Private Schools And Public Schools Free Essay

Private schools and public schools share various similarities and differences. Both are means of dissemination of education and are homes for earning. Both offers enhanced extra-curricular activities along with educational courses and thus shape the personality of an individual. Both follow the curriculum designed by the state education departments. Both aims at developing their faculties and recruiting more educated staff members. But various dissimilarities co-exist with these resemblances. For example cost is factor where difference exists. Private schools are generally regarded a better option for educating the children if one has the resources as compared with the private schools where fees are low. Private schools are able to execute more effective and efficient educational policies and programs and can take on better teachers owing to strong financial backup that itself is generated through heavy students tuitions. In contrast to private schools, public schools are funded by government treasury and have little sources to finance the more modern and effective education policies and methodologies.

The most important aspects of private school as compared with public schools is the strength of the students at class and school level. Private schools have smaller number of students as mainstream students attend the local public schools. National Center for Education Statistics says in this regards; “As reported by teachers in 1999-2000, average class size for self-contained classes tended to be somewhat larger in traditional public and public charter elementary schools than in private elementary schools.” (NCES) According to a web site called Public School Review, “Private schools average 13 students per teacher, compared with an average of 16 students per teacher in public schools” (publicschoolreview). So public schools are more crowded as compared with private schools but public schools are more ethnically diverse. The second most important strength of the private schools is that it offers supplementary enhanced and higher education focused lessons and courses and their objective remains to polish their students to join an institute of higher education. In comparison with private schools, public schools seem working on the conventional philosophy that each student is unique and college education does not suit everyone and hence no one should be forced to go ahead with higher education and they should be allowed and encouraged to choose and carve their future paths.

Although both private and public schools offers a variety of courses in variety of subjects but public schools offer general programs whereas private schools offer specialized programs for students that can enable them to take specialized courses at college and university level. In public schools the education of the students is pre-decided by the state what they have to learn and parents and/or students have no say in this regard. Private schools provides flexible programs and students and their parents can opt from variety of options. Another indirect advantage that contributes toward the overall efficiency of the private schools is the minimum role of state bureaucracy as compared with the bureaucratic nature of public schools. In private schools, less time is spent on formalities including following unnecessary state policies and paperwork and thus more time is available to concentrate the quality of education, syllabus and methodologies.

Besides these dissimilarities there are various interesting parallels between the two streams of schools. Mostly same text books are used as recommended and/or suggested by the state education department. Peer group and their involvement in brawls remain a disciplinary problem for both.  Both have punitive measures although they differ with reference to degree and type.

So above-mentioned arguments and supported facts suggest that both private schools and public schools have various parallels at the levels of aims and objectives but they differ in execution of their programs and implementation of their policies.

References

Braun, H., Jenkins, F., and Grigg W. (2006). Comparing Private Schools and Public Schools.

            U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.  Retrieved July

            30, 2008 at Web Site:nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/pdf/studies/2006461.pdf

National Center for Education Statistics. (2002). Schools and Staffing Survey, 1999-2000:

            Overview of the Data for Public, Private, Public Charter, and Bureau of Indian Affairs ]            Elementary and Secondary Schools. Fast Facts. Retrieved July 30, 2008 at Web

Site: http://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=55

Public School Review. (2008). Public Versus Private Schools. Retrieved July 30, 2008 at Web

Site: http://www.publicschoolreview.com/private-public-schools.php

 

Requirements Of Services Of Long-Term Care Continuum

Comparison and contrast of the licensure, certification and accreditation requirements of the services of long-term care contiinuum

Hospitals

Without certification by the federal government, a hospital cannot receive payment for services provided to Medicare or Medicaid beneficiaries. The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organizations (JCAHO) determines that hospitals accredited by this body meet or exceed JCAHO standards and that they also meet federal certification standards.

