Pressure Ulcer Intervention And Its Effectiveness Free Writing Sample


The paper focuses on one of the biggest problems of the modern healthcare system: pressure ulcers. Although considerable breakthroughs in medicine have enabled medical workers to save people’s lives and provide them with the highest quality of care, a viable approach to managing pressure ulcers has not been found yet. Apart from defining the issue and outlining its classification, the project involves the intervention aimed at reducing the risk of pressure ulcers.

The paper is divided into several meaningful parts. In the introduction, the general description of the issue and brief information on the intervention is given. Further, risk assessment tools are identified and analyzed. The next chapter is concerned with the suggested solution to the problem. The PICOT question is formulated, and a detailed explanation of the intervention is provided. The concluding section summarizes the issue and the approach to its management and offers directions for future research.

Thesis Statement

Pressure ulcers present one of the greatest burdens in the modern healthcare system, the correct management of which requires an individual approach and prevention measures, one of the most successful being the pressure ulcer protocol.


Despite a considerable amount of achievements that have been made in the sphere of medicine over the latest decades, there remain some problems that healthcare practitioners cannot manage properly. One of such burdens is known as pressure ulcers or bed sores. Pressure ulcers are defined as the local damage of skin or tissue that has been caused by pressure and friction (Lam et al., 2018). This dangerous condition is frequently associated with insufficient nursing care.

However, research indicates that the risk of developing pressure ulcers depends more on the patient’s condition than on nurses’ attitude (Mallah, Nassar, & Kurdahi Badr, 2015). Most frequently, the cases of pressure ulcers are recorded in patients staying at intensive care units. Such prevalence is related to the fact that these individuals are immobile, which is the primary indication for the development of bedsores.

Main body

One of the most successful ways of preventing pressure ulcers is risk assessment. Qaseem, Mir, Starkey, and Denberg (2015) differentiate between the following risk assessment tools: the Waterlow scale, the Cubbin, Braden, Norton, and Jackson scales. However, it is mentioned that all of these tools have a low sensitivity to single outpatients at risk for developing pressure ulcers. Thus, one of the viable solutions is presented with preventive interventions. There is a variety of interventions offered: nutritional supplementation, low-air-low bed, wheelchair cushions, advanced static mattresses, and others (Qaseem et al., 2015).

Still, scholars admit that the quantity of interventions does not correspond to their quality. As a result, some new approaches are needed to relieve the condition of many patients suffering not only from immobility but also from its complications.


A novel approach to preventing pressure ulcers has been introduced recently. Lam et al. (2018) note that using pressure ulcer prevention protocols may help healthcare workers to avoid the development of bedsores in their patients. In particular, scholars suggest that since pressure ulcers develop in three days upon admission, it is necessary to pay thorough attention to the patients during these three days. So far, there is not enough evidence on the productivity of this method, but the current project aims at evaluating the benefits of such protocols for patients.


Lam, C., Elkbuli, A., Benson, B., Young, E., Morejon, O., Boneva, D.,… McKenney, M. (2018). Implementing a novel guideline to prevent hospital-acquired pressure ulcers in a trauma population: A patient-safety approach. Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 226(6), 1122-1127.

Mallah, Z., Nassar, N., & Kurdahi Badr, L. (2015). The effectiveness of a pressure ulcer intervention program on the prevalence of hospital acquired pressure ulcers: Controlled before and after study. Applied Nursing Research, 28(2), 106-113.

Qaseem, A., Mir, T. P., Starkey, M., & Denberg, T. D. (2015). Risk assessment and prevention of pressure ulcers: A clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Annals of Internal Medicine, 162(5), 359-369.

Communication Module For Nursing Undergraduates

Qualitative Study

There have been concerns about the quality of education that nursing students and other healthcare professionals are getting especially in communication skills. The objective of this qualitative article was to explore the experiences of first years nursing students concerning the blended learning design, which is adopted in a communication module. The research design is descriptive. The hypothesis and research questions were not stated directly.

