Potential Loss Of Privacy And Hacking Of Electronic Medical Records (EMR) Free Writing Sample

COVID-19’s effects have significantly had a massive impact on the technological sector. The COVID-19 pandemic, within a short period, has brought about a considerable change in how organizations in all regions and sectors conduct their businesses. One of these sectors that the crisis has impacted is the health sector. The pandemic has digitally transformed the health sector by bringing into the limelight the adoption of digital programs that help nurses and other medical practitioners expedite their work to battle the COVID-19 crisis. One such program is nursing informatics. This specialty field functions to digitally integrate multiple information with nursing science and analytical sciences to define, communicate, identify, and manage data, knowledge, wisdom, and information in the nursing field (Kleib et al., 2021). The paper discusses one such kind of nursing informatics program, the Electronic Medical Records (EMR) system, that can be useful to nurses and the nursing sector in combatting the COVID-19 crisis. Besides, it also analyzes some of the potential losses and risks that come with the program and possible mitigation measures for smooth and uninterrupted operations.

Development of the EMR Nursing Informatics Program

Electronic Medical Records (EMR) is a software that entails the digital recording of the paper patient’s health information that aids the nurses and other health providers in crucial decision-making concerning how to care for patients. It contains the patient’s diagnoses, treatment plans, medical history, immunization

dates, medications, laboratory test results, images of radiology, and allergies. They help improve the quality of patient care and facilitate their safety and overall workflow within a single healthcare facility (Kohli & Tan, 2016). There are two development phases of the EMR; the Early and Most Recent.

The Early Phase

The initial efforts to develop the EMR software system began during the 1960s and ’70s, with the academic medical institutions developing their own integrated systems. In the mid-1980s, leaders agreed to commercialize the system. This necessitated creating uniform governing standards to facilitate the global adoption and usage of the system. The initial EMR systems were referred to as clinical information systems. Lockheed Corporation developed one such product in the mid-1960s. It was then handed down to Vendor Technicon and later to TDS Healthcare and Eclipsys, which is today part of Allscripts. The product influenced subsequent systems due to its flexibility and processing speed, allowing multiple users in the system simultaneously (Kohli & Tan, 2016). During the same period, a collaboration between the University of Utah and 3M saw the development of the first clinical decision support system, the Health Evaluation through Logical Processing (HELP).

Later in 1968, in collaboration with Harvard, Massachusetts General Hospital began the Computer Stored Ambulatory Record (COSTAR), containing some novel designs. The modular design enabled the system to be divided into parts, for instance, the accounting portion and the vocabulary part. For example, the accounting parts of the system did not need to encompass clinical or any extra information. The feature helped increase the efficiency of the system. Besides, its vocabulary section exhibited flexibility as its database enabled multiple-term recognition of a similar disease (Kohli & Tan, 2016). That feature enabled system users to identify a specific condition across the system regardless of technological variations by different organizations. The adoption of the EMR by the federal government started in the 1970s with the Decentralized Hospital Computer Program (DHCP), currently known as the Department of Veteran Affairs’ Implementation of Vista. Most former medical students and resident physicians got used to the VA’s Computerized Patient Record System (CPRS).

More Recent Phase

Numerous concerted efforts have been put in place to enhance the usage of EMR since the 1980s.On recognizing the need for a thorough analysis of manual health records, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) embarked on a study in the mid-1980s that saw the publishment of the findings in 1991 and later revision in 1997. The report by IOM identified EMR among its seven top recommendations as the critical component to improving patient health records, thus posing the idea of changing paper to electronic records. It also highlighted the possible setbacks of adopting the system, such as security threats, lack of standards, and cost. In the report, IOM also suggested the need for public and private funding to develop the systems. On realization of the findings by the private industry, supporters developed the Computer-Based Patient Record Institute (CPRI) to break down the setbacks to the development of EMR (Kohli & Tan, 2016). This has since been combined with the Health Information and Management systems Society (HIMSS). Later in 2000, a study of medical errors, “To Err is Human,” was published by the IOM, insinuating that healthcare safety was laid within such systems. The IOM was also involved in the electronic standards organization, HL7 development.HL7, although not the only existing SDO, is a non-profit international standards-developing organization (SDO) initiated in 1987 and has been the most widely known.

