Principles Of Strategy: Automotive Industry Macro-Environment Analysis Sample Paper


The automotive industry contributes significantly to the growth of the economy. In the UK, governments like the industry consider the industry important from some of the benefits it generates, like creating jobs for the economy. The macro-environment analysis significantly helps identify the external factors affecting the automotive industry performance. The paper is on a report that ascertains the PESTEL Analysis and Porter’s Five Forces Analysis. PESTEL stands for P-political, E-economic, S-social-cultural, T-technological, E-environmental, and L-legal factors. Porter’s Five Forces include the bargaining power of suppliers, bargaining power of buyers, the threat of new entrants, threat of substitutes, and competitive rivalry.


The automotive industry in the UK entails a wide range of organizations and companies producing motor vehicles both domestically and globally. Most governments in the world consider the automotive industry as important in the revenue generated. According to SMMT, in 2019, the automotive industry in the UK generated 78.9billion Euros revenue. The industry contributes both directly and indirectly to economic growth. Many individuals depend on the industry in terms of employment that cuts across different professionals engaged in manufacturing, designing, engineering, and supplying products. Most of the automotive industry have considered producing electric cars as an alternative after pressure from the government on environmental sustainability. The UK government has a goal of ensuring zero-emission by 2050. Since the transport sector contributes significantly towards carbon emission, efforts through the government have been implemented. The demand for cars will increase immeasurably because of the increase in the purchasing power, increased population, increasing standard of living across the world, and stringent government regulations like reduction of carbon emission.

PESTEL Analysis

Political Factors

The UK government has implemented emission policies to mitigate climate change. The automotive industry significantly increases the carbon footprint considering that some populations use either petrol or diesel fuels, which produce several environmental pollutants after burning. In 2020, the UK government publicized the ambitions to limit the sale of cars powered by diesel or petrol by 2030 and by 2050, there is an anticipation that all cars should emit zero carbon. Such a plan by the government forces manufacturers in the UK to produce sustainable cars, including hybrid and electric.

Driving cars is considered, and as a result, most governments worldwide implement safety measures to protect the passengers. The government requires vehicles to have seatbelts for passengers’ safety in the UK. According to a report released by Robert Gifford of the Parliamentary Advisory Council for Transport Safety Charity in 2009, the seatbelts had saved 35,000lives over the past 25years (“BBC NEWS | UK | Hundreds ‘die without seatbelts’,” 2009). As a result, travellers are convinced enough on using seatbelts either when using public or private means of transport.

Economic Factors

The manufacturers have their market both domestically and outside the world. Most of the manufacturers’ economies have already established themselves have growing disposable incomes, including the developing countries. When consumers have more income in their pockets, they become willing to spend on electronics and automobiles, especially the luxuries. As a result, manufacturers in the UK have benefited significantly, generating revenue through a tax on exports.

Socio-Cultural Factors

The popularity of driving has been growing immensely over the years worldwide. In developed countries like Europe, Canada, and America, owning one or more vehicles is a norm in most homesteads. It is also turning into a norm in developing countries because most economies are growing.

Technological Factors

Technological advancement in the automotive industry improved safety in various ways. For example, the rolling out airbags across many models usually safeguards many lives in case of an accident. The adaptive cruise control technology controls the braking and acceleration by monitoring the objects on the road (Mahdinia et al., 2020, p. 254). The adaptive cruise control, as a result, improves the driving experience by making it comfortable and safe. The blind-spot monitoring technology with sensors mounted on the bumper or the side mirrors helps detect vehicles on the adjacent lanes enabling the driver to switch between lanes safely. If the sensors detect something, the driver becomes alerted through either an audible or visual warning.

Environmental Factors

As stated earlier, climate change mitigation gained global attention to make the environment sustainable over the past years. Most of the population in the UK possess fossil fuel vehicles because of their affordability compared to electric cars. Fossil fuel vehicles contribute significantly to the global warming effect of severe droughts and hotter temperatures. The research conducted in 2021 showed that the UK’s transport sector contributed 27percent of the total emissions in 2019 (“Transport and Environment Statistics: Autumn 2021,” 2021). By 2030, the UK government aims at banning new petrol and diesel vehicles. The plan forces all the manufacturing companies in the automotive industry in the UK to consider an alternative of producing electric vehicles, which depends on power batteries.

Legal Factors

Copyright issue sounds uncommon in the automotive industry, but related challenges often emerge. The automotive brands usually protect their market image through patent laws and trademarks to limit rivalries from imitation. Rolls Royce brand once claimed imitation from a Chinese brand Geely that, resulted in conflict. As a result, most manufacturers aim at protecting their brand through employing advanced technologies in the production unit.

Porter’s Five Forces Analysis

Bargaining Power of Buyers

Among the factors determining the bargaining power of buyers in the automotive industry includes the frequency of purchase, number of buyers, and the purchase size. In the UK, numerous automotive manufacturers exist, meaning buyers can switch from one brand to another. Some of the automotive brands in the UK include Land Rover, Rolls Royce, Jaguar, Bentley, and Aston Martin, among others. Besides, the UK imports foreign brands in the market. The buyer’s decision depends on the market prices, quality, appearance, and environmental effect. Based on the stated factors, customers can switch from one brand to another if the brand meets the requirements and preferences. Because of the numerous alternatives based on the requirements and preferences, the bargaining power of buyers in the automotive industry is strong.