    To be certified and accredited according to JCAHO standards, a hospital must invite agents of the Center of Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) for inspection of its facilities. Before the hospital is granted certification, the working condition of these facilities must meet federal standards. Such facilities as may be subjected to inspection include rural health centers, end stage renal disease facilities, ambulatory signal centers, and facilities for persons with developmental disabilities.

Nursing Homes

A second very important segment of the continuum of long term care is nursing homes. A facility must meet Medicare requirements to qualify for reimbursement. Nursing homes are highly regulated at both federal and state levels. To be reimbursed by Medicare or Medicaid, a nursing home must be certified.

     Certification: To be certified by JCAHO, nursing homes must meet the two basic stipulations of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987 (OBRA, 1987). These stipulations are that:

i.                    There shall be no compromise on the quality of staff employed in nursing homes;

ii.                  All the medical, dietary, pharmaceutical, psychological, physical and mental-ill-health services, must meet definite standards.

     Besides, an on-site inspection is carried out on the site of the nursing homes, to ascertain the quality of:

i.                    Residential care processes;

ii.                  Staff/resident interaction;

iii.                environmental condition

     The inspection is to determine whether individual resident meets are met, whether the interaction between staff and resident is satisfactory with respect to the purpose of an ideal nursing home, and whether environmental sanitation and health standards are complied with, regarding cleanliness, safe storage and preparation of food, protection from physical and mental abuse, and adequate care practices.

      Licensure: The licensing requirements of nursing home are established by the congress. In general, to be issued a license, a nursing home must be staffed with sufficient and qualified personnel and must meet the physical plant standards of the federal safety codes.

Home Health Agencies

    Licensure: Most states license Medicare certified home health agencies as a health care provide. This is done under the jurisdiction of the states health department.

Certification: Home health care agencies must be certified in order to obtain Medicare reimbursement. The major licensing requirement for home health agencies is that:

     Agencies “shall be governed by a governing authority, “shall maintain an active professional advisory committee, and shall “be directed by an administrator and operate any services offered in compliance with these regulations.”

     This governing authority must have full legal authority and responsibility for the operation of the agency “which shall adopt bylaws and rules that are periodically reviewed…” The professional body, on the other hand, must be appointed by the governing authority and must consist of at least one physician, one public health nurse, one therapist representative, and one social worker.

     Certification:  The certification requirements are inherent in the conditions of participation (COP’s) of home health agencies in the delivery of health care services according to standards, in the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1989( OBRA, 1989), and in the Outcome Assessment  and Information (OASIS) system. The OBRA, 1989, stipulates a “periodicity schedule”, which is a mandatory regular delivery of definite  kind of standard services. It “schedules for Periodic Screening, Vision, and Hearing services must be provided at intervals that meet reasonable standards of medical practice. …”. OASIS forms the basis for what is called “patient outcomes’, which is a means of uplifting the quality of services based on the quality of treatment and results patients receive and evidence.

     “The OASIS is a key component of Medicare’s partnership with the home care industry to foster and monitor improved home health care outcomes and is proposed to be an integral part of the revised Conditions of Participation for Medicare-certified home health agencies.”

     “Any HHA seeking Medicare certification is required to meet the Medicare condition of Participation (COPs) prior to certification. This  includes compliance with the OASIS collection and transmission requirements .New HHAs must demonstrate they can transmit OASIS data prior to initial certification . Specifically, new HHAs must apply for temporary user identification number and passwords from the state agency (OASIS) automation coordinator ( OAC).”

     Accreditation: To be accredited, home health agencies must comply with JCAHO’s ORYX. This is “a data collection of clinical measures”, which provides information on the clinical performances of the home health agency seeking accreditation.

Hospice

Licensure: Licensure is by state. Almost all states recognize hospice as a distinct category. In states without licensure programs, hospices are allowed to operate with Medicare certification and sometimes are also licensed as home health agency, nursing home, or hospital.