Due to the variation of the EMR system components due to development by different vendors, there was a need for standards for the optimum functionality of the system. Thus, an oversight body, Certification Commission for Healthcare Information (CCHIT), was developed to certify the vendors since 2006 as HL7-compliance.In recent years, EMRs have been the subject of discussion in national political forums revealing the increased concerns about the effects of record keeping on public health. The issue was first mentioned in 2004 by President Bush in his State of the Union address. President Obama incorporated this into the system as part of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH) in the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.

The shortcoming of the EMR system: Potential Loss of Privacy and Hacking

Privacy of patient issues is one of the primary concerns with electronic health and medical records due to their potentiality of access by unauthorized users. This is one of the areas for improvement of this proposed nursing informatics program. Some confidential information landing into unscrupulous individuals may pose massive mental damage to a patient. Improper usage and reckless design of the EMR system interface have a high potential of causing errors in the EMR that may jeopardize the integrity of the system data. This may lead to declining healthcare quality and endanger the patient’s safety. Such unexpected consequences may also escalate abuse and fraud cases, resulting in harsh legal implications (Bani Issa et al., 2020). For instance, a malicious individual may hack into the system due to poor security design and manipulate the data, such as the patient’s Covid-19 vaccination data. A healthcare provider then uses the same data unknowingly to make a critical healthcare decision, for example, the type of medication or treatment a patient requires. This will automatically result in a misinformed decision which may put the patient in great danger.

Additionally, data may need to be correctly transmitted, entered, lost, or displayed, resulting in a loss of integrity with the system information. For instance, the patient’s previous COVID-19 vaccination records may be accidentally lost in the system. This will make it difficult for the nurses and other health service providers to know whether the patients had received vaccination earlier and how often they received it. Healthcare quality hugely depends on the health information’s reliability, credibility, and verifiability. Thus cases such as these, if not looked into with care, affect the credibility of the EMR system.

Mitigation Measures of the Potential Loss of Privacy and Hacking of the EMR

Cybersecurity attacks have significantly increased in recent years, becoming one of the primary healthcare information breaches. This, in many cases, has caught several healthcare institutions by surprise as they have been unprepared to secure patients’ data with the ever-changing dynamics of security threats (Wang et al., 2021). Hence, this section details some possible practices that may be critical in mitigating the security risks in healthcare Electronic Medical Records. First, proper education of the healthcare service providers team will be essential. Slight human negligence and unprecedented errors can pose a huge disaster and regrettable losses for healthcare institutions. Thus, creating security awareness and organizing cybersecurity training will be crucial. This helps equip nurses and other healthcare service providers with the essential knowledge to enhance intelligent decision-making when handling patient information.

Secondly, strict restrictions on data access and applications will bolster healthcare organizations’ patient data privacy. This will ensure that only authenticated users can access the system (Wang et al., 2021). Additionally, the implementation of protective data application controls will be essential. This ensures that malicious or risky data activities that target sensitive data in the system are blocked or flagged off on time. Also, data encryption in transit and rest will be critical. This makes it difficult for a hacker to decipher patients’ data even if they manage to access the system.

Key Stakeholders Needed to Ensure Successful Implementation of the System

For the successful implementation of the EMR system, various stakeholders will need to be involved. First are the clinicians the system has primarily designed to assist as they discharge their duties. Being in the frontline position of offering clinical services, they suggest the possible inputs required by the system during the selection and planning phases. Secondly, the front office staff/manager will be critical as they are responsible for the billing, contact, and demographic input information of the patients served by the health organization. Besides, this group of stakeholders will help with crucial feedback on the system’s performance, which can help improve the system. For instance, the wait time taken to serve one patient to another, especially with the high number of visiting Covid-19 patients.

Another group of stakeholders is the marketing team. They are essential because they help create a thorough review of the practice requirements. Through extensive promotion, patients get complete information about the system that can best serve them well and get to choose. For example, some EMR systems have online portals. These can help patients gain access to book and schedule appointments, especially during the Covid-19 period when the health facilities were packed and excessively busy. Also the board members and management will also be crucial in successfully implementing the proposed nursing informatics program. This is because they are the final decision-makers and controllers of the finances required to purchase the system.


