Pregnancy-Specific Disorders: Preeclampsia University Essay Example


Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific multisystem disorder that affects 4% to 9% of pregnancies. The incidence of this condition has surged by 25 percent over the past two decades, and hospitalization for it is linked to a significant risk of fetal and maternal mortality and morbidity. Traditional diagnostic criteria for preeclampsia include proteinuria and hypertension; however, multisystem activation in the lack of proteinuria also meets diagnostic criteria. The clinical course and diagnosis of preeclampsia can result in abrupt worsening, necessitating attentive monitoring for the emergence of severe symptoms. Up to 2/3 of maternal deaths during hospitalisation for childbirth in the U.S.A. result from complications/issues from preeclampsia (Anderson et al., 2017). Numerous of these deaths may have been averted with timely and appropriate interventions, such as screening for clinical symptoms that signal development in the intensity and timing of childbirth.

The goal of the teaching is to provide expectant mothers with preeclampsia education to help provide neonatal care with the aim of preventing this condition. This scholarly paper has the primary purpose of teaching nurses and other associated health practitioners about preeclampsia. It insists on the importance of providing preeclampsia education to expectant mothers that include signs and symptoms of preeclampsia and how vital regular neonatal care is. It discusses preeclampsia, its pathophysiology, and the ethical considerations associated with this medical condition. In addition, it examines the potential ethical issues surrounding preeclampsia, including the informed consent process, the ANA Code of Ethics for Nurses, and nurses’ involvement in the screening, diagnosis, treatment, and management of preeclampsia.

The pathophysiology of preeclampsia

During a healthy/normal pregnancy, the villous cytotrophoblast infiltrates the inner part of the myometrium, and spiral arteries do lose the majority of their muscle fibers and endothelium. These morphological adjustments are accompanied by functional alterations so that spiral arteries turn into low-resistance vessels and, therefore, are less sensitive to vasoconstrictive drugs.

Preeclampsia has a convoluted etiology, with aberrant placentation being the primary culprit. During preeclampsia, abnormal infiltration of the spiral arteries involving cytotrophoblast cells is detected. Invasion of cytotrophoblasts into the uterus is a distinct differentiation route in which fetal cells acquire characteristics of the endothelium they usually replace. This differentiation procedure is incorrect in preeclampsia (Ives et al., 2020). The anomalies may be associated with the nitric oxide route, which plays a significant role in the regulation of vascular tone. Furthermore, the suppression of maternal nitric oxide synthesis hinders embryo implantation. Increased uterine vascular resistance increases placental oxidative and ischemic stress, as well as its vulnerability to vasoconstriction.

This prolonged placental ischemia results in fetal problems, such as intrauterine retardation of growth or mortality. In response, oxidative stress stimulates the release of molecules like oxidized lipids, serum soluble vascular endothelial growth factor 1 cytokines, and free radicals into the maternal circulation. These anomalies cause endothelial dysfunction15, hypertension, thrombophilia, and vascular hyperpermeability in order to account for the decreased blood flow in the umbilical artery caused by peripheral vasoconstriction.

Endothelial dysfunction is accountable for the clinical symptoms detected in the mother, such as degradation of the hepatic endothelium leading to the start of the HELLP syndrome and damage of the cerebral endothelium causing eclampsia. Exhaustion of vascular endothelial growth factor in podocytes increases the ability of endotheliosis to obstruct the slit dampers in the basal lamina, which contributes to impaired glomerular filtration and proteinuria. Lastly, endothelial dysfunction increases microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and vascular hyperpermeability caused by low serum albumin results in edema, especially in the lungs or lower limbs.

