Prevention Of Nausea And Vomiting After Chemotherapy Essay Sample For College

The study under discussion is focused on the prevention of nausea and vomiting after chemotherapy. This theme is in need of a deeper research because nausea and vomiting present two very significant outcomes of chemotherapy that produce an adverse effect on the quality of life, as well as the ability to perform daily activities, of the patients undergoing chemotherapy (Tageja & Groninger, 2015). Treatment options for this outcome differ based on their kind and level of effectiveness (Boccia, 2016). As a result, finding the most effective option is important.

The research question of the study is the following: in Hispanic patients with gastric cancer, does the prevalence of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting differ in the group treated with conventional medicine compared to the result of the group receiving herbal treatment and ginger?

In order to select the participants for the sample, it will be necessary to locate Hispanics patients with gastric cancer in one or several hospitals in one city or area. Since the participants targeted for this study will be selected based on a set of common characteristics such as their ethnicity and the type of cancer they suffer from, this sampling method will be non-probability purposive sampling (Gray, Grove, & Sutherland, 2013).

The study design is focused on the comparison of two groups of patients with the same characteristics suffering from the same issue but receiving different treatments. In that way, I would make sense to make sure that the patients selected for this research match the inclusion criteria fully.

This way, the chosen sampling method ensuring the homogeneity of the sample is suitable for the experimental design of this study and also reflects the population identified in the research question and problem statement. Further, the participants will be randomly assigned to the control and intervention groups; however, in case if some of the participants prefer one of the treatments to the other, the design of this study will be adjusted to quasi-experimental.

The proposed size of the sample will be about 30 to 50 people; this size was chosen because the aim of the study is to compare the prevalence of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in the two groups. As a method of data analysis, t-test used for the comparison of the ratio between the scores of variability and means in the two groups in order to determine whether or not the difference is dictated by the researched variable and not by bias or certain unrelated features of the sample (Warner, 2012). Additionally, t-test is usually employed for the smaller samples of about 15 to 30 subjects in one group (Warner, 2012). As a result, the sample size is appropriate.

The findings may be generalized to the populations characterized by the ethnic background other than Hispanic; but it may not be smart to generalize them to the patients with the types of cancer other than gastric due to different prevalence of nausea and vomiting.

Study design seems to flow from the proposed research problem, theoretical framework, literature review, and hypothesis. Practically, the hypothesis, as well as the information presented in the literature review and background determines the course of the current study by defining what needs to be evaluated, in what ways, and what kind of data is needed in order to shed light on the selected problem. In addition, study design is strongly impacted by the perspective from which the problem is studied and what the authors are attempting to find or evaluate.

References

Boccia, R. V. (2016). Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: Identifying and addressing unmet needs. JCOM, 20(8), 377-384.

Gray, J. R., Grove, S. K. & Sutherland, S. (2013). The practice of nursing research – e-book: Appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Tageja, N., & Groninger, H. (2015). Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: An overview and comparison of three consensus guidelines. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 92, 34-40.

Warner, R. M. (2012). Applied statistics: From bivariate through multivariate techniques. New York, NY: SAGE.

The Rise Of Silk Industry In Lyon, France

Introduction

In ancient France, the high and middle classes of society created a demand for locally designed silk products that embraced their tastes and culture. For a long time, the French elites had been spending a lot of money on acquiring quality silk fabrics imported from other countries. Due to the worry of giving a lot of money to foreign countries for silk-related products, various French merchants sought to introduce this lucrative business in Lyon. By the end of the 15th century, King Louis XI and Francois 1st made an agreement with Italian artisans to set up a silk industry in France (Bonetto, Hofmann, and Prause 8).

Such efforts aimed at introducing silk manufacturers in Lyon to bring together both French silk merchants and Italian experts. In addition, Bonetto Hofmann and Prause indicate that by the 18th Century, the Lyon Silk Company had been transformed into a state factory in a bid to facilitate its growth (7). This move enabled the company to compete with its predecessor and reach the supremacy of the European silk markets. Consequently, in its evolutionary stages, the Lyon Silk Factory encountered numerous entrepreneurial challenges, particularly lack of investment in innovation. This industry dominated world markets for a long time until the late 1970s when the Industrial Revolution introduced alternative and cheap technology for producing cotton and nylon, which facilitated the subsequent decline of the silk industry in France.