The technology field is developing at first-rate, becoming the core of many business organizations’ success and the health sector. Due to the ever-changing technology landscape, the health sector, in particular, has seen the development of the nursing informatics specialty that deals with the automation of the health industry. One such kind is the Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) that facilitate the digital storage of patients’ health data. The software has dramatically improved the health sector but only came with shortcomings. One of those has been the risk of hacking and potential loss of privacy, which has questioned the system’s credibility and reliability. Although if possible measures are put in place, as discussed in the paper, the system will remain a game changer in the health sector. In conclusion, successful system implementation requires concerted effort and cooperation among various stakeholders, such as the clinicians, front office staff, the board members /management, and the market team.


Kleib, M., Chauvette, A., Furlong, K., Nagle, L., Slater, L., & McCloskey, R. (2021). Approaches for defining and assessing nursing informatics competencies: a scoping review.  JBI evidence synthesis19(4), 794–841. https://journals.lww.com/jbisrir/Abstract/2021/04000/Approaches_for_defining_and_assessing_nursing.6.aspx

Kohli, R., & Tan, S. S. L. (2016). Electronic Health Records.  Mis Quarterly40(3), 553–574. https://www.jstor.org/stable/26629027

Bani Issa, W., Al Akour, I., Ibrahim, A., Almarzouqi, A., Abbas, S., Hisham, F., & Griffiths, J. (2020). Privacy, confidentiality, security, and patient safety concerns about electronic health records.  International nursing review67(2), 218–230. https://doi.org/10.1111/inr.12585

Wang, Q., Davis, P. B., Gurney, M. E., & Xu, R. (2021). COVID‐19 and dementia: Analyses of risk, disparity, and outcomes from electronic health records in the US.  Alzheimer’s & Dementia17(8), 1297-1306. https://doi.org/10.1002/alz.12296

Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics On Friendship Essay Example For College

Friendship is the main idea in Aristotle’s philosophy. He argued that there exist three types of friendships: friendships of pleasure based on a mutual enjoyment of a shared interest. It is formed among people who share leisure activities or hobbies, and their bond is based on the joy they get from spending time together. Friendship of utility is based on mutual benefit and involves people such as business partners, and their bond is based on what they can offer each other. A friendship of good is found in admiration, shared values, and mutual respect. This friendship is based on deeper connections and formed among people with shared morals and principles who support each other in search of virtuous behavior. Aristotle’s philosophy of friendship is relevant to friendship and marriage as it helps us better understand the nature of these partnerships (Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics. e-artnow, 2019). Significantly, the issue of spouses wanting to be friends while also being partners has become a common issue in modern society. This paper explores the three types of friendship according to Aristotle and how they are relevant to friendship and marriage. In this analysis, I will present how a good marriage entails friendship of the good that is based upon respect, shared values, and admiration. Ultimately, I will show how the philosophy of friendship offers an essential structure for understanding the nature of this philosophy and how it can be brought up to encourage deeper connections and significant gratification.

Contemporary issues: Friendship and marriage

Aristotle’s philosophy on friendship and marriage outlines that perfect friendship is presented among two virtuous men in their prime. However, Aristotle grants that marriage entails a particular type of friendship uniting a man and a woman, who are inherently drawn to each other and experience a deep emotional relationship (Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics. e-artnow, 2019). Aristotle would argue that a perfect marriage is a friendship of the good whereby partners commit to living a fulfilling and virtuous life together. Such a life involves shared values, mutual respect, and admiration.

In a good relationship, partners are also required to show the highest kind of philia, such as trust and loyalty and the preparedness to sacrifice for each other (Ward et al., pg 156). Although unconditional love (Agape) and romantic love (Eros) can exist in a good marriage, Aristotle asserts that they should not be the only reason to be in the relationship. Preferably, these should be consolidated into a bigger framework of admiration, reciprocal respect, and shared values. Alternatively, if any marriage is only based on pleasure or use, it is probable to be unsteady and susceptible to problems. Aristotle would most likely argue that such relationships do not have the strength necessary for a fulfilling connection and may eventually cause divorce, psychological issues for the children, and single parenting.