For the sample, seventy-four (74) participants were selected for the study (Shorey, Siew, & Ang, 2018). For one to be eligible for the study, he or she had to be a first-year undergraduate nursing student. The study setting was in a university-affiliated nursing school. The participating students were required to complete a reflective exercise concerning an undergraduate communication module they were undertaking.

The exercise was conducted online on the last day of class for the students. After the thematic analysis was conducted, 6 themes and 15 subthemes were generated. In the major themes, it was established that the module created a helpful and engaging classroom experience for the students. It was also noted that the module had valuable and enriching online activities coupled with meaningful assessment.

The module also offered inter-professional education, which helped the students in different ways. Similarly, the module had personal enrichment for the students and it offered overall feedback together with recommendations. In summary, the participating students noted that the blended pedagogy communication module played an important role in their learning coupled with boosting their confidence. Such aspects play a critical role in the nurses’ career growth.

Quantitative Study

The available literature supports the benefits associated with bedside nursing shift reports, but this information has not been quantified. Therefore, the authors of this quantitative study sought to evaluate patient and nurse outcomes after the implementation of bedside nursing reports during shift handover. The researchers also wanted to implement a practice change in a medical-surgical unit in a university hospital. The research questions or hypotheses are not stated.

A quasi-experimental pre-and post-implementation design was used. However, the authors did not state the research questions or hypothesis. For the sample, 233 patients were involved in the baseline data collection, 157 and 154 patients completed post-implementation surveys for 3 and 13 months respectively (Sand-Jecklin & Sherman, 2014). On the other hand, 148 nurses completed the baseline perception survey, while 98 and 54 nurse participants completed 3-month and 13-month post-implementation surveys respectively. The study was conducted in seven medical-surgical units in a university hospital.

The participants were picked randomly. However, patient respondents were required to have been hospitalized for at least 48 hours. Nurse survey data was collected through online channels. It was established that the implementation of bedside reports during shift handover led to improved patient outcomes. On the other hand, nurses had a good perception of the report, which improved patient safety, nurse accountability, and involvement in care. However, nurses had the view that the implementation of the bedside report was time-consuming, but agreed on its usefulness. The researchers concluded that, if properly implemented, nursing bedside reports could lead to improved patient and safety outcomes together with improved nurse satisfaction.


Sand-Jecklin, K., & Sherman, J. (2014). A quantitative assessment of patient and nurse outcomes of bedside nursing report implementation. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 23(19), 2854-2863.

Shorey, S., Siew, A. L., & Ang, E. (2018). Experiences of nursing undergraduates on a redesigned blended communication module: A descriptive qualitative study. Nurse Education Today, 61, 77-82. Web.

Nursing Knowledge And Theoretical Models In Practice

The Theoretical Model of Interpersonal Relations developed by Hildegard Peplau can be used to look at a conflict from a psychodynamic perspective. A nurse is able to understand the behavior of others and herself, applying the principles of human relationships to identified needs. It is a progressive process, evolving from the orientation stage to the termination stage, by building rapport and shifting the behavior of others through a nurse’s help. It is a relationship-building theory that emphasizes a nurse’s role as a resource and educator (Adams, 2017).

In my nursing practice, I was fortunate not to experience issues with my immediate co-workers. However, the nurse manager that overlooked my integration process was overly critical of my actions and inexperience. At times, it made me feel extremely incompetent and underprepared for the profession, despite my best attempts at learning all practical concepts. Eventually, I was distraught and voiced my concerns to a mentor. She sat me down with the nurse manager, and we discussed how as a new nurse, I would have a learning period, similar to what occurred in the case study. So I inadvertently applied the theory of role behavior and the individualistic social exchange framework to ensure that my transition would occur without overbearing criticism.


Adams, L. Y. (2017). Peplau’s contributions to psychiatric and nursing knowledge. Journal of Mental Health and Addiction Nursing, 1(1): e10-e18. Web.

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