Bargaining Power of Suppliers

The bargaining power of supplies depends on replaceability and the number of suppliers in the market (Guida et al., 2021, p. 100701). The immense advancement of technology in the automotive industry enables suppliers to gain larger economies of scale, hence gaining power. Notably, the bargaining power of suppliers might become moderately strong as the number of suppliers increases. For example, countries like Singapore and China had joined the market, unlike before where Germany, England, and Japan were the common vehicle manufacturers.

Threat of Substitutes

The threat of substitutes depends on customer acceptance, affordability, and technology advancement in an industry (Reitz et al., 2020, p. 3). In the automotive industry, the threat of substitution results from the economic considerations and environmental factors that make customers prioritize greener and cheaper alternatives. As stated earlier, the automotive industry in 2019 contributed 27percent of the total carbon emissions in the UK. Notably, most percentage of the population in the UK understands the concept of sustainability, and therefore, they are ready to take more environmentally friendly alternatives. However, the same automotive companies provide alternatives. In this case, the intensity of the threat of substitutes is weak, making the industry more profitable.

The threat of New Entrants

Entrants in the market are influenced by the strength of the existing firms and financial entry. The automotive industry requires massive investment attributed to various factors. For example, the manufacturing plant is expensive, and the technology is required. However, the UK government remains supportive through providing investment aid and grants to the investors. The support by the government makes the intensity of the threat of new entrants weak. As a result, the automotive industry in the UK is likely to become even more competitive and profitable with time.

The intensity of Competitive Rivalry

Factors affecting the competitive rivalry include the number of competitors, the frequency of the new products introduced by the competitors, and brand recognition of the competitors (Galvin et al., 2020, p. 120253). Mergers and acquisitions remain the key factors suppressing fair competition in the automotive industry. The alliances formed between the automotive industries usually reduce the number of market firms. Few firms in the market mean they have power over prices. In the UK, alliances have been formed, for example, between Fiat Chrysler and Peugeot. The alliances formed usually focus on sharing the production cost, strengthening the brand’s image in the market, or introducing a new product. Fiat Chrysler and Peugeot allied to endure an industry engrossed by technological change. By suppressing competition, the automotive firms manage to profit, but the industry itself is unattractive.

Porter’s Five Forces Analysis

Corporate Social Responsibility

Environmental Sustainability

Carbon emissions from vehicles result in air pollution associated with adverse effects on human health and other living things. As stated earlier, in 2019, the automotive industry represented the 27percent of the carbon emission released. The UK government implemented measures to ensure environmental sustainability in the economy. For example, the government has accelerated the uptake of zero-emission vehicles in the economy. Different brands in the UK like the Jaguar Land Rover have adopted producing electric cars, and demand by buyers is on the increase. Besides, the UK government has set goals to shift individuals from private cars to public vehicles or walk and cycle as a natural first choice in travel. The UK government offer support in the automotive industry in various ways. For example, the government over the years funds research and development in the automotive industry mainly for brands to produce high-performance products that reduce environmental impact.

Social Sustainability

The social sustainability pillar assesses the firms’ engagement with the stakeholders like customers, employees, and the local community. Besides, the pillar is concerned with human rights, diversity and inclusion, community impact, and health and safety. In the UK, automotive firms remain focused on social sustainability to maintain the brand’s reputation in the market. In the UK, the automotive industry has a strong presence in the labour unions in ensuring that employees perform in good working conditions. Besides, representation in the labour union ensures employees’ compensation and benefits are required hence limiting workers from exploitation.

Economic Sustainability

Economic sustainability implies safeguarding resources to create long term sustainable values through recycling, recovery, or optimal use. The automotive industry in the UK ensures supply chain sustainability by adopting environmentally conscious operations in warehousing, distribution, logistics, and inventory management. Besides, the majority of the automotive firms in the UK usually encourage consumers to return parts and vehicles for appropriate disposal. Besides, the industry supports a circular economy mainly to maximize resources by being regenerative and restorative by intention and design. The system favours material reuse instead of traditional manufacturing, which involves taking, making, using, and disposing of.


The macro-environment analysis refers to the external factors affecting industry operations either negatively or positively. Under the PESTEL analysis, one of the political factors identified involved the government policy on imposing seatbelts for safety purposes. Besides, the government ensures no new diesel or petrol vehicles will gain access to the market by 2020. As a result, most automotive companies in the UK in the 21st century are focusing on producing electric vehicles. The economic factor on the increase in the disposable income of the consumers poses a positive impact on the automotive industry. When consumers have more money in their pockets, they become more willing to spend on luxurious items. The social factor identified with a positive impact involves most of the population, especially in the developed countries owning one or more vehicles is treated as a culture. Besides, it has been adopted as a culture in the high developing countries. Technologies like adaptive cruise control, electronic blind-spot assistance, and parking assistance significantly improve buyers’ safety. The environmental factors usually result in pressure to the automotive firms from the imposed stiff regulations by the government like a zero-emission target by 2050.

The government requires the automotive firms to improve the manufacturing plants for efficiency in producing electric cars. For some companies, the project might be expensive. Imitation between brands creates conflict, like the Chinese brand Geely imitating Rolls Royce Phantom. Strict measures like penalties act effectively on limiting imitation, and as a result, a firm remains capable of maintaining a good reputation. Mergers and acquisitions remain a threat to limiting fair competition in the automotive industry. When sellers become few in the market, they usually acquire the power to set prices because buyers’ alternatives are minimal. The UK government offer support to the automotive industry for research and development. The funding reduction costs makes an entrance into the market easier, and as a result, the threat of entrants in the automotive industry is weak. Corporate social responsibility in the automotive industry is highly valued for maintaining a positive reputation. The automotive firms have collaborated on ensuring zero-emission by 2050 in the UK.