Aristotle’s Friendship of Use

In accordance with Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics (VIII.3), the first type of friendship is based on utility or mutual usefulness and is commonly known as a friendship of use. It is formed when one person benefits from the other person’s capacity such as influence, wealth, or power, while the other person exchanges these benefits for their own benefits. Aristotle argues that this type of friendship is by nature, selfishly motivated short-lived and self regarding as they depend on mutual satisfactory or continued usefulness of the other party (Kristjansson pg 351). If one no longer has what the other needs, the friendship would most likely dissolve. Besides, Aristotle argues that this type of friendship lacks genuine concern or affection for the welfare of the other. Instead, it focuses on what an individual gains from the connection. Although this type of friendship may deliver a practical motive, they fail to provide deeper emotional connections that are the features of true friendships.

Aristotle’s Friendship of Pleasure

In accordance with Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics (VIII.3), people relate for the sake of sensual pleasure and their friendship is based on the mutual enjoyment of each other’s company. It is formed when people who enjoy each other’s company share common hobbies and interests while enjoying spending time together. According to Aristotle, this type of friendship can either be based on virtuous on non-virtuous pleasure (Kim et al pg., 22). For instance, two people who love music or talking about politics may have a virtuous friendship of pleasure whereas; two individuals who enjoy partying and clubbing have a non-virtuous friendship of pleasure. In addition, Aristotle suggests that this type of friendship is often formed to facilitate one’s pleasure therefore, they are short-lived. This is because, if an individual loses interest and finds pleasure elsewhere, the friendship might be dissolved. Although Aristotle does not fully underestimate friendship of pleasure instead, he argues that this type of friendship can still be beneficial in offering temporary enjoyment and pleasure and can be used to deepen more significant relationships.

Aristotle’s Friendship of Goodness (Virtue)

As stated in Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics (VIII.3), a friendship grounded in virtue, is the highest form of friendship since it is based on mutual respect and admiration towards each other’s character and virtues. This friendship is based upon the mutual pursuit of moral success and the aspiration for each other’s happiness and welfare. According to Aristotle, these types of friendships are long-lasting because they are based on admiration and appreciation of each other’s moral character (Kim et al., pg 222). He also insinuates that such friendships are rare to find and achieve because they require higher levels of moral values and virtues. In addition, Aristotle implies that friendship of goodness is based on genuine concern about another person’s welfare and not on utility or pleasure. Here, both individuals intend to support each other morally and help each other to better themselves. Furthermore, he argues that this kind of friendship requires trust, mutual understanding and high levels of honesty. Both individuals are required to be vulnerable to the extent of sharing their deep feelings and thoughts with each other. This will help them deepen their connections and foster a mutual admiration and respect. He also argues that friendship of goodness is featured by joy and fulfillment because the individuals find happiness out of each other’s company. Here, both individuals try to find meaning and purpose out of their shared pursuit of virtue and share each other’s accomplishments.

Aristotle views on Friendship to One Contemporary Issue on Friendship (Social Media)

The impact of friendship on social media has gained much attention of late. Social media has transformed how we interact with each other and has become an essential part of our lives. However, there have been rising concerns about the impact of social media on friendships and if it is useful in developing genuine friendships. When we apply Aristotle’s views of friendship on this issue, it is clear that social media fosters primarily friendships of pleasure and utility (Turp et al., pg 270). Platforms on social media such as Instagram and Facebook allow users to interconnect with other friends based on their hobbies or interests. This kind of friendship is based on mutual enjoyment and benefit in place of shared pursuits of moral excellence and the aspiration for each other’s welfare. In addition, social media stirs up the development of online relationships instead of real-life connections. This is because people can hide their true-self behind screens and instead present a curated account of themselves. This eventually creates a false sense of intimacy that is not based on genuine appreciation of the other party’s virtues and characters. On the contrary, Aristotle argues that genuine and long-lasting friendships requires mutual pursuit of moral excellence and the yearning for each other’s welfare. This friendship is developed on deep appreciation and admiration of the other party’s character and virtue and is found on trust and honesty.

