Principles Of Marketing Management: Cranberry Classic, Atlantic Quench Sample Essay

The Cranberry Classic scope includes juices and juice drinks with cranberry as the nucleus spirit. including a light juice drink every bit good as a high juice cranberry affable. In 2002. the co-operative launched the Cranberry Classic in a 250 milliliter can to aim impulse purchasers in the convenience sector. In 2003. Atlantic Quench increased its scope of ‘light’ low Calorie fruit drinks. which included cranberry and blackcurrant. cranberry and raspberry. and cranberry and Mangifera indica. A white cranberry juice drink was launched in 2004 and was promoted as a sweeter and smoother alternate to the ruddy cranberry juice drinks. In September 2004. the Cranberry Select Premium Chilled Juice Drink was launched in new 1. 75 litre packaging. specifically aimed at the fast-growing chilled drinks sector. A cranberry and Citrus reticulata juice drink was introduced to the market in 2005.

There is a close working relationship between the husbandmans and the administration. Atlantic Quench has to buy all the harvests that the husbandmans grow at the highest possible monetary value. together with a dividend reflecting the net incomes of the Atlantic Quench trade name. Although most of the husbandmans are little manufacturers. their combined green goods histories for about two-thirds of the world’s cranberry crop.

However each husbandman has to perpetrate to an one-year quota of production under a strategy called the ‘common stock equity quota’ . Farmers can be penalised if they fall short on the agreed quota leting Atlantic Quench Co-operative to deliver ( purchase Back ) portion equal to the deficit. at the original issue monetary value enabling them to reapportion the quota. For illustration the portion issue monetary value was $ 25. equal to one barrel of cranberries. although the current market value is closer to $ 250 per portion. This agreement instils subject. non ever show on co-operatives. and is likely to hold contributed to the organisation’s success.

The co-operative has non been without its jobs. The market for farm green goods is volatile. reflecting alterations in clime every bit good as market tendencies. As such it is frequently hard to foretell harvest outputs. Overproduction in 2000 resulted in the monetary value of natural cranberries falling from over $ 60 a barrel to under $ 20. Atlantic Quench responded to the volatile market by cut downing its advertisement and selling budget. In add-on to cutting back on outgo. the co-operative paid the husbandmans $ 12 a barrel alternatively of the $ 18-a-barrell market monetary value. As a consequence the relationship between the direction of the co-operative and the husbandmans deteriorated. and the husbandmans exercised their power as stockholders of the co-operative by voting out four consecutive Chief Executive Officers ( CEOs ) between 2000 and 2003.

When Chuck Berrie was appointed CEO in 2003. his immediate precedence was to discourse with the husbandmans whether or non a co-operative attack to pull offing the concern was still an appropriate and preferable option. The Chief executive officer had antecedently spent six old ages working for another co-operative as Chief Marketing Military officer at Welch Foods Inc. During those six old ages he had contributed to duplicating the market portion of the administration. Harmonizing to Berrie. ‘The beauty of being a cooperative is non being judged by quarterly consequences. but by coevalss go throughing on to the following coevals. ’

Indeed many Atlantic Quench husbandmans are third- and fourth-generation proprietors and one is seventh-generation. Berrie spent many hebdomads debating with the husbandmans. discoursing the advantages and disadvantages of staying as a co-operative. At the same clip a buyout offer was presented by Coca-Cola.

The husbandmans voted to reject Coca-Cola’s offer. taking alternatively to back up Berrie’s vision of a more focussed Atlantic Quench that would remain independent. The concern program proposed by Berrie was to retain the successful facets of the old Atlantic Quench. such as the juice devising and advanced new-product attempts. whilst managing over the logistics. By actively seeking the positions of the husbandmans. Berrie has managed to better the profitableness of the co-operative and besides win back their trust.

In 2007. Atlantic Quench and Coca-Cola implemented a long-run strategic confederation in which Coca-Cola North America markets. bottles and distributes single-serve cranberry juice merchandises in the U. S. and Canada under the Atlantic Quench name. The understanding besides includes chances for the development of the new merchandise inventions across multiple trade channels in the hereafter.

The strategic confederation was viewed as a positive move by both administrations. ‘This is a opportunity for both Coca-Cola and Atlantic Quench to turn up the duologue on the wellness benefits of cranberries. ’ said Mary Moore. president and CEO. Coca-Cola North America. ‘Over the past several old ages. we have built successful. reciprocally good partnerships with strong trade names like Robertsons and Costa. and now we plan to work side-by-side with Atlantic Quench to make a major healthy refreshment concern focused on cranberries. When people think of cranberries they think of Atlantic Quench ’ Atlantic Quench President and CEO Chuck Berrie stated ‘As the Atlantic Quench co-operative moves to construct its trade name. we are seeking out confederations to make consumers more loosely and strongly than of all time before. ’

In 2013 Atlantic Quench signed a licensing understanding with Gerber to fabricate. administer and market juices and juice drinks under the Atlantic Quench trade name in the UK. Gerber is the largest provider of private-label and branded fruit juice and juice drinks in the UK. with gross revenues transcending 800 million liters per twelvemonth.