The emergence of the silk industry in Lyon

A number of factors influenced the need to establish a local industry to supply silk fabrics in France. The silk industry in Lyon anchored its roots in the French economy during the 15th Century (Datta and Nanavaty 57). First, silk products were highly recognized as a luxury in various classes of French society. Importing silk products was very expensive, particularly from Italy, which produced most of the highly coveted silk products in Europe.

In addition, avoiding money transfers from France to Italy via imports was a move highly reckoned by French citizens since it saved the taxpayers’ money. Second, the increased export of precious stones from France to Italy in exchange for silk products was seen as a move that threatened to exploit the precious deposits of the French treasures. Third, French locals had started to express the need for affordable designs that recognized local cultures and landscapes through designs. Finally, the need to avoid overreliance on other states and develop a self-reliant state was overbearing.

The Lyon Silk Factory at different stages of initiation received institutional support through tax freedoms for both local and Italian merchants who wanted to introduce silk plants in Lyon. This framework later singled Lyon to import raw materials such as silk threads coupled with conducting extensive research about silk farming. In addition, due to the emerging desire to embrace purely local silk products, the southern part of France started sericulture to supply Lyon with raw materials. The newly established structures in “Lyon gradually succeeded the Italian production of the out-of-favor designs of silk products” (Datta and Nanavaty 37).

The French authorities granted the Lyon Silk Factory tax freedom as an incentive to bolster fast growth to supply the French royals with quality silk products. The factory, with the help of the government, invested in new sophisticated technology that raised the quality and quantity of local production. Such institutionalized and structured support to innovation elevated the silk industry into a highly growing and economically significant production entity. The Lyon sector was not solely beneficial to the city but the entire French society, particularly the southern part, which was actively engaged in the production of raw materials. The Lyon silk fabric production and distribution encompassed almost every section of the French economy and beyond.

Towards a sustainable entrepreneurship

Since its initiation in the 15th Century, the Lyon Silk Factory substantially considered the improvement of technical skills and the recruitment of more artisans. The French kings and nobles during this time developed incentives such as bonuses and pensions to attract both local and foreign expertise to invest in the French silk industry. Embracing technical advancement targeted raising the quality of silk fabrics and minimizing the production cost by employing less, but productive labor.

Following the introduction of weaving looms in the better part of Europe increased the number of silk-producing centers. Nonetheless, this advancement was positive for the Lyon industry, since it simplified the silk-making process, hence raising productivity. In a bid to match and compete with its predecessor, the Italian silk industry, the Lyon Silk Factory linked with China, which was leading in terms of quality silk fabric production. The Chinese silk expertise granted the Lyon industry the much-needed experience and literature to bolster their knowledge of silk processing. The industrial advancements in cocoon processing, reeling, and weaving facilitated the development of the Lyon silk industry (Bonetto, Hofmann, and Prause 4).

In a bid to sustain its entrepreneurial aspirations, the Lyon industry focused on enhancing efficiency and consistency in the long-term through the incorporation of new technology and expertise in the silk industry. Sustainable growth of the Lyon factory involved a continuous process that embraced social and environmental benefits for customers. In the second half of the 17th century, thousands of workers had joined the Lyon silk industry, which was experiencing huge growth. Later in the 18th and 19th Centuries, Lyon experienced a boost in silk farming or sericulture, which in turn attracted both local and international markets for its diversity in design. The design assumed distinctive styles, which depicted both local and international landscapes. Other production privileges included the monopoly status enjoyed by the Lyon industry (Miller 41).

Innovation management

The innovation management approach involves research, information generation, and the conception of ideas for implementation. Innovation formulates the way forward to establishing external factors to raise firms’ production capability. The adoption of foreign silk knowledge by the Lyon factory was necessary to show the direction for the silk enterprise in France. Following the French and the Chinese exchanges at the end of the 17th Century, France amassed voluminous literature and skills in the silk industry (Schroeder 52).

After a comparative analysis of the Italian, Chinese, and French silk production techniques, the Chinese expertise stood out as the most viable and particularly the so-called hurried breeding process, which enhanced breeding to pass through certain stages within the shortest time possible. Although the Chinese industry carefully guarded sericulture technology, the French industry partly acquired basic skills to manage silk production. In addition, the Chinese models embraced open innovation, which involved a traditional shift from the industrial norms to the network-oriented expertise and communicative production.

Primarily, this approach involved the consumers in the production channel to ensure that the products were in line with their demands. This interactive addition of value served as the impetus upon which the Lyon silk industry developed a competitive edge across the Western silk industry. This aspect made it inevitable for the Lyon industry to adhere to the consumers’ wishes and standards in all levels of silk fabric production.