Personal Responsibility

This is the notion that people are accountable for their behavior and actions and decisions. It is an important aspect of an individual’s professional and personal development, and if one fails to take responsibility, it might lead to negative results. First, personal responsibility needs an individual to claim their actions and decisions despite of the circumstances (Frey et al., pg 650). For example in marriage or friendship, it means accepting mistakes and making changes. Secondly, when one fails to take responsibility for their actions, it can lead to failure in their lives. For example, if an individual neglects their responsibility in marriage, it may cause harm to their union and ultimately lead to divorce. Also, if an individual is not responsible in their profession, it can lead to unemployment. Lastly, personal beliefs and values play a critical role in how people perceive personal responsibility. Individuals who value integrity and honesty are likely to uphold personal responsibility in their decisions. On the contrary, people who prefer self-interest over others are less likely to be responsible for their actions.

For instance in marriage, a personal dilemma that might stem can be high divorce rates. Some individuals argue that personal responsibility entails facing these challenges in marriage and address them while some people prefer to prioritize their happiness over their relationship, which ultimately leads to divorce. Predictable results that might stem from an individual’s decision about marriage include financial strains, emotional pain, and troubles with co-parenting. Also, if an individual prioritizes their happiness over being committed to their marriage, they most likely miss out the long-lasting advantages of a fulfilling and healthy relationship. Some of the personal values and beliefs that might lead to an individual’s choice with respect to marriage are selflessness, commitment and the desire to have a long-lasting relationship (Frey et al., pg 648). In contrast, people who prioritize personal happiness over commitment in their relationships, may value self-interests more.

Bias against People with Disability in Education

In the U.S. people with disability often face bias and discrimination in education (Dammeyer et al., pg 3). According to the National Center for Learning Disabilities, students with disabilities are more likely to be suspended or drop out of school than the others. In addition, they are less likely to graduate and attend secondary education because of the lack of accommodation and the support given to students with disabilities and also the high levels of negative attitudes towards them. On the contrary, in Japan, there exists a cultural bias on collectivism leading to a greater focus on inclusion for students with disabilities in their education. The government of Japan has put up measures to ensure these students access the support needed. For instance, the Special Needs Education Act directs that students with disabilities access special education and the government offers funding for support and other resources (Amor et al., pg 1278). Another example of a cultural bias relating to education is the bias towards women in STEM fields, especially in the Middle Eastern countries. These women face societal barriers whenever they try to pursue careers in engineering, science or mathematics (Green et al., pg 82). This is due to the gender stereotypes that limit opportunities for women by prioritizing traditional gender roles. On the contrary, in Sweden, programs and policies to tackle gender equality in the STEM fields have been put in place (Green et al., pg 80). The government of Sweden aims to encourage women to pursue STEM careers by offering scholarships and mentoring women. In addition, every company in Sweden is required by the law to put in place gender equality plans and make reports about their progress in achieving equality.

In conclusion, the Aristotle’s three types of friendships; utility, pleasure and value offers a structure to understand the various motivations that propels human relationships such as marriage and friendships. Utility and pleasure friendships are based on personal satisfaction. However, Aristotle highly valued virtual friendship and regarded it as the highest form of all as it is grounded in respect in life. Nevertheless, societal norms and cultural prejudices influence the maintenance of friendships, especially among people with disabilities and the women in STEM fields. If we recognize and address such prejudice, we can work towards achieving an inclusive and equitable society. Eventually, Aristotle’s notions on friendship and the essence of building strong relationships contribute to our welfare and happiness overall.


Amor, Antonio M., et al. “International perspectives and trends in research on inclusive education: A systematic review.” International Journal of Inclusive Education 23.12 (2019): 1277-1295. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13603116.2018.1445304

Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics. e-artnow, 2019

Dammeyer, Jesper, and Madeleine Chapman. “A national survey on violence and discrimination among people with disabilities.” BMC public health 18.1 (2018): 1-9. https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-018-5277-0

Green, A., & Sanderson, D. (2018). The roots of STEM achievement: An analysis of persistence and attainment in STEM majors. The American Economist63(1), 79-93. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0569434517721770?journalCode=aexb

Kristjánsson, Kristján. “Aristotelian character friendship as a ‘method’of moral education.” Studies in Philosophy and Education 39 (2020): 349-364.