Atlantic Quench has been really good received by the UK market and has besides negotiated three successful contracts with the three largest supermarket groups in the UK to sell all of its merchandise lines.  Atlantic Quench’s creativeness in new merchandise development ( NPD ) has been a conducive factor to the organisation’s success. After promoting supermarkets in the US to add juice aisles in the 1960’s. Atlantic Quench developed juice boxes. including low-calorie cranberry drinks. and white cranberry juice.

Crantanas. the dried fruit bite made from chaffs that used to be thrown off but are now reinfused with juice. have proved to be really popular excessively. Other merchandise fluctuations include chocolate-covered Crantanas. ready-to-drink assorted flavoured juices and an energy juice drink called Cranzeal. Atlantic Quench enjoyed one-year gross revenues of around $ 1. 7 billion in 2007. of which Crantanas histories for ?150m ( beginning PR Newswire ) . Gross saless of this merchandise hold doubled in the last two old ages and are expected to duplicate once more over the following 10 old ages.

Cranberries have been promoted for their healthy qualities and for many old ages Atlantic Quench has had a practical monopoly in the niche market for cranberry merchandises. However. the growing of blended cranberry juice merchandises and the turning consumer involvement in superfruit juices ( i. e. 1s that are claimed to transport big sum of foods and antioxidants ) has resulted in a more competitory market environment. More late. other superfruits such as Punica granatums. barbados cherry. gogi and acai berries have been introduced to the market. lending to a 20 % growing in fruit juice gross revenues. The increased consciousness of. and involvement in. healthy life. has led to other rival administrations come ining the drink market. offering juice drinks including superfruits. Brand trueness towards blended cranberry juice merchandises has become less marked.

It has been argued that Atlantic Quench was late to react to this market tendency. but it has now produced cranberry blends that include Punica granatums and barbados cherry. Harmonizing to Bokaie 2007 ‘the healthy juice sphere has become a much more emotionally prosecuting. taking attention to guarantee the trade name personality does non become dominated by an overly medicative attack. even if it does hold a believable wellness claim. ’ One of Berrie’ chief challenges was to present cranberries to a whole new coevals of consumers. Refer about saccharides. Calories and fleshiness created issues for the devising of juices. As cranberries in their natural signifier contain about no sugar. Atlantic Quench was able to present sweetners without irrigating down spirits. In order to aim dieters. it developed a five-calorie drink ( Diet Cranberry Quench and Diet Orange Tang ) that contains merely 7 % cranberry juice. Market Trends

Lifestyle TendenciesIn the UK there is an increased demand for fruit juice. fruit drinks and wellness drinks ensuing from a greater involvement in a healthy life style and the importance attached to eating a assortment of fruit and veggies daily. The juice sector is progressively deriving market portion from the carbonated sector. which is worsening in popularity and has a poorer image among consumers.

Impulse BuyingIn add-on to profiting from the positive and healthy image of its ware. Atlantic Quench is besides good placed to react to the increased demand in the market for convenience drinks. When impulse purchasing. consumers will frequently take to buy fruit juice drinks in penchant to confectionery. which is regarded as a less healthy option. Convenience juice drinks are besides popular with athleticss work forces and adult females who are looking for a speedy and healthy option to reconstruct fluids and energy following exercising.

Nutritional criterions in British schoolsMintel studies that tendency towards healthy feeding has been a key driver behind growing across all channels. as better-informed consumers have taken greater involvement in the nutritionary content of what they eat and drink. This is peculiarly true for school kids. for whom new nutritionary criterions were introduced in the UK from September 2006. The standard provinces that school tiffins should be free from chip ( potato french friess ) . cocoa and other confectionary and students are to be served a lower limit of two parts of fruit and veggies with every repast. Schools are expected to stop the sale of unhealthy bites and drinks ( notably carbonates ) in peddling machines and bite stores. Changes to standard regulating the sale of nutrient and drink in schools have favoured fruit juice and juice drinks at the disbursal of carbonates and peddling machines being restocked with healthier options.