BBC NEWS | UK | Hundreds ‘die without seatbelts’. (2009). BBC News.

Galvin, P., Burton, N., Singh, P. J., Sarpong, D., Bach, N., & Teo, S. (2020). Network rivalry, competition and innovation. Technological Forecasting and Social Change161, 120253.

Guida, M., Moretto, A. M., & Caniato, F. F. A. (2021). How to select a Supply Chain Finance solution?. Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management27(4), 100701.

Mahdinia, I., Arvin, R., Khattak, A. J., & Ghiasi, A. (2020). Safety, energy, and emissions impacts of adaptive cruise control and cooperative adaptive cruise control. Transportation Research Record2674(6), 253-267.

Reitz, R. D., Ogawa, H., Payri, R., Fansler, T., Kokjohn, S., Moriyoshi, Y., … & Zhao, H. (2020). IJER editorial: the future of the internal combustion engine. International Journal of Engine Research21(1), 3-10.

Transport and Environment Statistics: Autumn 2021. (2021). statistics-autumn-2021/transport-and-environment-statistics-autumn- 2021#:~:text=Datasources&text=Transportproduced27ofthe,tr ansportvehicles(111MtCO2e)

Process Improvement Plan For Wild Dog Coffee Company Free Sample

Wild Dog Coffee Company is a small-scale enterprise that deals with various espresso products in a single coffee shop. The company offers those products in a limited breakfast and evening menu but a comprehensive lunch menu. However, the firm intends to add other coffee shop locations to increase sales and profitability of the company. However, Although the company may test new menus in the new site, the management intends to maintain espresso’s same beverage preparation process in the two shops. Regardless, the owner in charge of operations manager purposes to enhance internal customer-facing processes, thus improving the firm’s efficiency. Therefore, the manager prepares a process improvement plan that analyses core processes that need improvement and proposes recommendations on enhancing them. As a result, the company would reach its goals and objectives, thus satisfying its customers and increasing its sales.

Steps of the Preparation Process

The beverage preparation process and the proof of delivering the client’s order involve several steps, which rely on three metrics, customer service, inventory, and quality of the products. Therefore, to enhance the preparation process, the processing manager must identify and improve those metrics. As a result, the whole process will be efficient, and the processing manager will achieve the company’s wishes.

Customer Service

In modern-day businesses, firms have stiff competition, and occasionally they offer equally quality products at friendly prices. For instance, customers will often visit a shop that offers them quality services and treats them well, as opposed to other companies offering substandard treatments. Therefore, customer satisfaction often determines a firm’s success or failure. However, companies that enhance their customer services create a competitive advantage over their competitors (Beukes et al., 2018). As a result, they attract more clients, increase their sales and profitability. Similarly, Wild Dog Coffee could benefit from improving its customers’ service practices and techniques. The procedure does not only start when clients request products, but it should begin with managers laying down strategies on how all clients should be treated. Additionally, the management also formulates strategies that employees should follow thus attain that enhanced customer service. Most clients who visit Wild Dog Coffee companies, including parents and CEOs, always hurry. Therefore, the firm could retain more customers by ensuring faster services without compromising the quality of the products. To improve the metric, the company will track its order delivery time by measuring its time to submit and deliver an order to a client.


Managing the inventory is a critical practice in any industry that intends to enhance its supply chain processes. This is because the practice impacts business positively or negatively. For instance, managing inventory involves monitoring and controlling a firm’s products and raw materials, thus ensuring adequate replenishing and serving clients according to their preferences (Priniotakis & Argyropoulos, 2018). A company that does not tract its stock can often realize some vital raw materials are missing, thus fail its customers. In Wild Dog Coffee company, inventory management includes receiving orders, measuring them, and mixing them in the right amounts. If an employee serves a client the wrong quantities in an order, the client may request another correct order, which costs twice, thus increasing production costs. Further, the practice could taint the company’s name, thus causing low sales. Additionally, the firm should also focus on the integrity and accuracy of orders, ensuring that the measurements are uniform all through. For instance, if a client prefers short vanilla in a latte, the firm should provide what the client requires in the right amount regardless of the barista serving the order. To measure the metric, the firm will determine the amount of flavored syrup, espresso beans, and milk before the beginning of each day. Further, the company will compare those amounts against the day’s orders to ensure they suffice. As a result, the firm will maintain an appropriate inventory that does not end momentarily and satisfies all clients.


Any firm that intends to remain a key competitor in the food industry must strive to offer quality products. The quality of any beverage is related to its raw ingredients’ quality, layout process, and quality of equipment, which ensures customer satisfaction. (Aadil, 2019). Wild Dog Coffee Company is committed to providing that quality, which will ensure clients pay premiums for quality coffee delivery all the time. The firm will deliver coffee at the correct temperatures while maintaining its taste. The company will ensure adequate processing of the milk used in preparing the latte, improving the coffee’s quality. For instance, the employees will stretch the milk effectively, settling at a specific temperature without scorching it or having free air bubbles. The metric manager will identify the metric as stretching milk using a measuring cup and a beeping thermometer to track each order’s temperature.