     Certification: To receive payment from Medicare or Medicaid, hospices must meet federal certification requirements. Medicare has extensive conditions of participation, and Medicaid regulations mirror those of Medicare. Hospices certified by Medicare serve Medicare enrollees, who must meet Medicare’s eligibility criteria to receive the benefit, but may also serve others, such as those whose care is paid by commercial insurance, managed care, or out of pocket. . Accreditation: The joint commission on accreditation of health care organizations (JCAHO), the community health accreditation program, (CHAP), and the Accreditation commission for home care all accredit hospices in the United States. JCAHO & CHAP have deemed status to grant Medicare certification along with accreditation.

Adult Day Services

Licensure: Most states currently require some kind of licensing for ADS programs. The department regulating day care programs may be the state’s department of aging, health care, social services, or other department. Licensing regulations are likely to be minimum but may dictate the qualifications of staff, services offered, participant to staff ratio, physical facility specifications, participant’s rights, admissions process, and required documentation.

     Certification: Since Medicare does not pay for ADS, Medicare certification is not applicable. However a number of states do pay for, and thus certify/ license, ADS through the Medicaid program. To be certified, an ADS must contact the relevant Department of state to schedule an appointment for inspection visit. Based on the verdicts of the inspectors, the ADS will be required to fill in an assessment form citing standards as “met” or “unmet”. With “Unmet” citations, certification is denied.

  Accreditation: Accreditation is also not required by state or federal government. It is voluntary. However, an Accreditation program and standards were developed in the late 1990’s by the Commission for the Accreditation of rehabilitation facilities (CARF). The Commission for the Accreditation of rehabilitation facilities (CARF) and the National Adult Day Services Association (NADSA), formerly the National Institute for Adult Day Services (NIAD), of the National Council on the Aging (NCoA). Accreditation began in 1999. Accreditation is a positive step toward quality assessment and standardization for a care model that has a great deal of variability and relatively little external regulation.

The accreditation of ADS involves inspection of services and interviewing of patients to ensure approximation to Medicare standards.

COMPARISON AND CONTRAST

From the foregoing, it is inferable that:

1.      Licensure and certification requirements are generally mandatory, while accreditation requirements, being voluntary, affords the health care organization the privilege of volunteering.

2.      Licensure, certification and accreditation all involve issuance of documents of attestation.

3.       Accreditation, unlike licensure and certification, is a periodic process of ascertaining standard growth. It recurs at given (or arbitrary) intervals as developments and innovations occur.

                                                                   Work Cited

1.      Elder abuse information: Nursing Home licensing, Elder Abuse information, retrieved 2nd January, 2006.<http://www.elder-abuse-        information.com/eldercare/eldercare_nursing_license.htm>

2.      LIS> Administrative Code, retrived 3rd January, 2006. <http://leg1.state.va.us/000/reg/TOC12005.HTM>

3.      Medicare.gov- About Nursing Home inspections: About Nursing Home                Inspections, retrieved 2nd January, 2006.<  http://www.medicare.gov/Nursing/AboutInspections.asp>

4.      Nursing World OJIN: licensure, certification, and accreditation: licensure, certification, and accreditation, retrived 3rd January, 2006 http://www.nursingworld.org/ojin/tpc4/tpc4_2.htm>

5.      Licensure of Home Health Care Agencies, retrived 3rd January, 2006. <http://www.dph.state.ct.us/phc/docs/46_Licensure_of_Home_Health.doc>

6.      Lysaught, J. P. (1981). Action in affirmation: Toward an unambiguous profession of nursing. New York:McGraw-Hill.