Silk design in Lyon

The design of the fabric meant a lot to the French consumers as the silk status was superior to other textiles because it represented their culture and lifestyles. Some designs adopted the local landscape, thus increasing the demand for locally designed fabric as opposed to imported designs. The design entrepreneurship stood out as an integral part of the silk industry. The municipal authorities and the French merchants had organized structured training programs for artisans, designers, and management to help in ensuring that the Lyon industry met the demand for silk products. Learned societies encouraged cooperation between scholars and industries, which led to an increase in research on techniques in silk farming. The favorable environments encouraged by plenty of skilled human capital ensured continued to thrive off new designs to sustain the rising demand for silk products (Schroeder 33).

The decline of the Lyon silk industry

The era of success had persisted for quite a long time running from the 15th century to the late 20th Century. It is worth noting that this continued growth and prominence of the Lyon silk industry was boosted by the high investment in innovation and the tax freedom granted to the silk sector. However, following the peak of the Industrial Revolution and the economic challenges of the mid-20th century, cheap alternative products such as cotton, wool, and nylon staged in huge competition, thus making it hard for the silk industry to survive (Miller 41). Huge rivalry from the British and Italian designers raised competition for the shrinking markets for silk products. The British designers swiftly switched to new technology to cope with the emerging market demands and trends in design. This competitive atmosphere suppressed the Lyon Silk Factory, which had failed to match the new dynamics in the silk industry.

Conclusion

The Lyon silk sector evolved through trends of huge growth, saturation, and later decline due to market factors. In France, the silk industry was introduced from other countries, most notably Italy and China. Across many centuries, the Lyon Silk Factory emerged as an economic power and sustainable entrepreneurial hub for the French community, and it generated income and livelihood for various generations of employees.

The implications of the Lyon silk industry were very crucial to the economy because even after its decline, Lyon stood as one of the world’s leading zones in creative entrepreneurship. Despite its innovative angle and institutionalized support by the Lyon municipalities, with the swift diffusion of the Industrial Revolution, it became hard for the Lyon silk industry to respond to technological demands and match the cheap alternative products of cotton and nylon. Consequently, the impending closure of the Lyon silk industry proved inescapable in the late 20th Century.

Works Cited

Bonetto, Pierre, Bernd Hofmann, and Gunnar Prause. “Rise and fall of the Lyon silk cluster: a case study about entrepreneurial sustainability.” Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues 2.1 (2014): 1-11. Print

Datta, Rajat, and Mahesh Nanavaty. Global Silk Industry: A Complete Source Book, Boca Raton: Universal Publishers, 2005. Print.

Miller, Lesley. Selling Silks: A Merchant’s Sample Book 1764, London: V & A Publishing, 2014. Print.

Schoeser, Mary. Silk, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007. Print.

Softron Tax Company’s Segmentation Issues

Segmentation Analysis

The main issue identified for Softron Tax is low awareness and the need to establish a strong customer base in Ottawa; the issue is directly associated with segmentation. Segmentation is the primary strategic process that a business needs to conduct to ensure proper operation and development. The process is essentially about identifying customer groups that a business needs to reach with its products and services, and the identification is to be based on particular characteristics and combinations of characteristics, such as customers’ backgrounds, demographic information, income, and so on. Therefore, the first step in successful segmentation is defining dimensions of segmenting the market.

Softron Tax provides services to several customer groups with different needs, and segmentation should be based exactly on the considerations of different groups’ needs. First of all, a major part of services provided by the company consists in personal tax preparations services (“Softron has the services you need,” 2015). These services are demanded by individuals, and especially those who are expected to face additional complications with their taxes, e.g. new immigrants, residents of the United States, self-employed persons, and persons who have debts and credits. Based on these criteria, the first identified segment of the market to be targeted consists of individuals who are either entrepreneurs or self-employed (as opposed to hired workers).

Another large group of services is corporate tax preparation, and these services are aimed at corporate bodies, which qualifies for business-to-business services and implies different segmentation. Also, the company offers tax preparation for death taxes and taxes on sale of property (“Softron has the services you need,” 2015).

Therefore, the dimensions for segmentation for personal tax preparation services should include income (people with higher incomes are expected to be more in need of tax preparation services), occupation (targeting self-employed and entrepreneurs), and age (senior people are more likely be interested in will preparation). These multiple variables may overlap, i.e. senior citizens who have their own business that gives them high income will be particularly targeted due to the presence of all three markers of targeted segments.

