to the life and wellbeing of men from the amounting new technologies and destructively inventive use of the existing ones that should be required to pursue and ensure the indefinite future of the earth (Bobrowsk, 2007).

Asteroids are in a restricting way contained by the solar system and usually not too far off the ecliptic plane; hence they symbolize a comparatively easy target. Comets unlike the asteroids are not bound by the solar system which gives rise to the problem that, with the recognition of the impactor it is vital to collect data regarding the body or core; establish its orbit and be sure that is going to strike the earth. If a comet endangered earth, there would have been no time or method to avoid the threat on the planet. With such a comet as Hale-Bopp if it had reached the earth as according to the detection; being approximately six times the extent of Mount Everest that would have made a bit of a disorder whether it was squashy and crumbly or hard for the energy transfer would have been massive if it had crashed with the earth (Officer & Page, 2006).

Looking in the Halley’s Comet mission of 1986, mass destruction could occur. Luckily, the comet was approaching from the opposite direction and a rocket was launched at an angle so that the comet would be cut off as it crossed Earth’s path radius (Officer & Page, 2006).

Since Desert Storm in 1991, it has been hard enough for NATO to uphold a stable coalition of agreement against Saddam Hussein. Some of its members, Russia in particular have ended up turning their backs on Britain and America; whereas as a result Russia has fated the two powers for initiating Desert Fox against Iraqis. With such kind of a war, many people have been killed who constituted a part and parcel of humankind reduction in the earth (Spanqenburg & Moser, 2007).

Asteroids pose a great threat to earth for if a death rock were on an impact course with earth, in the case the hunter-killer spacecraft unsuccessfully failed to get to the target as planned, it could cause the death of millions (Bobrowsk, 2007).

The discovery that comet collisions caused the disappearance of the dinosaurs as well as more than partially the species that lived 65 million years back, might have been the most noteworthy scientific burst throughout the twentieth century. For more than two centuries the likelihood that the earth may be smacked by comets has been argued and three queries were raised from the beginning; will a comet strike the earth once more and if so, when? Might comet collision result in the extermination of the human species; and is it likely that the deluge legends from so many mores around the world possibly will be explained by past comet crashes in the oceans that caused enormous tsunamis. For these results, many people have become worried about the fear of another tragedy facing them. It is also quite incredible to see currently the majority of scientists, who were on one occasion skeptical that impacts might yet again occur, or that they might be liable for the annihilation of species; where now squabbles are about the facts of the mechanisms concerned (Officer & Page, 2006).

Comets and asteroids are also a great threat in other ways. Cosmic collisions evidently set the prospect for the emergence of Homo sapiens, a kind that lately became aware sufficiently to design and manipulate tools that let it explore further than its senses. Through this, our species came to observe how it fits into the space, system of things. Through such an experience a heated debate raises on impacts associated with comets and asteroids which might lead to human extinction.

It might be difficult to deflect an object that is headed in the direction of earth if we do not have any clue of what it is made of; whether it is rocky, a latent comet, or some feathery snowball of the type that broke up close to Jupiter and compressed to its stunning demise in July 1994 (Spanqenburg & Moser, 2007).

According to Gene, initially there was an enormous fireball brighter than the sun as the comet thrust to its death, not with a blubber, but a bang. One subject was the ozone layer which appeared then vanished; wherewith the break of it every part of the earth was occupied with pieces of it. The temperatures rose to that of an oven set to sweltering, from which ground fires blazed everywhere then afterward the temperatures started to come down. After this instance the rains experienced afterward poisoned with sulphuric and nitric acid furthered the desolation. In the course, Gene guessed that most of the big dinosaurs died in weeks (Svarney, 2003).

To conclude, comets and asteroids are a great danger to human life as well as to animals hence the scientists must accept that and play their role in educating people regarding the changes taking place in the universe, and the future they may be holding for them.

Reference

Bobrowsk, P., 2007. Comet/Asteroid impacts and human society. New York: Springer Publishers.

Officer, C. & Page, J., 1996. The great dinosaur extinction controversy.1st edition. New York: Perseus books.

Spanqenburg, R. & Moser, K., 2007. If an asteroid hit earth. London. Franklin Watts Press.