Preeclampsia may be viewed as a dysfunction of the mother’s immune system that hinders it from detecting the fetoplacental unit. The excessive generation of immune cells results in the release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which triggers apoptosis of the extravillous cytotrophoblast. Women with preeclampsia had lower levels of HLA-E and HLA-G, which suggests that the leukocyte antigen systems also play a role in the abnormal infiltration of the spiral arteries. During healthy pregnancies, the contact between the trophoblast and these cells is caused by the natural killer cell-secreted vascular placental and endothelial growth factor. Preeclamptic women have been discovered to have elevated levels of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1), an antagonist of vascular placental and endothelial growth factor.

Teaching of Preeclampsia

The purpose of teaching preeclampsia is to expand the nurses’ awareness of the condition’s risk factors, symptoms, and indicators and to emphasize the need to educate pregnant mothers about the relevance of routine prenatal care in its management and prevention. I hope that this paper will motivate nurses to encourage expectant moms to become more involved in their prenatal health care (Fox et al., 2019). In addition, it should equip nurses with the skills and information required to offer quality care to preeclampsia patients.

The teaching provides a general overview of preeclampsia and its symptoms. It is essential to discuss the signs and symptoms of preeclampsia with the nurses (edema, proteinuria, and high blood pressure). In addition, it will cover the condition’s risk factors. The teaching will cover the risk factors for preeclampsia, including underlying medical disorders, multiple gestations, preeclampsia, previous history, obesity, and age.

It also emphasizes the importance of prenatal care to nurses. It instructs nurses on how to educate expectant mothers on the necessity of routine prenatal care and the relevance of prenatal care in the management and early diagnosis of preeclampsia. In addition, it addresses treatment and management options. It highlights the numerous preeclampsia treatment and management options, including delivery, medication, and lifestyle modifications.

The effectiveness of the instruction will be evaluated utilizing pre- and post-teaching evaluations, audience feedback, and clinical outcome observation. First, I will analyze the nurses’ pre- and post-lesson understanding of preeclampsia to judge the effectiveness of the lesson. Second, I will solicit input from the nurses regarding the teaching’s efficacy, relevance, and content. Finally, by examining the effect of education on clinical outcomes, such as the nurses’ degree of knowledge and comprehension of the incidence of preeclampsia, I will be able to evaluate the effectiveness of the teaching.

Ethical Issues Surrounding Preeclampsia

Preeclampsia is a common and serious complication of pregnancy. The perceptive obstetrician will commonly identify moral ambiguity and ethical problems during therapeutic care. It is essential to comprehend current difficulties and find solutions to them. Counseling is an integral component of contemporary medicine. In determining which counseling model to employ, nurses must take into account numerous elements, such as the weight of the evidence, the specific clinical context, and the justifiable bounds of autonomy and paternalism in a position of shared responsibility. Partners have a fundamental right to reproduce, even though pregnancy includes substantial dangers (Jørgensen et al., 2014). Informed women are able to negotiate the extremities of these stances while determining whether or not they should risk pregnancy due to their knowledge of both care ethics and rights ethics. The notion of a “fetal patient” is beneficial.

This topic is addressed in Principle 4 of the ANA Code of Ethics for Nurses, which declares that “the nurse has the same obligations to oneself as to others, such as the duty to foster health and safety.” This concept mandates the nurse to emphasize the health and safety of the fetus and expectant mother while simultaneously respecting the autonomy of the expectant mother. A woman with autonomy may choose to deny or grant this status to her previable fetus, while nurses must balance their beneficence and autonomy-based obligations to the pregnant woman with their beneficence-based commitments to the unborn.

As maternal-fetal conflict, we classify maternal behavior that affects the fetus and the future kid. However, pregnant women are morally obligated to protect the fetus if they can do so without jeopardizing their own vital interests. The phrase noncompliance indicates a hierarchical connection between doctor and patient. This diminishes patient autonomy and contradicts informed consent. Although sometimes justifiable, this “label” is typically more harmful than helpful.