Segments should be properly assessed to establish whether segmentation is reasonable, i.e. whether or not described segmentation is a good foundation for further targeting and positioning. First of all, the segments are sizable. For example, according to Statistics Canada, almost 2.8 million people in Canada reported being self-employed in 2016 (“Self-employment,” 2017). Most of these people live in urban areas, which is why the segment is particularly relevant for Softron Tax’s initiative to promote their new locations in Ottawa. Such basic criteria as age and income are not expected either to segment the market into too narrow parts, i.e. identified segments are sufficiently large.

Also, it is important that the needs within the segments are homogeneous (e.g. self-employments taxes for all self-employed individuals), while the needs among the segments are heterogeneous (e.g. will preparation among seniors and tax audit for the high-income group). Also, the segments are identifiable and accessible because the dimensions used for segmentation are basic. Based on the description of segmentation above, a segmentation grid was created (see Appendix 2). In the grid, offered services are matched with identified segments.

Further, a perceptual map was created to place Softron Tax on two axes: perceived quality of service and established versus establishing reputation. The company receives high ratings (“Best tax services in Ottawa,” 2017), but it should not be neglected that, as it was previously established, the company is still struggling for raising awareness and building reputation, which is why it is placed lower than its competitors on the reputation axis, and the company receives complaints about inconsistency of its services from customers, which is why its position on the quality axis is worse than the positions of its closest competitors. The perceptual map shows that the company should work toward increasing awareness and customer satisfaction to earn competitive advantages.

Implementation

In implementing strategic recommendations and alternatives, it is useful to consult marketing theories. One of possible approaches in this regard is turning to P’s of marketing; for instance, Mudie and Pirrie (2012) propose seven P’s of marketing for services: product, price, promotion, place, people, physical evidence, and process. An additional component can be recognized as an eighth P: productivity and quality. This classical understanding suggests that all aspects of providing services to customers should be considered in strategic decision-making.

First of all, in terms of product, Softron Tax should ensure that the services it provides meet identified needs of customers, and the way they meet those needs is clearly communicated to existing and potential customer groups. This part of implementation will require efforts from two areas: marketing research and communications. Employees responsible for exploring the market should report their progress and identified needs to those who design new services and oversee the provision of current ones. Employees responsible for communications and public relations should ensure that the information on offered services reaches potential and existing customers and addresses their needs properly.

Second, the price of services should be competitive, which is why marketing research should encompass pricing, too, and a certain pricing strategy should be proposed. Third, promotion is the responsibility of communication and public relations practitioners, too. They should implement actions expected to reach more people. Fourth, the place component of the mix suggests that potential customers targeted within the framework of promotion can be accessed in proper places, i.e. in places where high-income people, senior citizens, and self-employed individuals or entrepreneurs (the three targeted segments) are expected to spend time. Fifth, people should be trained to provide better customer-oriented services. For this, the company can either establish its own training programs and facilities or outsource the training.

Sixth, for physical evidence, the company’s communications and public relations specialists should collect feedback from existing customers and provide it to potential customers. Also, this component of the mix refers to customers’ experiences of dealing with the company, i.e. the locations should be designed to provide comfort and positive impression. This is close to the seventh component: process, which refers to the procedures of providing services.

They should be fast, efficient, and simple for the optimal customer satisfaction. Customers demand tax preparation services exactly because they find the taxation system too complicated and taxpaying too time-consuming or confusing, which is why the process of providing services should be made as simple and enjoyable as possible. Finally, the productivity and quality of services component refers both to internal operation (organization of work in the optimal way) and external operation (raising perceived quality of services). The timeline for the proposed implementation is described in Appendix 5.

References

Best tax services in Ottawa, ON. (2017). Web.

Mudie, P., & Pirrie, A. (2012). Services marketing management (3rd ed.). Burlington, MA: Elsevier.

Self-employment, historical summary. (2017). Web.

Softron has the services you need. (2015). Web.

Appendix 2

Segmentation Grid and Perceptual Map

Markets Services
Self-Employed Taxes Tax Audit Services Debt and Credit Counseling Corporate Tax Service Will Preparation Financial Advisory
Sector Segment
Individual High Income
Senior
Self-Employed
Corporate Corporate Bodies

Perceptual Map

Appendix 5

Implementation Timeline.
Implementation Timeline.