Turp, Michael-John. “Social media, interpersonal relations and the objective attitude.” Ethics and Information Technology 22.3 (2020): 269-279..

Ward, Julie K. “Aristotle on Philia: The Beginning of a Feminist Ideal of Friendship?.” Feminism and Ancient Philosophy. Routledge, 2019. 155-172.

Project Of Electronic Devices’ Shop Essay Example


Change is a vital aspect required by the organization as it identifies the areas or activities the business needs to focus on to improve its efficiency and effective utilization of available resources such as time, labour and finances. A change driver, therefore, entails all the plans, designs, operations, products, services and strategies that the business adopts and enforces new standards and guidelines to improve the previous operations of the activities in the organization. Automation of services has rendered some methods of selling products, such as physically visiting the shops, obsolete because, with technological advancements, computerized purchasing systems allow for online ordering, payment and tracking of the online transactions made. This has led to time-saving and efficiency in dealings with customers. The organization should open branches in different locations for the shops to sell and distribute electronic equipment such as TVs, radios, mobile phones, tablets, computers, peripherals and other electronic gadgets to maximize profits from these commodities.

There will be short-term and long-term goals made for the electronic shop to maintain the focus of the business on the objectives that will enable efficiency in handling the operations. Short-term goals are likely to be achieved within a short time, like a period of less than one year, whereas long-term goals take more than one year to actualize. The short-term plans can involve the installation of power, security systems such as CCTV cameras to detect and prevent theft and also the structure of network cables that can enhance easy access of materials through the internet. Whereas the long-term goals can involve compatibility and upgrading of the organization’s machines to ensure they are up to date and also the opening of branches dealing with the sale of electronic devices. These goals need to be correctly planned, and practical strategies to be employed in the formulation as they foreshadow the business operations in the near future.

Functional specifications are based on the end user’s expectations regarding the usage of the machine developed. For example, a computer should be able to solve complex calculations easily using Microsoft Excel, and it should also have an easy connection to the internet. This will enable the user to quickly browse and get more materials from the internet concerning how the electronic shop is running its operations. On the other hand, technical specifications entail the skills and knowledge necessary to handle the electronic machines; for instance, an end user of the laptops should know how to install the software in a computer, for example, QuickBooks and SPSS. As the seller, I will also provide manuals, for example, for the TVs and CCTV cameras, to the customers, predominantly the illiterate, to enable them to adapt faster to the automation service.

For every business to thrive skillfully, a group of individuals must be assigned different roles to ensure that tasks are performed efficiently. Division of labour and specialization aids in reducing the time consumed and improves efficiency as other people are given to do various jobs in which they are competent. In this case, the customer care department will receive complaints about the system breakdown of the machines and also deal with repairs; the marketing and sales department will develop competitive strategies that can be relied upon for advertising the electronic shop’s products and its branch offering. All the team members should have integrity, honesty, truthfulness, cooperation and accountability.


A work breakdown structure shows various activities that need to be done in the project. For example;

  1. Preliminary Study; identify the constraints and limitations of the website developed, for example, leakage of harmful data, the objectives and goals to be achieved through the use of the website. For instance, the provision of adequate data concerning the electronic devices dealt with in the shop.
  2. Feasibility study; test the technical capacity and the financial visibility of the system before the resources are fully employed.
  3. System investigation is an in-depth study to understand how the systems operate so that an individual can acquire adequate knowledge and skills to develop better websites.
  4. System development; The website is fully developed, and errors that might occur in progress should be corrected before the system is implemented.
  5. System implementation; this involves training, acquisition of the machines and installations, file conversion into new formats and changeovers on the machine usage.
  6. System maintenance; maintenance activities involve; corrective, perfective, adaptive and replacive maintenance.

Resource allocation entails the cost of raw materials and facilities, equipment, payment to contractors, cost of paying the rent house, cost of labour required, whether there are enough funds available for the completion of the project and the time available for the fulfilment of machine development. The training and development cost aims to provide adequate skills to the end users.


Network analysis can be defined as a technique used for planning, scheduling and controlling large and complex projects. It is a graphical representation consisting of specific configurations of arrows and nodes for showing the logical sequence of various tasks to achieve the project objectives.