Svarney, P., 2003. Asteroid: Earth destroyer or new frontier. Basic books Press

Behaviorism As A Theory Of Personality

Behaviorism appeared as a critical response to psychoanalytic theory that was suggested by Sigmund Freud. Many notable psychologists such as Edward Thorndike, John Watson, Ivan Pavlov, Burrhus Skinner, and others were convinced that in order to explain natural laws of human behavior, psychology should develop scientific methodology and conduct an empirical research of the observable behavior rather than the unconscious ideas. Since behavioral theory focuses away from the internal processes of our mind and the subconsciousness, studying only the observable behavior, it cannot claim to be a full-fledged theory clarifying all the aspects of personality. However, the behavioral approach helps to explain some of our motives, actions, and phobias.

Behavioral Theory

As a personality theory, behaviorism studies human behavior on the assumption that it is always learned. In most cases, a person’s actions depend on a previous experience that was reinforced in a positive or negative way by particular measures. This leads to the concept of conditioning process. There are two types of conditioning in behavioral theory: classical and operant. Classical conditioning is the process in which two stimuli (unconditioned and conditioned) are used to create an association between them and to produce a certain response. The process of operant conditioning applies not stimuli, but reinforcement (positive or negative) to create a response and to make a subject of conditioning act in a certain way. As a result of the conditioning process, a person develops particular behavioral patterns, which they use in different situations (Friedman & Schustack, 2010). Behavioral theory also studies the possibility of change in behavior describing the extinction process: if a conditioned stimulus presented alone or a person does not receive any reinforcement, then the behavior weakens and the behavioral pattern changes. In classical conditioning, a subject may display signs of neurotic behavior when something vaguely resembles the unconditioned stimulus (Friedman & Schustack, 2010).

Thus, behavioral theory deals with the observable behavior and ignores the internal processes that may determine and influence the way in which person chooses to act. As a personality theory, behaviorism suggests that personality is formed during the constant process of interaction between a person and the environment.

Application of Behavioral Theory

I characterize myself as an introvert and believe that my introversion is determined by the environment. One of my characteristic features is careful thinking. I will never express my opinion unless I know a subject of discussion sufficiently well. People who jump to conclusions irritate me. Most likely, such trait developed as a result of realization that people appreciate thoughtfulness. If people know that you are a careful thinker, they will respect your opinion and will seek your advice. Such recognition serves as the positive reinforcement and induces to develop the habit of reasoning even further. Thus, the careful thinking is the behavior that arose in response to the positive reinforcement during the unintentional process of operant conditioning where the society was an object, and I was a subject.

In case if I do not receive a positive reinforcement, that is, if I see that people do not consider my opinion or remain indifferent to what I say, the motivation to be thoughtful and reasonable disappears. This can serve as a model of the extinction process. It is possible to explain this process more accurately on another example. When I work on a project, I try to do my best to reach the qualitative result. However, if I see that nobody notices my efforts and does not appreciate them, that is, if there is no positive reinforcement, I do everything with indifference that quite often affects the quality of my work.

Those were the examples of operant conditioning. Classical conditioning may explain my fear of drunk people. In my childhood, the father used to drink alcohol when he had problems. As a rule, alcoholism is accompanied with physical violence and, unfortunately, my case was not different. The look of intoxicated father served as the unconditioned stimulus, and the beating was the conditioned one. Today I understand that drunk people not always present a threat, however, I cannot overcome my fear.

Limitations of Behavioral Theory

Behavioral theory is subject to criticism because it focuses only on observable and measurable behavior and ignores the mental, internal processes. Most of the experiments of behaviorists were performed on animals, and conclusions were made on the basis of those experiments. The history of behaviorism knows John Watson’s relatively successful attempt to apply conditioning processes to nine-month-old Albert, though (Friedman & Schustack, 2010). Still, it is impossible to use the results of the animal tests in explanation of human behavior. Behavioral theory ignores such concepts as will, sense of responsibility, pride, etc (Ryckman, 2012). This theory cannot explain some of my decisions. If we take the same example with public recognition as the positive reinforcement, then behavioral theory cannot clarify the motives of my participation in the anonymous charity projects. I am aware of the fact that people will never know that I contribute money for children with serious diseases but I continue to do that without their appreciation. In this case, behavioral theory fails to explain what other theories of personality can clarify.