Health has besides driven much of the NPD as makers have responded to alterations in regulations regulating the nutritionary criterion in schools. Manufacturing have responded to the alterations with a broad scope of new and Reformed juice and juice drink merchandises targeted specifically at in-school ingestion. An of import focal point of NPD has been functionality. notably with the add-on of omega-3 to the ingredients used in the juice drink sector. Manufacturers have introduced new and improved juice drinks preparations with a higher juice content and fewer additives. More functional and bastioned juices and juice drinks have been introduced. concentrating on omega-3. anti-oxidants and the heart’s wellness. Many of these are besides targeted at the children’s lunchbox sector within the food market channel – a sector that can anticipate to have a encouragement as the authorities widens its accent in bettering the nutritionary balance of jammed tiffins. Non-retail gross revenues

Mintel has besides indentified the fact the non retail gross revenues have enjoyed above norm an estimated 76 % between 2001 and 2006. as licensees have begun to concentrate on the chances offered by the healthy eating tendency and alterations in consumer behavior. In add-on. peddling in leisure. hotel. eating house and catering sector is taking an increasing portion of gross revenues as providers benefit from altering consumer gustatory sensations.

Convenience snackingHarmonizing to the Mintel study ‘Snacking on the Go-UK’ Market intelligence. April 2006. three quarters of grownups snack on the spell ( i. e. while going or traveling about ) . making more than five billion grownup on-the-go snacking occasions each twelvemonth in the UK. which Mintel estimates generates ?3. 6 billion in retail gross. One in three grownups snack because they are on a journey. while half bite on the move because of work force per unit area. Longer on the job hours and shorter tiffin interruptions increase the demand for convenient bites as many workers try to counterbalance for lost repasts.

The tendency towards healthier eating means the noshers are progressively likely to pay attending to the nutritionary value of what they are purchasing. On-the-go noshers are cardinal marks for juice and juice drink makers such as Atlantic Quench. since some of these merchandises combine hydration with wellness. Single-serve juices. whilst the increasing handiness of higher juice content juice drinks is bettering the wellness certificates of the section.

BoxingAdvanced attacks to packaging hold been adopted to excite involvement and increase the entreaty of Atlantic Quench’s merchandise scope. Merchandises are packaged utilizing reclaimable glass. tins. cartons or polythene terephthalate ( PET2 ) plastic bottles so that they can be recycled. and carry the ingredient and nutrition information on the side panel of the label. These characteristics. together with the launch of slimline tins aimed at the convenience sector. have proved to be popular with consumers.

Atlantic Quench has considered reacting to the five-a-day run by informing consumers with on-pack messages that their merchandises are tantamount to one of the five recommended day-to-day parts of fruit and veggies. Ad Political campaigns

Atlantic Quench has combined tempers. wellness benefits and the American heritage of cranberry in their recent US publicities. As research continues to back up the wellness related benefits of cranberries. Atlantic Quench has been acute to advance this through originative advertisement. The run. which is presently used on telecasting and in magazines countrywide. purposes to inform audiences of the benefits of cranberry juices.

Industry studies indicate that the advertisement run is executing highly good with consumers. The initial advertizements appeared in the top two per centum of all advertizements of all time tested by Milward Brown. a well-thought-of industry research company that measures consumer response to advertisement. Harmonizing to Atlantic Quench. the run has besides been bolstering gross revenues of merchandises across all of its concern divisions. with a six per centum twelvemonth on twelvemonth growing of the Cranberry Juice drinks. More late. Atlantic Quench has featured new Diet Atlantic Quench Juice Drinks in their advertizements. which embody a simple and sincere temper.

The advertizements have proved popular and were ranked 4th in Advertising Ages list of Top 10 Most-Recalled New Television Ads. Television advertizements within the UK have included a run to advance the launch of the white cranberry drink. Other Television advertizements have focused on the love-hate relationship many adult females have with wellness and beauty advertisement. The mark market tends to be educated adult females between the ages of 30 and 45. The continued committedness from Atlantic Quench to advertisement and NPD will play an of import function in prolonging growing. Annual Growth Figures.

Atlantic Quench has enjoyed strong one-year growing. Key public presentation high spots include: gross revenues growing of more than 7 % per twelvemonth for the last four old ages market portion additions in about every competitory sector 26 % addition in the ingestion of Crantanas Fourfold addition in fabricating capacity for Crantanas.

The ferociously competitory market for the production of juices and the entry of new providers means that it is going progressively expensive. in footings of advertisement and selling. to establish new merchandises. The fruit juice sector is to a great extent dominated by supermarket ain trade names. which are frequently seen as sugar free and hence a healthier option to juice drinks.