The Procedure of Preparing Espresso beverage

The procedure will detail the making of a flavored latte, providing a template that every barista should follow while serving all the customers. Following the system ensures that the firm improves its customer-facing process and customer satisfaction. The manager plans to achieve that by reviewing the espresso-making process, consistency in each client’s order, and identifying the areas that the firm lacks, thus recommending improvements. Furthermore, improving the procedure will ensure the success of Wild Dog Coffee company and give it a competitive advantage over the other players in the coffee market.

Order Taking

The ordering process begins once a client visits the business premises. The attendant should welcome clients with a big smile to extend a friendly ‘Hello’ or “Welcome to Wild Dog Coffee!” to create the best first impression. Afterward, the employee expects a series of questions from the customer about all menus’ specifications, ingredients, and preparation process. The firms offer an extensive coffee menu, and clients have their tastes and preferences. During that step, the attendant should note the client’s questions and inquire about any dietary restrictions, thus helping the client make informed decisions consistent with their needs. Afterward, the employee should prepare the latter precisely as per the client’s order.

The preparation and specification will involve size, short or tall, temperature, either warm or a mixture with cold, and location, to be taken in the shop or a takeaway. Furthermore, the attendant should also consider the syrup flavor among almond, buttered rum, caramel, cinnamon, hazelnut, Irish crème, orange, peppermint, raspberry, toffee, and vanilla. The attendant should correctly enter the specification in the order-taking system, state its price, receive payment, offer the change, and inform the client to wait in the next window while the drink is under preparation. Once the employee has completed talking the order and entered it into the system, delivery time begins.

Preparing Service Cup

The barista should start preparing the order once entered into the firm’s system and choose the appropriate cup based on the coffee size, temperature, and consumption location. The barista should ascertain if the attendant has recorded the client’s flavor and add it to the coffee in the correct quantity and cup. The barista then should place the cup under the coffee machine, and the next phase starts (Effendy et al., 2019).

Preparing the Espresso

For the barista to start preparing the espresso, they should ensure that the coffee station is free from used coffee grounds. Afterward, the employee should lay the portafilter below the ground coffee machine, then use the lever to dispense the premeasured coffee. The barista should then apply pressure on the grounds to ensure the coffee ground are even and flat in the basked basket. Finally, the employee should attach the portafilter to the machine, press the button for the right size and allow the espresso to fill the cup, then the next phase begins (Aupiais, 2018).

Stretching the Milk

The barista should ensure the steamer line does not have residual water or clogs, thus ascertaining its cleanness. Afterward, the employee should select a milk frothing pitcher to fill it with milk up to the line. After that, the steamer should raise the milk’s temperature to 85 degrees, and then the milk should relax on a pitcher allowing air bubbles to rise to the milk surface. The barista should then allocate solid time on the counter, extracting more bubbles, then swirl the pitcher. Stirring the milk will give it a smooth texture, and once it is reflective, the swirling ends. Therefore, the barista should mix the milk with the prepared espresso cup in a circular motion allowing a seamless mixture (Aupiais, 2018).

Review and Deliver Order

The barista should review the order on the screen to ensure the latter has been prepared efficiently and accurately. After the verification process, the barista should clear the order from the system, end the order delivery time tract, offer the clients their beverages and thank them.

Latte Preparation Flow Chart

Figure 1: Latte Preparation Flow Chart ( 2020).

Data Analysis for Process Changes

The processing manager plots a control chart detailing order delivery time to determine whether the firm’s process is at its best. The solid black line in the control chart represents the average order time, and it shows that most of the orders take less than 2.5minutes. All the 50 data points showing different order times within the firm are under the two yellow lines placed between 3.5 minutes and 1.5 minutes. Therefore, all orders are centrally placed between the limits without going over or under the threshold limits. All the lines in the chart mark sigma limits connotate various ranges. The green dash shows a range between two and three minutes, the yellow line indicates a range between 1.5 and 3.5 minutes, and another line offers a range between 0.75 and 4 minutes. The processing manager focused on where the 50 data points lay based on the sigma lines, thus determining whether the chart was in control (ASQ, 2019).

The chart does not show any points past the red line, which shows the upper and lower control limits. Additionally, the points do not reach a quorum of two out of three points on the same side of the centerline and further than the yellow line. Further, there are now four out of five points outside the sigma limit, except between points 40-44. The fifth point that goes out of range is colored purple, indicating that the data is slightly out of statistical control.

Control Chart of order delivery time

Figure 2: Control Chart of order delivery time (ASQ, 2019)

The figure below shows a histogram chart that details the order delivery time, which offers a standard deviation of 0.59 minutes. The chart records the firm’s highest number of orders at 18, served between 1.55 and 2.14 minutes, and three lowest orders served between 3.32 ad 3.91 minutes. The chief barista believes that all orders should take two to three minutes; thus, the employees should improve their service delivery time. However, based on the histogram, the average time for delivering orders is 2.5 minutes which is within the guidelines since the first batch of deviation shows a high population.

Standard deviation histogram of order delivery time

Figure 3: Standard deviation histogram of order delivery time

The Cause and Effect of Process Variances

Cause and effect diagram of potential sources of variation in order deliver time

Figure 4: Cause and effect diagram of potential sources of variation in order deliver time (Hessing, n.d)

The Cause-and-effect diagram summarizes the firms’ activities contributing to the process variances. The chart is based on the 6Ms of management, with the Environment representing the firm’s management and how the Ms potentially cause variation to processing and delivering an order.