Conclusion

Behavioral theory arose in the twentieth century as a response to psychoanalytic theory of Sigmund Freud. This theory is based on the assumption that all human actions are determined by the previous experience, in which a person develops certain patterns of behavior. Thus, behavioral theory assumes that personality is formed during the process of person’s interaction with the environment. This theory may explain some of the actions, motives, and phobias, as well as modify the behavior with the help of the positive or negative reinforcement. For this reason, this theory is widely used in education, personnel management, treatment of mental disorders and phobias. Nevertheless, the disregard for the mental and unconscious processes is the obvious disadvantage of this theory because it does not allow calling it a full-fledged theory of personality.

References

Friedman, H. S. & Schustack M. W. (2010). Personality: Classic theories and modern research (5th ed.). New York City, NY: Pearson.

Ryckman, R. M. (2012). Theories of personality. San Francisco, CA: Cengage Learning.

Suicide Within The Youth: Causal Analysis

Introduction

The problem of suicide within youth is one of the most burning problems nowadays. Originally, young people commit suicide because of their lack of self-confidence, lack of confidence in their future, and lack of life experience. Nevertheless, even if the key reasons are known, it is almost impossible to prevent suicides among youth, as additional factors often influence their decision.

Thesis Statement

Suicide is generally regarded as the third cause of death for young people between 10 and 24. (Lester and Lester, 65) The dramatic statistics reveal that three of the most popular means of suicide are firearms, suffocation, and poisoning. Originally, the reasons for suicide are various, nevertheless, the final cause is approximately common. Moreover, special risk factors and risk groups exist, as two young people behave differently in the same situation.

Analysis

The fact is that the final cause, which pushes youngsters to pull the trigger, is the feeling of hopelessness and abandonment. Thus, the most effective solution to the problem will be psychological help and assistance in solving the appeared problem. Such help will be definitely anonymous, as youngsters are often too vulnerable and do not wish to share such a problem with their friends, parents, and other surrounding people. (Pritchard, 67)

Even though special hotlines exist, few know of their existence, consequently, extensive advertisement campaigns should be held. Moreover, people should be persuaded that a solution really exists, they just need to become courageous enough for finding this solution, and implementing it in real life.

Risk Factors

Some people commit suicide unexpectedly for the surrounding people, while others are in the risk group. The risk group entails the following factors:

  • Those, who already had suicide attempts
  • Instances of suicide in a family
  • Mental deceases
  • Alcohol or drug affection
  • Incarceration or any other stressful event (Miller and Eckert, 198)

Thus, the special monitoring system should be arranged for controlling the risk group and performing the corresponding psychological assistance and educational work.

How to Prevent

Originally, suicides are spiritually weak people, who do not have anybody to rely on. Assisting them in overcoming the problem, there is a strong necessity to encourage them of being strong, and resist the world, as life always tries us for strength, and all the challenges, which happen in life, can be overcome, independently of the circumstances.

If this does not help, the statement of the opposite should be resorted to. Weak people are like a virus on a planet, which weakens the entire organism, and cannot be tolerated. Thus, if you are weak – you are nothing. Thus, shame should be used in the argumentation strategy and self-compassion. Nevertheless, if these strategies do not work, the strategy of psychological shock may be resorted to. Famine, drought, floods, hurricanes, and other disasters should be shown. When people see all the miseries and horrors of the disasters, they feel that not all is lost. Finally, the histories of those who fight for life should be demonstrated. Injured people, deceased, with AIDS or cancer – those who wish to live despite all.

The only aim of the assistance should be the statement that life is worth living and that no one is abandoned. These are the key aspects of preventing suicide, especially among youngsters.

Conclusion

Despite the dramatic statistics and the frightening tendencies of suicide within the youth, the problem is solvable, as the main aim is to make them feel assistance, and persuade that not everything is lost.

Works Cited

Lester, David, and Gene Lester. Suicide: The Gamble with Death. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2001.

Miller, David N., Tanya L. Eckert, and James J. Mazza. “Suicide Prevention Programs in the Schools: A Review and Public Health Perspective.” School Psychology Review 38.2 (2009): 168

Pritchard, Colin. Suicide–The Ultimate Rejection? A Psycho-Social Study. Philadelphia: Open University Press, 2005.

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