In footings of per centum competitory market for juice and juice drinks is surpassing its European neighbor with both Germany and France sing far slower rates of growing between 2000 and 2005. In 2005. the German market was deserving 8. 82 billion Euros. 16 % more than in 2000. Mintel states that the strong involvement in wellness has contributed to the above mean growing of vegetable juice sector in Germany. although. vegetable juices still merely account for 2. 7 % of the entire juice and nectars section. In crisp contrast to the UK. involvement in healthy feeding in the US has had a negative consequence on gross revenues of juice and juice drinks.

Research undertaken by Mintel indicates that the popularity of low-carbonated diets means that many weight-conscious US consumers have rejected juice and juice drinks with a high sugar content in favor of bottled H2O or other low-calorie soft drinks. Manufacturers in the US have responded by presenting more light versions of juice drinks and juice drinks and juices with specific functional belongingss. such as added fiber or stanol esters for bosom wellness. The Future

Soft drinks and fruit juices are an indispensable merchandise and the sector is sing major growing. Market analysts believe that this tendency is set to go on. Market projections indicate that there is no mark of any future diminution in the demand for convenience wellness drink merchandises. particularly if the wellness certificates of the merchandise can be proven. Consumers are progressively seeking natural and healthy options. Atlantic Quench has the chance to aim consumers who are seeking an option to the high sugar content. which of course occurs in most fruit juice drinks. There is besides the chance for growing in the sale of drinks made fresh pressed juices and smoothies ( thick cold drinks blended fruit juices with yogurt or ice-cream ) . where the market remains comparatively immature. Atlantic Quench believe that consumer wellness will go on to drive future tendencies.

The 5-a-day fruit and vegetable run. ongoing media coverage of high degrees of fleshiness in Europe and an awaited focal point on healthier lunchboxes for kids. all mean that wellness will go on to be a strong influence on the pick made by consumers. As alterations to advertisement regulations make selling to kids more hard. parents will progressively go the mark. This in bend is likely to lend to farther growing of ‘better for them’ juice and juice drinks. as makers compete for parents’ buying capacity on wellness evidences. Parents are still cardinal buyers of juice and juice drinks. with fabricating progressively aiming time-pressed parents who have to fix lunchboxes. Parents retain the upper manus when it comes to taking what their kids eat and drink. with over half of ABC1 parents holding that kids should eat what they are given and merely one in five stating that they find it hard to state no to their kids.

AB parents are more likely to implement their ain picks on their kids. with the inclination to give in to ‘pester power’ ( i. e. children’s demands ) lifting significantly as richness lessenings. The population of 15- 24 twelvemonth olds in the UK are the heaviest consumers of juice and juice drinks. The market has benefited from growing of about 10 % in this section between 2000 and 2005. Between 2005 and 2010. this age group will see farther slow growing of 3. 2 % .

Children’s drinks are an of import country of growing within the juice and juice drinks market. A downward tendency in the birth rate led to a 3. 5 % diminution in the figure of under 14s between 2000 and 2005. A recent upturn in the figure of unrecorded births will chair the diminution to 2010. with the figure of under fives set to increase by 2. 2 % . The 45-54 twelvemonth old group is set to see the greatest growing between 2005 and 2010. Use of fruit and vegetable juice is somewhat above norm among these consumers. The successful targeting of this spread outing cohort could finally take to greater ingestion among older consumers. Case survey was adapted from CIM scrutiny past paper 2008.

Privacy Issues And Monetizing Twitter Sample

This instance looks at Twitter in early 2010. At this point. Twitter had a market rating of $ 1 billion. but was a free service without a feasible concern program. The challenge facing Chirrup at this point in clip is happening a balance between Twitter’s gross bring forthing enterprises and protecting the privateness rights of the 10s of 1000000s utilizing Twitter’s popular societal networking service. Twitter was founded in 2006 by Jack Dorsey. Evan Williams. and Biz Stones. All three persons held executive degree places at the clip of the instance survey. Twitter created a comparatively simple. but really popular societal web dwelling of short messages of 140 characters or less called “tweets” . Users could twirp utilizing a assortment of engineerings runing from the Twitter web site to cell phone text messages and 3rd party applications for nomadic devices. From its origin in 2006. Twitter’s user base grew rapidly. While Twitter recorded an norm of 500. 000 tweets per one-fourth in 2007. that grew to four billion tweets in the first one-fourth of 2010. The largest group of users was the 25-34 age group Twitter became a popular manner for famous persons to maintain in touch with their fans. and was even used by NASA spacemans to supply updates on shuttle fixs.