The responsibility of the nurse in this ethical dilemma is to present the expectant mothers with pertinent and accurate information regarding the benefits and hazards of various procedures while advocating for the fetus’s well-being. The nurse should engage with the medical team to make sure that the autonomy of the expectant woman is respected while maintaining the fetus’s safety and health. In situations that do not pose an ethical dilemma, it is still the nurse’s responsibility to ensure that ethical concerns are incorporated into the management of preeclamptic. This includes fostering patient autonomy, gaining informed consent, and maintaining patient confidentiality.


This research has examined the pathophysiology, teaching, and ethical considerations associated with preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is one kind of hypertension (high blood pressure) that can develop during pregnancy. The pathophysiology section has emphasized the cellular alterations that develop in the mother and placental blood arteries that lead to preeclampsia. Understanding preeclampsia is essential for guiding the treatment and management of this disorder.

The teaching portion underlines how important it is for nurses to give pregnant women key information about preeclampsia. This section examines the goals and objectives of this instruction and how the program’s efficacy can be measured. The ethics section identifies the ethical dilemma of balancing fetal well-being and maternal autonomy, as well as how nurses might use the ANA Code of Ethics for Nurses to make prudent decisions. This section is intended to assist nurses in navigating the ethical problems of preeclampsia scanning, treatment, and management.

Preeclampsia is a complicated medical condition that requires an effective strategy for treatment and care, as well as a grasp of its pathophysiology, ethical concerns associated with it, and how to deliver and integrate effective teaching (Sharma et al., 2020). The nurses are required to provide proper management and care for patients with preeclampsia and to utilize the ANA Code of Ethics for Nurses as a resource for making ethical decisions.


Anderson, C. M., & Schmella, M. J. (2017). Preeclampsia. The American Journal of Nursing, 117(11), 30-38.

Fox, R., Kitt, J., Leeson, P., Aye, C. Y., & Lewandowski, A. J. (2019). Preeclampsia: risk factors, diagnosis, management, and the cardiovascular impact on the offspring. Journal of clinical medicine, 8(10), 1625.

Ives, C. W., Sinkey, R., Rajapreyar, I., Tita, A. T., & Oparil, S. (2020). Preeclampsia—pathophysiology and clinical presentations: JACC state-of-the-art review. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 76(14), 1690-1702.

Jørgensen, J. M., Hedley, P. L., Gjerris, M., & Christiansen, M. (2014). Ethical issues related to screening for preeclampsia. Bioethics, 28(7), 360–367.


Preserving And Protecting Computer Evidence Essay Example For College


The new technology has fostered a reliable way of preserving and protecting computer evidence. Information can now be saved on computers and many other types of electronic media, disguised, and at another point, it can be “erased.” It is much easier to find evidence in electronic devices than paper documents or other tangible records. This paper will cover how computers and other electronic devices safeguard, preserve, and protect computer evidence from theft or damage.

Harsh Code

The hash codes can protect and verify computer evidence (Electronic Evidence Retrieval, LLC, n.d.) A hash code is a formula that mathematically promotes the provision of a unique result or outcome when a computer file is applied. In most instances, harsh codes promote integrity, especially in forensic processes. Through the imaging process, the harsh code for each sector of the suspect disk is calculated several times. It is calculated on the original disk before imaging, on the image file after imaging, and once more on the original disk after imaging. For the image to be legitimated, all three must be identical. A new image must be taken if the image’s hash code does not match the hash code of the original drive. In most cases, hash codes are used to promote, protect and preserve the forensic process integrity.

The procedure of Protecting and Preserving Computer Evidence

In any case of suspicion of the presence of relevant evidence in a computer, you should do all in your power to ensure that any pertinent data remains unaltered. This happens because it is in human nature that makes them want to check out potential proof, yet doing so increases the chances of computer spoliation, such as inadvertent spoliation, deliberate software spoliation, and hardware spoliation. In this case, computer disconnection from power is advised if there is any cause to think it might be a trap to destroy data if it is not shut down in a specific way while it is running (Electronic Evidence Retrieval, LLC, n.d.).