When an espresso machine breaks down, and there is no employee equipped enough to repair it, or a repair shop within the vicinity, all firm’s operations are crippled until the problem is resolved. Additionally, the coffee machine has a limited number of outputs, which compromises the rate of employees serving customers. Therefore, training employees on repairing coffee machines could save a lot of time during a breakdown. Furthermore, the firm could acquire espresso machines with a larger output to ensure faster services.

The material of equipment and produce used is critical. For instance, espresso beans have varying qualities, and finding the sound quality might be challenging. Further, the milk products should be stored at the proper temperatures to produce quality coffee. Therefore, the company could look for a constant supplier of quality espresso beans to ensure they do not compromise quality or preparation time. Additionally, the company should purchase quality equipment to avoid frequent breakages and enhance the coffee’s quality.

Occasionally, a client may get various measurements of their coffee composition due to different baristas’ services. Additionally, the firm may alter the sizes when transferring coffee components into the machine. Such a practice can impact the quality of coffee. Therefore, the management must ensure that baristas follow the same standard and measurements, thus preventing disparities. Further, the company should retain a standard measure of products from the suppliers, inventory, and use. Such practices could positively impact the business in terms of finances and the quality of the espresso.

The method of preparing an espresso also dramatically determines the efficiency and accuracy of the coffee. Additionally, the format in which the cups are arranged also influences the time of serving espresso. Therefore, preparing a single cup increases the accuracy of mixing coffee ingredients, thus offering clients the exact orders as per their requests. Further, using an assembly line could increase the rate of preparing orders, thus saving time.

Any company that plans to succeed in its undertakings should have the appropriate human resources. For instance, having a low number of employees could derail the business if an employee is sick or has an emergency. Further, unqualified employees and leaders could compromise the company’s operations and, consequently, its success. Therefore, training employees on how to handle clients effectively and ensure order accuracy would improve business operations. Further, all leaders should manage their subordinates appropriately and encourage them on the importance of excelling in their duties.

The management also plays a crucial role in passing and implementing appropriate business strategies that benefit the firm. Therefore, critiquing the educational history of company leaders ensure they are up to the task and are qualified to run company operations. Further, a management team that conducts itself appropriately gains respect from the other staff members, which saves time and improves processes within the firm.


After a critical analysis of the firm’s operations and production processes, the processing manager formulated several recommendations to use and enhance its operations. Most of the suggestions revolve around helping employees and baristas perfect their work through processing all client’s orders reliably and effectively.

Customer Service

A critical factor that the firms should follow to improve customer service is enhancing order delivery time. To affect the initiative, attendants should communicate clearly to all clients while receiving their orders. Therefore, the company should train its employees effectively, allowing them to answer the clients precisely and clarify the menus. Such practices will ensure the barista gets clear information concerning the order and save on time of rechecking with the client. Additionally, the firm could utilize computer systems that provide attendants with tips to aid employees when accessing the menu to make informed and faster decisions. Such an initiative could prompt attendants to answer precise questions about size, flavor, temperature, and location, thus making it easy for the barista. Generally, the firm should invest in quality computer systems and train their employees on customer handling processes. Eventually, Wild Dog Coffee Company will offer clients quality coffees in all the shops and benefit from the expansion.


Wild Dog Coffee Company should exercise quality control, thus ensuring baristas prepare accurate orders and offer superior coffee beverages. Measuring each coffee ingredient will help manage operation costs, manage the inventory, and provide consistent products to all clients. For instance, if the baristas know how much milk or flavor is required in each cup, they can easily predict how long the inventory will run. However, the following estimations will be complex for the baristas to track the stock, and the practice could compromise quality service delivery. Additionally, measuring the ingredients will enable the management to plan how much an inventory can last, thus avoiding inconveniencing clients. For instance, if the firm does not keep the stock in check, they may lose a flavor that many clients prefer thus lose them. Therefore, to improve customer service, the company should train the employees to embrace the new practices, including authentic ingredients.

Baristas should measure the flavored syrups based on each drink’s pump. The practice would ensure that the baristas prepare beverages faster and ensure accuracy while delivering clients’ orders. For instance, clients may experience different tastes of the same order on various occasions, despite getting service from the same barista. The variation can be due to other estimated portions which influence the taste. Currently, baristas measure milk by sight while mixing it on a latte in a milk frothing pitcher. The practice makes the measurements more of an estimate, which contrasts using correct milk amounts. Therefore, baristas should use actual measurements instead of the forecast, thus ensuring precise quantities of milk and tracking the inventory. Additionally, the practice will enhance the integrity of the coffee, thus offering clients uniform tastes on all orders at any time.


When preparing a latte beverage, baristas should stretch the milk to enhance the quality of their products. Although the procedure is delicate, following it ensures the firm prepares quality beverages. For instance, overeating milk produces foam that compromises the integrity of a perfect beverage. Similarly, underheating the milk also reduces the quality of the latter. Currently, the company uses an analog thermometer that allows a wide range of temperature variance in the preparation process. Therefore, the firm should implement a digital thermometer that has a beeping notification, thus creating a constant update to the baristas. The thermometer could help the firm track milk and beverages temperatures at all times, ensuring they offer clients the appropriate order temperatures. The beeping feature will notify baristas to monitor the products if they are distracted while executing other duties. The practice will enhance order taking and help the baristas maintain precision by measuring the milk before purring it into a frothing pitcher.