Twitter’s possible concern applications seemed promising. Dell started utilizing Twitter and within 3 old ages was bring forthing $ 6 million in gross revenues from the channel. Privacy concerns for users of assorted societal media sites were a sensitive issue. Some users of Twitter. along with rivals such as Facebook. Google Buzz. and MySpace were concerned with how secure the personal informations being provided to the societal sites was. Besides refering was how a societal media site may take to sell user’s personal information for a net income to 3rd parties. Most societal media sites. Twitter included. had experienced negative promotion as a consequence of security breaches and unwanted characteristics that used personal information in unwanted ways. Politicians took notice and were working with regulative bureaus to supply guidelines for usage of personal information. With Twitter’s user base transcending 100 million users in early 2010. Chirrup was still without a feasible concern program. Through several unit of ammunitions of venture capital support Twitter had secured more than $ 57 million. but without a feasible program to bring forth gross. Twitter’s long-run hereafter was unsure.

One feasible avenue was to leverage Twitter’s big user base for informations excavation intents. Twitter possessed a big database of personal information that could potentially be sold to companies looking to derive extra penetration into the consumer market. Rivals such as Facebook and Google Buzz had done this antecedently. frequently to negative feedback and promotion from their users and media likewise. In an attempt to capitalise on the big information database it held. Twitter signed a trade with Microsoft and Google in October of 2009 to let tweets to look in the hunt consequences of their hunt engines. This trade resulted in some increased exposure for Twitter. but was non moneymaking financially for any of the companies involved. Even the Library of Congress announced programs to catalog and file away all public tweets. This plan was met with echoing unfavorable judgment from users. mentioning privateness concerns. The Library of Congress finally revised and scaled back the plan. Amid this environment of rapid growing in user base. Twitter was a company at a hamlets. Twitter needed to turn a popular free service into a feasible gross bring forthing corporation. How does Twitter capitalise on their passionate user base? Is information mining the reply? If so. can Twitter sell user’s private information while keeping their trust? Recommendation

In an attempt to make gross bring forthing channels. it is recommended that Twitter embark on several enterprises. With regard to informations excavation. general. non-user specific information should be sold to selling houses and other third-part companies interested in obtaining this information. Second. research the possibility of seting in topographic point a subscription-based history for any commercial users. This included companies. trade names. merchandises. famous persons. etc. These users are potentially gaining from the Twitter platform without any net income sharing traveling to Twitter. Last. research the usage of selling targeted advertizements to look in the Twitter provenders of users. Rationale

There is a clime of great sensitiveness to the protection of individual’s private personal privateness at the clip of the instance survey. Twitter has an avenue to gain while still keeping single user’s namelessness by selling demographic user informations to 3rd parties. Age. sex. involvements. spiritual position. and other information could be really utile for sellers. and by non associating this information to single people. possible kickback from the user base would be diminished. Additionally. as the instance survey points out. Chirrup had become a really utile tool for concerns and famous persons to advance their merchandises. services. and public images. Look into making a commercial subscription service for these types of users so that they are being charged for this signifier of advertisement.

It could be argued that these entities could exchange to a viing societal networking service. nevertheless when companies can hold 100s of 1000s. if non 1000000s of followings. it may be deserving paying $ 50 or $ 100 a month to keep contact with the Twitter web of users. As Twitters user base grows. so does Twitter’s purchase to bear down concerns and other commercial users higher subscription fees. Last. the usage of targeted advertisement in user’s Twitter provenders could make another potentially moneymaking gross watercourse. It would be of import to restrict advertisement in an attempt to avoid raging users. but 1 or 2 advertizements for every 100 standard chirrup posts likely wouldn’t affect the user experience greatly. Execution Tacticss

As indicated above. privateness rights are a main concern for users. media. and politicians at the clip of the instance survey. Data excavation is a touchy topic. as it has the possible to go against the privateness rights of 1000000s of users if non done in a carefully thought out. ethical mode. As such should Twitter continue with a information excavation plan to sell non-user specific informations to third-parties. this plan should be made clear to the general populace and all Twitter users. Detailss should be provided sing the safety measures being put in topographic point by Twitter to protect user’s informations in an attempt to proactively turn to the privateness concerns. Sing the commercial-user subscription proposal. Twitter needs to develop a finishing value proposition to countervail the negative kickback that would necessarily ensue from change overing what had been a free service into a monthly subscription service.

Twitter should make commercial selling enterprises as portion of the subscription service that would assist commercial pay-users to more efficaciously advance their message and turn their follower base. Additionally. a “Twitter Analytics” service could assist commercial wage users to construe the huge information related to their follower’s demographics and other informations to let them to polish their messages to maximise effectivity. Twitter advertisement could tap into the turning and moneymaking online publicizing budgets presently being devoted to Google. Yokel! . Facebook. and other hunt engine and societal webs. Modeling an advertisement theoretical account after the really successful Google platform could bring forth immense long term gross watercourses as Twitter’s user base continues to turn in the hereafter.