Second, a trained computer forensic expert should be consulted. This is an important step since it enables the expert to explain to the attorney where the forensic image of the computer may be important to the court of law. Recently the courts are embracing and recognizing the role of retaining some experienced and well-trained forensic specialists. Third, the opposing party should be informed not to use the computer and not to alter or delete any data (Electronic Evidence Retrieval, LLC, n.d.). This includes not changing the computer, such as adding new files, running secure deletion tools, or installing new software. Lastly, it is crucial to detail all information to the forensic expert. Expert technicians with the right training and experience have methods for searching and inspecting the drive. Computers, especially in a criminal case, should be handled with care by isolating them to avoid contamination and calling forensic science specialists to conduct the investigation as soon as possible.

How to Protect and Preserve Computer Evidence through avoiding Spoliations

Inadvertent spoliation occurs when computer users accidentally or occasionally delete important files and neglect to back them up. Software spoliation, on the other hand, is also involved in deliberate file deletion in a computer. Hardware spoliation occurs when a computer’s hard drive is accidentally corrupted, which promotes data and file loss (Electronic Evidence Retrieval, LLC, n.d.). In these scenarios of spoliation, computer files and data can still be retrieved by computer software. Also, forensic experts can recover deleted data from a computer. Occasionally, some computers may attempt to change and interfere with files, which changes the significant dates. This challenge is usually dealt with by a computer’s operating system, which typically keeps track of the dates that each file was first created, last edited, and last accessed.


Computer software and the operating system play a huge role in protecting and preserving computer evidence, especially when spoliation occurs. Forensic experts, on the other hand, use their knowledge to promote the validity of computer files and data. Computer evidence is more accessible than tangible files, making them reliable, especially when needed.


Electronic Evidence Retrieval, LLC. Preserving and Protecting Computer Evidence. (n.d.) (Last accessed 2023, January 27).

Professional Code Of Ethics Analysis Essay Example

Professional codes of ethics are essential in the healthcare industry and among healthcare practitioners because they help members recognize dilemmas in ethical decision-making. Furthermore, the professional code of ethics has been lauded for its ability to help members make good judgments and decisions depending on their values, alongside ensuring that they do not break government laws (Aitamaa et al., 2019). The professional code of ethics selected is the Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society (HIMSS), an association dedicated to changing the global healthcare system using information and technology. Undeniably, technology has become a lever in the healthcare sector, and its use in improving the quality of care services has increased significantly over the past years. HIMSS empowers healthcare providers and facilities through healthcare innovations, workforce development, and public policy to ensure that sustainable goals in the global healthcare sector have been met (Mouton, 2016). As a result, HIMSS has a code of ethics designed to act as a framework for professional and personal conduct. Therefore, the HIMSS code of ethics is essential in helping members overcome potential consequences associated with unethical conduct in the healthcare industry.

Summary of the Main Points

The second HIMSS code of ethics dictates that members should uphold respect, honesty, good faith, fairness, and integrity in their professional and personal activities in a way that portrays a good image to society. The code requires members to promote the best professional and personal practices while behaving in an appropriate manner to ensure that the services they offer to others are above self-interest (HIMSS, 2022). This code of ethics also reminds members about the HIMSS values, ethical principles, and mission that should be consistent by maintaining good faith, fairness, and integrity. Taking unfair advantage is also prohibited by HIMSS’s second code of ethics, as it ensures that individual exploitation is eliminated to serve society with dignity and fairness (HIMSS, 2022). The fifth HIMSS code of ethics requires members to avoid the use of professional relationships to make exploitations within the society, whether they are elected or appointed. Participating in all forms of unethical manner has been discouraged because it undermines the values of society. Professionals are not allowed to use their positions to obtain favors such as sexual favors or financial favors. The seventh HIMSS code of ethics requires members to respect professional confidence (HIMSS, 2022). Generally, respecting professional confidence requires members to safeguard the security and privacy of both written and electronic information and take the appropriate precautions to maintain confidentiality.