Additionally, keeping the milk in inappropriate temperatures prevents it from forming a smooth texture once mixed with the flavor. Therefore, stretching the milk ensures the barista prepares beverages in the right textures. Furthermore, the practice alters the overall taste of the coffee. For instance, when coffee is heated to higher temperatures, the components of the milk expand, thus enhancing bites of the flavor. As a result, clients prefer specific temperatures, hot, cold, or mixed due to their corresponding tastes. Therefore, using the modern thermometer will ensure clients get their coffee at the right temperature, complementing their expected quality. As a result, they will remain loyal customers, and the company will benefit.

Generally, Wild Dog Coffee company follows practices that ensure average services to clients. Therefore, perfecting those practices will allow the two shops to run at a maximum capacity and attract new clients. For instance, the firm serves clients who are primarily in a hurry. According to the analysis, occasionally, some baristas take longer to attend to clients. Therefore, reducing the duration for serving orders to strictly two and three minutes would significantly impact the company sales. Training employees and the management team in various fields would increase their work efficiency. For instance, if all employees are taught how to repair the coffee machines, they would help in times of breakage and save the firm’s management costs and clients’ times. The practice could generally increase the efficiency of the firm. Additionally, training the management team will ensure they implement feasible practices and make informed decisions. Furthermore, implementing modern procedures and systems will enhance receiving orders from clients, increase efficiency and ensure accuracy. Following the new techniques and recommendations will help the firm improve its functions in the two shops, ensure customer satisfaction and eventually increase profitability.


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Program In The United States That Treats Trauma Essay Sample For College

Trauma, whether it is caused by a single occurrence, a series of incidents, or a sequence of long-term events, has a varied impact on everyone. However, although some individuals may openly exhibit indicators of trauma, many others will demonstrate resilient responses that do not fulfill diagnostic criteria for the condition. Trauma causes the production of cortisol and adrenaline in the body, which triggers the activation of the body’s normal protective systems of fight, flight, and freeze. Unresolved traumatic events might cause these behaviors to manifest themselves even in non-threatening situations. Trauma, especially when it happens in childhood, has the potential to affect a person’s brain, resulting in prolonged behavioral and physical health problems in the future. When we encounter a traumatic experience or a series of events (such as being molested, getting involved in a car accident, or losing a parent), our bodies react physically in order to cope with the incident or series of events that have occurred (Everstine & Everstine, 2019). To be sure, we don’t always have complete control over our responses. They are influenced by our genetic make-up as well as our coping techniques. One of the response is go through a trauma-related program that is known to treat the specific type of trauma one is suffering from. This is a critical survival tactic since it allows you to respond quickly. This paper presents a deep analysis of how Trauma focused cognitive behavior therapy program (TF-CBTP) is used to treat child molestation trauma.

Overview of the trauma topic

According to Cronje & Vilakazi (2020), child molestation trauma refers to “the extremely unpleasant or upsetting experience of sexually assaulting by a child, which often results in long-term mental and physical harm.” The effects of such events on a child might include feeling overwhelmed, anxious, and/or helpless. Apart from the bodily damage that molestation may do, a child’s reactions to molestation can have prolonged and even generational implications. Physical, psychological, and behavioral consequences of molestation in childhood have been associated with behavioral, psychological and physical repercussions. Although these ramifications may be independent, there is a possibility that they are interrelated. When a child is molested or abused for example, it may stunt his or her brain’s development and cause behaviorism problems such as low self-worth.

Child molestation trauma is extremely common among children who have been sexually assaulted, with one study finding that approximately 65 percent of survivors of childhood sexual assault suffer from high levels of trauma, with 40 percent experiencing symptoms of PTSD. Child molestation trauma may have symptoms such as reliving the traumatic event, avoiding reminders of the trauma, being shocked fast, flashbacks, and having bad views and beliefs. The long-term mental health implications of child molestation may actually shorten the lives of those who have experienced it. A number of studies have shown that adverse childhood experiences, such as child sexual abuse, are associated with significant and long-term health consequences. Adult survivors of trauma are far more likely than children and teenagers to have mental and physical health issues. Among the mental health issues that might arise are depression and anxiety. In the long run, depression is the most prevalent long-term outcome associated with survivors of childhood sexual abuse (Peters et al., 2021). In the majority of cases, when children are sexually abused, they internalize the event(s), resulting in negative self-perceptions that last throughout childhood and into adulthood. Anxiety and depression are two sides of the same coin, and they’re intimately related to one another. Children who have been sexually abused are more prone than other children to have chronic anxiety, panic attacks, and tension, as well as to acquire phobias or fears of various kinds. According to the World Health Organization, research has shown that child survivors of sexual abuse have stress and anxiety levels that are equivalent to those experienced by war veterans. A person’s physical health may be negatively affected by a variety of factors such as substance abuse, obesity, high blood pressure, and diabetes.

For decades, Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) has proved effective to help children overcome trauma-related sexual molestation or abuse. It’s designed to minimize negative emotional and behavioral responses to trauma, such as sexual assault and other types of maltreatment, which may result in trauma. Through this program, adults who have been sexually abused as children may learn successful parenting, stress management, behavior control, and communication skills. Trauma caused by child molestation teaches children that the world is scary and that adults may not be able to protect. Such children often get angered easily and find it hard trusting anyone, prompting their parents to become bewildered and upset as a result. By using the Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy program, parents or guardians can learn better ways to read their children’s emotions and respond in a positive manner (Canale et al., 2022). This allows the already traumatized child to get opportunities to relearn that others can be trusted too. Since the program have sections where it focuses on family treatment, traumatized children would benefit substantially from family-centered treatment that includes engaging with their parents on different levels.