Hygienic Norms, Sanitary Rules

Personal Hygiene

Personal hygiene is simply the application of rules for maintaining wellness and personal cleanliness (Placio, 2003) or good wellness habits, including bathing, washing hair, wearing clean clothing, and frequently washing hands. Poor personal habits can pose serious risks in food establishments.

The restaurant management team is responsible for the health and safety of our employees and customers. They must ensure that public restrooms and handwashing areas are fully stocked with hot and cold running water, hand soap, and single-use paper towels or hand dryers. They should also provide gloves for employees handling food products or cleaning chemicals (Popeyes Food Safety Certification Program, 2007).

Managers should also be prepared to respond if an employee comes to work ill, with a sore or injury. If the employee’s condition is contagious and may contaminate food or other employees, the employee should not work that day. If an employee has a cut, the area should be washed, bandaged, and gloves should be required.

Managers must have the necessary bandages available and assign those employees to tasks that do not involve handling food (Popeyes Food Safety Certification Program, 2007).

Good personal hygiene will help to minimize the risks of contaminating food and is the legal responsibility of every food handler. It is important that food handlers are generally clean and tidy, wear appropriate protective clothing, and avoid wearing heavy makeup, nail polish, hair decorations, and jewelry that could harbor microorganisms or fall off and contaminate food (Blanch, 2003). Good personal hygiene is essential for those who handle food. Desirable behaviors include (McSwane, Rue, & Linton, 2005):

All of us carry disease-causing bacteria in our bodies, which can be carried to food. By staying healthy and keeping clean, you can help prevent an outbreak of food-borne illness. The most important hygienic measure in the kitchen is frequent hand washing.

Germs can pass from hand to hand. Clean hands and trimmed fingernails reduce the risk of contamination (Subida, 2007). Safe food preparation begins with clean hands.

Hands that carry harmful bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms may transfer contamination to any surface or food when touched. Proper and frequent hand washing by employees is one of the most important food safety steps. Hands can become contaminated in a variety of ways.

The failure to wash contaminated hands is one of the leading contributors to the outbreaks of foodborne illness. As a result, all directors and employees must wash their hands (Popeyes Food Safety Certification Program, 2007).

It is the most important part of personal hygiene. It may seem like an obvious thing to do. Even so, many food handlers do not wash their hands the right way or as frequently as they should. You must train your food handlers to wash their hands and then you must monitor them. To wash hands the right way, follow these steps. The whole process should take about 20 seconds (National Restaurant Association, 2008).

First, wet hands and arms. Use running water as hot as you can comfortably stand. It should be at least 100°F (38°C). Second, apply soap and use enough to build up a good lather. Third, scrub hands and arms vigorously. Scrub them for 10 to 15 seconds and clean under fingernails and between fingers.

Fourth, rinse hands and arms thoroughly using running water. Finally, dry hands and arms and use a single-use paper towel or a warm-air hand dryer (National Restaurant Association, 2008). Hand washing is generally one of the most ignored areas of hygienic food operations. It is no good taking all the right steps to protect food if you then handle it with dirty hands!

Food handlers in dirty clothes may give a bad impression of your operation. More importantly, dirty clothes may carry pathogens that can cause foodborne illness. Set up a dress code and make sure all employees follow it. This code should include the following guidelines (National Restaurant Association, 2008): Bathe daily and wear clean clothes to work. Hair is a breeding ground for lice. Always wear a clean uniform and change daily or more frequently if necessary.

Dirty clothes carry a tremendous number of germs. Underwear should be changed daily. Put your uniform on at work. Wear clean and appropriate shoes in the kitchen, preferably leather (Subida, 2007). Wear clean clothes daily. If possible, change into work clothes at work. Dirty clothes that are stored in the operation must be kept away from food and preparation areas. This includes dirty aprons, chef coats, and uniforms (National Restaurant Association, 2008).

Hair Restraints

A hair restraint helps prevent hair from ending up in the food and may discourage employees from touching their hair (Arduser & Brown, 2005). Consumers are particularly sensitive to food contaminated by hair. Hair can be both a direct and indirect vehicle of contamination.

Food handlers may contaminate their hands when they touch their hair (Arduser & Brown, 2005). Wear a clean hat or other hair restraint. Food handlers with facial hair should also wear a beard restraint (National Restaurant Association, 2008).


An apron is a garment that covers a portion of the body and is tied at the waist, designed to protect the wearer’s clothing (Random House Unabridged Dictionary). Do not use aprons as a hand towel. Be sure to wash your hands after touching your apron. Change your apron when it becomes soiled (Subida, 2007). Remove aprons when leaving preparation areas (National Restaurant Association, 2008).