The critical path is the sequence of essential activities of a network. It is the longest path in the network from the minimum time required to complete the project. Therefore, it is the chain of activities with the most prolonged duration. These activities are critical in that delay in any of them results in a delay in the project’s completion.

Project duration entails the total time taken to complete a project.

Where the letters below represent the following activities in a network diagram;

  • Preliminary Study
  • Technical capacity
  • Financial viability
  • System investigation
  • System development
  • System implementation
  • System maintenance


A-B-F-G =5+3+6+2= 16

A-C-D-E-G =5+9+1+5+2=22

Critical path =A-C-D-E-G

Project duration=22


This is a graphical representation of activities in a project against the time taken for each activity. The chart below shows the movements in developing the hardware; electronics used in the shop.



Project Evaluation and Review Techniques is a methodology used for planning, scheduling, allocation of resources and controlling. Planning involves splitting the total project into small projects, which are further divided into different activities and are analyzed by a department. Scheduling entails providing the earliest and the latest allowable start and finish times of each exercise and a relationship with other activities in the project. Allocation of resources is performed to achieve a desired objective. Resources involve labour, time, finances, office rental space and equipment.

Project development. (Electronics shop)
A) Preliminary Study; identify the constraints and limitations of the website developed, for example, leakage of harmful data, the objectives and goals to be achieved through the use of the website. For instance, the provision of adequate data concerning the electronic devices dealt with in the shop. B) Feasibility study; test the system’s technical capacity and financial visibility before the resources are fully employed.
C) System Investigation is an in-depth study to understand how the systems operate so that an individual can acquire adequate knowledge and skills to develop better websites. D) System development; The website is fully developed, and errors that might occur in progress should be corrected before the system is implemented
E) System implementation; Hardware installation, training on how to use the hardware, file conversion into the format of the new system, and changeovers which include parallel, direct, phased and pilot. F) System maintenance includes the following operations; corrective, perfective, adaptive and replacive maintenance.


Bagshaw, K.B., 2021. PERT and CPM in Project Management with Practical Examples. American Journal of Operations Research11(4), pp.215-226.

Chen, W., 2020. Intelligent manufacturing production line data monitoring system for the industrial internet of things. Computer communications151, pp.31-41.

Choudhary, G.R., Kumar, S., Kumar, K., Mishra, A. and Catal, C., 2018. Empirical analysis of change metrics for software fault prediction. Computers & Electrical Engineering67, pp.15-24.

Holm, L. and Schaufelberger, J.E., 2021. Construction cost estimating. Routledge.

Klein, L.M., Young, D., Feng, D., Lavezza, A., Hiser, S., Daley, K.N. and Hoyer, E.H., 2018. Increasing patient mobility through an individualized goal-centred hospital mobility program: a quasi-experimental quality improvement project. Nursing Outlook66(3), pp.254-262.

Laborie, P., Rogerie, J., Shaw, P. and Vilím, P., 2018. IBM ILOG CP optimizer for scheduling: 20+ years of scheduling with constraints at IBM/ILOG. Constraints23, pp.210-250.

Lai, S.T., Susanto, H. and Leu, F.Y., 2022. Project Management Mechanism Based on Burndown Chart to Reduce the Risk of Software Project Failure. In Advances on Broad-Band Wireless Computing, Communication and Applications: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Broad-Band Wireless Computing, Communication and Applications (BWCCA-2021) (pp. 197-205). Springer International Publishing.

Marion, T.J. and Fixson, S.K., 2021. The transformation of the innovation process: How digital tools change work, collaboration, and organizations in new product development. Journal of Product Innovation Management38(1), pp.192-215.

Nevens, H., Harrison, J., Vrijens, F., Verleye, L., Stocquart, N., Marynen, E. and Hulstaert, F., 2019. Budgeting of non-commercial clinical trials: development of a budget tool by a public funding agency. Trials20(1), pp.1-10.

Soe, P.H. and Htike, T.M., 2018. Critical path analysis programming method without network diagram. In MATEC Web of Conferences (Vol. 192, p. 01027). EDP Sciences.