Overview of the program

Trauma focused cognitive behavioral therapy uses the Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

(CBT). The theory behind this approach is that one’s cognitions play a critical part in the construction of behavioral and emotional responses to life events, and that this method may be used to measure these reactions. The TF-CBT is based on the concept that our thoughts, emotions, and actions are all connected and that we can’t think without feeling. Our thoughts, in particular, have an influence on our emotions and behaviors. It is possible that negative and unrealistic thoughts would upset us and cause troubles as a result of this. When a person is experiencing psychological pain, their perception of the world becomes skewed, which has a negative impact on their behavior and decisions (Brown, Cohen & Mannarino, 2020). When trauma victims engage in cognitive behavioral therapy, they are taught how to become aware when they are making negative interpretations and the behavioral patterns that are supporting the distorted thinking.

Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) is a culturally adapted approach that is appropriate for a broad variety of individuals regardless of their culture or gender. It retains the core principles of classic TF-CBT while also including modules that include cultural considerations throughout the treatment process. Throughout the program, counselors demonstrate their cultural sensitivity in a number of ways. As a starting point, counselors may be attentive to the cultural standard that have had an impact on the participants’ lives. Counselors may also address components of the program that promote cultural sensitivity, allowing them to suggest TF-CBT materials to parents as a way to connect with their children that is compatible with their social and cultural environment (Ovenstad et al., 2020). TF-CBT materials are designed to help parents connect with their children in a culturally responsive way. Additionally, actions such as focus groups with healthcare providers, involving the community in the development process, and making adjustments to intervention materials as needed have all been taken to ensure that interventions implemented in developing and developed countries are culturally appropriate.

Data collection and reporting is a requirement of Trauma focused cognitive behavioral therapy program. Data collection is vital since it serves a variety of purposes. Evidence-based program providers use data collection approaches to guarantee that the programs they provide have the intended impact on the children, adolescents, and/or families who participate in the programs they offer. It also makes it possible to do quality assurance and model fidelity monitoring, which helps to ensure that the program is conducted in accordance with plan. This program makes use of a variety of screening tools, including the Brief Trauma Questionnaire (BTQ), Trauma History Screen (THS), and Combat Exposure Scale (CES). Due to the fact that clients’ trauma histories and accompanying symptoms are often overlooked without screening, practitioners are forced to concentrate their efforts on symptoms and illnesses that may only partly explain client behavior. Individuals who have a history of trauma and who are experiencing trauma-related symptoms may be identified by behavioral health professionals as being at risk of developing more widespread and severe traumatic stress symptoms. A vital phase in the counseling process, screening allows counsellors to obtain information about the traumatic scenario that the client has been exposed to.

Goals of the program

  • Helping victims (children) cope with trauma-related pain.
  • Increasing the effectiveness of interventions for molested children.
  • Improve parental support and parenting abilities.
  • Improve parent-child communication and connection.
  • Increase child’s capacity to cope with change
  • Reduce embarrassment and shame related to child molestation experiences.

Measuring your progress towards a goal allows you to know whether you have made any progress, whether you’ve come to a complete stop, or whether you’ve fallen farther behind. When it comes to TF-CBT, measuring goals is useful in helping counselors make or adjust a plan of action for getting on track. Some of the techniques used to measure the above highlighted goals include monitoring daily experience, preparing ahead, and analyzing victim’s progress to recovery.

Program stages

TF-CBT consists of three major stages of intervention: stabilization, trauma narration and processing, and consolidation/integration. Because continued caregiver participation is a vital component of the program, individual sessions with the same therapist for both the child and the caregiver, are organized as part of the treatment plan. In the first stage, the physician will guide the clients through TF-CBT, necessitate psychoeducation on recovery, and assist them in meaningful healing and growth in the subsequent stages of treatment (Martin et al., 2019). The first section starts with an extremely important step: trauma education. Trauma and the usual reactions to stressful experiences will be reviewed with both the parents and the child during this session. When discussing PTSD and regular behavioral concerns with clients, the therapist will reassure the child that their emotions are normal, understandable, and that their sentiments are valid. This necessitates assurance to both the parents and the child about the likelihood of recovery. A good therapist would agree that, despite the fact that it will be a long road and a great deal of effort, it is possible to restart a fresh life with new and happy memories.

In the second stage, the therapist assists the child through the trauma narrative process. This stage involves narrating the traumatic incident or experience (s). Initially, it may be challenging to begin because the sensations triggered by the trauma may reemerge as the victim recalls the circumstances of the event, but as the process proceeds, they will become less difficult to complete. Starting with the facts — the who, what, when, and where of the meeting – may be good to the child in terms of learning more about himself or herself. They are then free to express their thoughts and feelings regarding the event. After they have become comfortable identifying or expressing their feelings during the session, they may go to the most painful or disturbing elements of their trauma, if they want. Making a thorough account of the event will be difficult, but it is very necessary (Pollio, Neubauer & Deblinger, 2020). Once everything has been completed, the child should write a coherent narrative that includes a concluding paragraph describing how they feel and whether or not they have been extremely affected by the incident, if applicable. Following the completion of the trauma story, the child may choose to share it with the parents.