The term “jewelry” generally refers to decorations worn for personal adornment (Arduser & Brown, 2005). Do not wear jewelry, as it can collect dirt or fall off and cause injury if caught on hot or sharp objects or equipment, such as a slicer (Subida, 2007).

Remove jewelry from hands and arms before preparing food or when working around preparation areas. You cannot wear any of the following: rings, except for a plain band, bracelets, including medical bracelets, and watches (National Restaurant Association, 2008). Your company may also require you to remove other types of jewelry, such as earrings, necklaces, and facial jewelry.

Smoking, Eating, and Drinking

Do not smoke, eat, drink, or chew gum while working. When you bring a cigarette to your lips, your hands touch saliva, which carries bacteria. Ash or cigarette butts may also fall onto food and food-preparation areas. Smoke, eat, or drink only in assigned break areas or the employee dining area (Subida, 2007).

Safe Food Preparation

The food service worker is responsible for preparing and serving food that is safe to eat. You have purchased, received, and stored your establishment’s food correctly. Now you must prepare it. Cross-contamination and time-temperature abuse can easily occur during this step in the flow of food.

However, you can prevent pathogens from growing during preparation by making good food preparation choices. It is important to use the right thawing methods and to be aware of special handling practices when preparing specific types of food (National Restaurant Association, 2008).

You must have a desire and the proper information to fulfill your duty of preparing safe food, including: keeping the food, equipment, kitchen, and dining areas clean; using cleaning supplies properly; following the cleaning schedule or routine outlined by your supervisor; and keeping yourself clean and your appearance neat (Kuory, 1989).

General Preparation Practices (National Restaurant Association, 2008)

No matter what type of food you are preparing, you should begin by following these guidelines.

Equipment – Make certain workstations, film editing boards, and utensils are clean and sanitized. Quantity – Remove from the ice chest only as much food as you can prepare in a short period of time. Also, prepare food in small batches. This keeps ingredients from sitting out for long periods of time. Storage – Return prepped food to the ice chest or cook it as quickly as possible.

Start with clean, wholesome foods from reputable suppliers. Whenever applicable, purchase government-inspected meat, dairy, and egg products. Handle as little food as possible. Use tongs, spatulas, or other utensils instead of hands whenever possible. Use clean, sanitized equipment and work tables.

Clean and sanitize cutting surfaces and equipment after handling raw poultry, meat, fish, or eggs and before working on another food. Clean as you go. Do not wait until the end of the working day. Wash fresh fruits and vegetables thoroughly. When taking food out of refrigeration, do not take out more than you can handle in an hour.

Keep food covered whenever possible unless in immediate use. Do not mix leftovers with freshly prepared food. Chill all ingredients for protein salads and potato salads before combining.

Choose foods processed for safety. While many foods, such as fruits and vegetables, are best in their natural state, others are not safe unless they have been processed. Keep in mind that food processing was invented to improve safety as well as to extend shelf-life.

Cook food thoroughly. Many raw foods, especially poultry, meats, eggs, and unpasteurized milk, may be contaminated with disease-causing organisms. Thorough cooking will kill the pathogens, but remember that the temperature of all parts of the food must reach at least 70°C.

If cooked chicken is still raw near the bone, put it back in the oven until it is done all the way through. Frozen meat, fish, and poultry must be thoroughly thawed before cooking.

Eat cooked food immediately. When cooked food cools to room temperature, bacteria begin to multiply. The longer the wait, the greater the risk. To be on the safe side, eat cooked food as soon as it comes off the heat.

Store cooked food carefully. If you must prepare food in advance or want to keep leftovers, be sure to store them under either hot (near or above 60°C) or cool (near or below 10°C) conditions. This rule is of critical importance if you plan to store food for more than four or five hours. Foods for babies should preferably not be stored at all.

A common mistake, responsible for countless cases of foodborne disease, is putting too large a quantity of warm food in the refrigerator. In an overloaded refrigerator, cooked food cannot chill to the core as quickly as it should. When the center of food remains warm (above 10°C) for too long, bacteria thrive, rapidly proliferating to disease-causing levels.