Benefits of the HIMSS Code of Ethics

The HIMSS code of ethics is important in the healthcare practice because it ensures that professionals and members act with fairness, integrity, and good faith to provide services to the public and individuals they serve. According to Collings-Hughes et al. (2022), integrity in healthcare practice ensures that the community and patients receive the required care services. Professionals with integrity, fairness and good faith also make good decisions when they face ethical issues. For example, a professional with integrity and fairness will serve all patients equally and provide the same services without favoring others whom they share a religious background with. The HIMSS code of ethics is also crucial in ensuring that there is confidentiality in information shared among members. The HIMSS code of ethics makes members responsible for safeguarding the security and privacy of health information and patient data (HIMSS, 2022). The code also reminds professionals of the need to take precautions to maintain and ensure high standards of confidentiality during information sharing. For instance, a healthcare provider should not reveal the healthcare condition of a patient to third parties, such as lovers, without the patient’s consent (HIMSS, 2022). Therefore, the code of ethics is beneficial in ensuring that better decisions are made and confidentiality of information is preserved by taking precautions and safeguarding measures.

How HIMSS Code of Ethics Can Guide Logical Decision-Making

Healthcare professionals can practice competently by utilizing the code of ethics as a framework for logical decision-making. The code of ethics offers universal values for healthcare practitioners to help them determine what kinds of actions and interventions they should use to handle patients with different difficulties. Ethics helps healthcare practitioners to easily recognize what is right and wrong and make decisions that they understand their consequences. Furthermore, the code of ethics guides professionals to make good judgments and choices depending on the values that guide them while ensuring that they do not break the laws (Kozlowski & Sweanor, 2016). For example, the HIMSS code of ethics can guide professionals and help them learn how to handle a lover who has requested to secretly know the HIV status of a partner who is hospitalized. Also, the HIMSS can help professionals identify the need for keeping electronic healthcare records safe and free from intrusion by third parties.

Application of HIMSS Code of Ethics to a Specific Ethical Issue

The HIMSS code of ethics can be applied in the healthcare profession, whereby healthcare providers are required to keep patient information private. In a case where an adult patient tests positive for HIV and asks the healthcare provider not to inform the wife about the result because he fills it is not the appropriate time to inform him. The healthcare provider may use the ethical code of conduct to deal with this ethical issue. The healthcare provider may decide to inform the wife because she is at serious risk of contracting HIV, and if she has contracted it, she should begin early medications. Most laws also require reports to be submitted to local health officers. Therefore, the healthcare provider will remain with the option of convincing the patient to share information about his health status.


The use of a professional code of ethics in different disciplines is crucial, and members should observe values and practices set as a guide to their conduct. Professional code of ethics has been lauded for their ability to help members make good judgments and decisions depending on their values, alongside ensuring that they do not break the government laws. The HIMSS code of ethics is crucial in ensuring that there is confidentiality in information shared among members. The code of ethics makes members responsible for safeguarding the security and privacy of health information and patient data. Finally, the HIMSS code of ethics also reminds professionals of the need to take precautions to maintain and ensure high standards of confidentiality during information sharing.


Aitamaa, E., Suhonen, R., Puukka, P., & Leino-Kilpi, H. (2019). Ethical problems in nursing management–a cross-sectional survey about solving problems. BMC health services research, 19(1), 1-11.

Collings-Hughes, D., Townsend, R., & Williams, B. (2022). Paramedics use and understand their professional code of conduct. Nursing Ethics, 09697330221130607.

Healthcare Information and Management System Society (HIMSS). (2022). Code of Ethics 2002.

Kozlowski, L. T., & Sweanor, D. (2016). Withholding differential risk information on legal consumer nicotine/tobacco products: The public health ethics of health information quarantines. International Journal of Drug Policy, 32, 17-23.

Mouton, D. C. (2016). Rethinking the ethical approach to health information management through narration: pertinence of Ricœur’s ‘little ethics .’Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy, 19, 531-543.