In stage three (Integration/consolidation) the objectives is to integrate the lessons, enhance relationships, and position the family for success. Molestation reminders are commonplace triggers that may cause a child to have vivid, unpleasant, and debilitating flashbacks of the trauma that he or she has endured. As part of the in-person mastery component, the therapist will work with the child to help him or her overcome his or her dislike to broad reminders while also focusing on capturing specific reminders. During TF-CBT, the therapist may utilize the combined parent-child sessions to assist families in reconnecting and making plans for their child’s future healing and growth. During these sessions, the child may be encouraged to communicate their traumatic experience with their parents, and the two of them may work together to develop their communication skills, both in relation to the trauma and in general. This kind of workshop may also be beneficial in assisting families in building a family safety plan in the case of a future danger or tragedy, among other things.

Practitioner training

The type of training that practitioners receive in order to provide extensive empathy in trauma intervention reflects adherence to key principles that include safety, peer support, trustworthiness, collaboration, transparency, cultural issues and empowerment. During this training, practitioners will learn how to detect the fundamental characteristics of a trauma-informed program and how they may use these characteristics to the patient’s advantage. The training focuses on trauma neurobiology in order to demonstrate how trauma effects the brain, decision-making, and coping in a scientifically sound and easily understandable way. It enables therapists to have a better understanding of the reasons why clients behave in unreasonable or self-destructive ways. In this training, practitioners learn about the relationship between prior experiences of abuse and current or recent suicidal behavior and/or self-injury. A large portion of the training involves asking questions about suicide, addressing dangerous behaviors, building connections, and providing services. Techniques such as grounding, safe coping, and responding empathetically to confessions of suicidal thoughts are among of those that are practiced.

One of the skills needed to achieve biopsychosocial empathy is self-calibration. It has been said that a physician is similar to a musical instrument that must be calibrated, tuned, and adjusted in order to perform correctly. It is necessary for practitioners to perform calibration in order to achieve better health outcomes. This involves developing an acceptable emotional tone, acquiring an accurate history, and distinguishing between what the patient needs and what the patient claims to desire. Self-awareness is the other skill needed to achieve biopsychosocial empathy.  A greater sense of self-awareness will enable the physician to have a better understanding of what they are doing in their professional life (Cicek, Yilmaz & Aslanhan, 2019). Because of their enhanced self-awareness, they will have a better understanding of how others around them may respond to their unspoken and expressed actions. The other skill needed is trust. The ability to establish an emotional tone that is conducive to a therapeutic connection is clearly recognized by the professional clinician as a critical competency in the therapeutic relationship. Therefore, all consultations may be rated on the basis of their warmth, optimism, honesty, and sense of humour, among other characteristics. Additionally, the physician must be able to recognize and explain his or her own emotions, as well as create constraints and boundaries as required in order to have a healthy working relationship with his or her patient.


Child molestation is one of the most complicated and puzzling challenges facing society today. While it is hard to ascertain the whole magnitude of the problem, the sheer number of families who have been affected is staggering. Most children are abused by someone they know, whether it’s a member of their own family or close family friend, a religious leader or an adult in authority over the children’s lives. Sexual abuse of minors is a heinous crime against humanity. It has both short- and long-term implications for the victims. Survivors of abuse may have long-term psychological, emotional, and/or bodily consequences as a result of their experience. Therapy programs for victims and their families, on the other hand, may assist in the healing process and teach skills to ensure that the abused child recovers from his or her traumatic experience after the abuse.


Brown, E. J., Cohen, J. A., & Mannarino, A. P. (2020). Trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy: The role of caregivers. Journal of Affective Disorders, 277, 39-45.

Canale, C. A., Hayes, A. M., Yasinski, C., Grasso, D. J., Webb, C., & Deblinger, E. (2022). Caregiver behaviors and child distress in trauma narration and processing sessions of trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT). Behavior Therapy, 53(1), 64-79.

Cicek, E., Yilmaz, A., & Aslanhan, H. (2019). Evaluation of empathy and biopsychosocial approaches of medical faculty assistant doctors. Journal of Education and Health Promotion, 8.

Cronje, J. H., & Vilakazi, M. J. (2020). Secondary traumatic stress in police detective officers dealing with complainants of sexual crimes. South African Journal of Psychology, 50(4), 520-529.

Everstine, D. S., & Everstine, L. (2019). Sexual trauma in children and adolescents: Dynamics & treatment. Routledge.

Martin, C. G., Everett, Y., Skowron, E. A., & Zalewski, M. (2019). The role of caregiver psychopathology in the treatment of childhood trauma with trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy: A systematic review. Clinical child and family psychology review, 22(3), 273-289.

Ovenstad, K. S., Ormhaug, S. M., Shirk, S. R., & Jensen, T. K. (2020). Therapists’ behaviors and youths’ therapeutic alliance during trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 88(4), 350.

Peters, W., Rice, S., Cohen, J., Murray, L., Schley, C., Alvarez-Jimenez, M., & Bendall, S. (2021). Trauma-focused cognitive–behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) for interpersonal trauma in transitional-aged youth. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 13(3), 313.

Pollio, E., Neubauer, F., & Deblinger, E. (2020). Treating Trauma-Related Symptoms in Children and Adolescents. In The Oxford Handbook of Traumatic Stress Disorders, Second Edition.