Reheat cooked nutrients thoroughly

This is your best protection against bugs that may have developed during storage (proper storage slows down microbial growth but does not kill the microorganisms). Once again, thorough reheating means that all parts of the food must reach at least 70°C. (World Health Organization 2010)

Avoid contact between raw and cooked foods

Safely cooked food can become contaminated through even the slightest contact with raw food. This cross-contamination can be direct, as when raw poultry comes into contact with cooked food. (World Health Organization 2010)

Wash hands repeatedly

Wash hands thoroughly before you start preparing food and after every break—especially if you have to change the baby or have been to the bathroom. After handling raw foods such as fish, meat, or poultry, wash your hands again before you start handling other foods. And if you have an infection on your hand, be sure to bandage or cover it before preparing food. (World Health Organization 2010)

Keep all kitchen surfaces meticulously clean

Since foods are so easily contaminated, any surface used for food preparation must be kept spotlessly clean. Think of every food crumb, piece, or spot as a possible source of germs. Fabrics that come into contact with dishes and utensils should be changed frequently and boiled before reuse. Separate fabrics for cleaning the floors also require frequent washing. (World Health Organization 2010)

Protect food from insects, rodents, and other animals

Animals often carry infectious microorganisms that cause foodborne illness. Storing food in closed containers is your best protection. (World Health Organization 2010)

Use safe water

Safe water is just as important for food preparation as for drinking. If you have any doubts about the water supply, boil water before adding it to food or making ice for drinks. Be especially careful with any water used to prepare an infant’s meal. (World Health Organization 2010)

Cleaning and Sanitation

Cleanliness and sanitation are important factors in a guest’s attitude about a property (Rey & Wieland, 1985). Cleaning and sanitation form the foundation of food safety. Keeping a clean, hygienic restaurant is essential for serving safe food. Additionally, a clean and organized restaurant influences a positive employee attitude toward improved personal hygiene and food preparation practices (Popeyes Food Safety Certification Program, 2007). Proper cleaning and sanitizing helps protect all those who eat or work in a food service establishment.

A safe environment is maintained by keeping utensils, equipment, and work areas free of soil and contamination (National Assessment Institute, 1994). Food can easily be contaminated if you don’t keep your facility and equipment clean and sanitized. Surfaces that come into contact with food must be cleaned and sanitized properly and at the right times.

Cleaning involves using the right type of cleaning agent for a job. Sanitizing involves using a method that works for your operation and following the right steps to ensure it is effective (National Restaurant Association, 2008). Cleaning and sanitizing are important activities in a food safety plan. Cleaning and sanitizing are two distinct processes used for different purposes.

Cleaning is the physical removal of dirt and food residues from surfaces of equipment and utensils. Sanitizing (sometimes called sanitation) is the treatment of a surface that has been previously cleaned to reduce the number of disease-causing micro-organisms to safe levels (McSwane, Rue & Linton, 2005).

The Importance of Cleaning and Sanitizing

Each eating house needs a cleansing plan that is an overall system to form all their cleansing and sanitizing undertakings. The plan should also assist in identifying your cleansing demands, set up a master cleansing agenda, choose the supplies and tools to use, and develop employees to make the best of their skills (Subida, 2007).

Safe food service is only possible with a clean and healthy environment in which to store, process, and serve food. Keeping equipment, utensils, and work areas clean and sanitized is an important part of preparing safe food.

Proper housekeeping practices reduce the risks of both chemical and physical contamination. Cleaning and sanitizing procedures reduce the risks of biological contamination (National Assessment Institute, 1994).

How to Clean and Sanitize: To clean and sanitize a surface, follow these steps (National Restaurant Association, 2008):

  1. Clean the surface.
  2. Rinse the surface.
  3. Sanitize the surface.
  4. Let the surface air-dry.

When to clean and sanitize: all food-contact surfaces need to be cleaned and sanitized at these times (National Restaurant Association, 2008):

  1. After use.
  2. Before food handlers start working with a different type of food.
  3. Anytime food handlers are interrupted during a task and the items being used may have been contaminated.
  4. After four hours if items are in constant use.

Cleaning alone is not enough to maintain a healthy food service constitution. Even when soil and food particles have been removed from food-contact surfaces, they are not ready to use. You must sanitize to kill the bacteria that could contaminate food you prepare and serve.

Washing with detergent and hot water helps destroy some bacteria, but sanitizing with heat or chemical agents after cleansing does much more. You can reduce bacteria to safe levels using proper cleaning and sanitizing techniques (National Assessment Institute, 1994).

Cleaning Safely and Effectively:

There are many cleansing products or agents and a variety of equipment in the market. Your manager will decide what is best for you and you will be trained and instructed on how to use such products safely (Subida, 2007). Here are some points to support your workplace training (Subida, 2007):

  1. Clean in logical order.
  2. Different cleaning tasks require different methods. Getting things wrong can damage surfaces, cause injury to yourself, and spread bacteria and soil.
  3. Many cleaning agents are harmful. Contact with your skin or eyes or breathing in the fumes can cause serious illness.
  4. Mixing one agent with another can be dangerous. A chemical reaction can be set up or, in some cases, produce toxic fumes.

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