7.      Medicaid Early & periodic Screening& Diagnostic Treatment Benefit >, retrived 3rd January, 2006. < http://new.cms.hhs.gov/MedicaidEarlyPeriodicScrn/02_Benefits.asp>

8.      Nebraska HHS System: Credentialing: Adult Day Services : Adult day Services, retrived 4th January, 2006.  <http://www.hhs.state.ne.us/crl/adultday/adultday.htm#Initial>

9.      OASIS overview, retrived 2nd January, 2006.  <http://new.cms.hhs.gov/apps/hha/hhoview.asp>

10. OASIS requirements in New ands accredited HHA’s seeking Medicare attention, retrived 3rd January, 2006. <http://new.cms.hhs.gov/OASIS/Downloads/newhhas.pdf>

11.  Survey and Certification – Guidance to Laws and Regulations: Home Health Agencies, retrived 3rd January, 2006.  <http://www.cms.hhs.gov/GuidanceforLawsAndRegulations/06_HHAs.asp#TopOfPage>

12.  Statement of Katheleen  A. Buto Associate for Policy Health Care Financing, retrived 4th January, 2006.  Administration : Centre for Medicare and Medicaid <http://new.cms.hhs.gov/apps/media/press/testimony.asp?Counter=512

 

Comparison Between The Lottery And Movie

Shirley Jackson’s story The Lottery” is a short story that caused controversy and received significant criticism upon its publication in 1948. The author uses irony and comedic elements to expose the underlying hypocrisy, evil, and weakness of human beings. The lottery is a traditional yearly event where one person in town is randomly chosen and violently stoned to death.

Mel Gibson’s movie “The Passion of Christ” promotes faithfulness with regard to the Gospel. The actor emphasizes informing viewers how God experienced suffering just like humans through scenes of injustice, fear, pain, and eventually suffering a bloody and degrading death. His movie calls for repentance through the wounds and pain that Jesus suffered to redeem humanity from sin.

The film begins with several quotations, such as He was pierced for our transgressions, he was crushed for the people’s inequities, his punishment brought him peace,” and “By his wounds mankind is healed.” These quotes demonstrate that the death of Christ had a positive influence on mankind, unlike the lottery which inflicts pain without reason or sin by the individual. The lottery is a tradition that has been passed down through time but is not beneficial to society. In fact, the author suggests that some of the procedures involved have been forgotten and that the black box should be replaced with a new one. This shows that people stick to traditions out of fear of being excommunicated from their community (Bakerman 200).

The writer uses a friendly language to describe the social atmosphere during the lottery and presentation proceedings. The lottery is conducted in an orderly manner, and the villagers seem to anticipate its end. However, readers are surprised to learn that this magnanimous occasion was intended to cause death by stoning to one of them (Bakerman 200). In contrast, The Passion of Christ is a bloody movie that delivers an explicit message about Jesus Christ’s good news. The movie is supernatural as Jesus claims to be the son of God, and his resurrection shows the sanctity of his death. Unlike in the lottery where people celebrate others’ demise, viewers of The Passion of Christ mourn Jesus’s death and celebrate his resurrection.

According to Garber (50), the passion of Christ serves as a reminder that God brought light to a dark world through the painful death of His son. This indicates that God works within the garbage of our culture and souls in order to free us from slavery. Through His resurrection, we are all equal regardless of our tribe or cultural background, even those who crucified Him. Similarly, in The Lottery,” society members should be delivered from their oppressive cultures which they seem to have forgotten certain parts of. Failure to follow all procedures due to forgetfulness renders the entire procedure meaningless and weak.

Both the short story and the movie feature characters who oppose the events taking place. In the movie, Pontius Pilate is portrayed as a non-violent governor of history, displaying traits of a civilized and humane leader who is burdened by power. He repeatedly attempts to save Jesus from crucifixion, which was demanded by the priests (Garber 51). However, his efforts were in vain as public demand for Barabbas’ release and Jesus’ crucifixion had to be met. According to Bakerman (201), Jackson uses Mrs. Hutchinson’s character to represent individuals in society consumed by weakness and hypocrisy who fail to stand up against uncivilized beliefs. Mrs. Hutchinson arrives late and claims she forgot what day it was due to her numerous house chores; she further voices concerns that her family will draw the paper with a black dot. She continues complaining about the unfairness of the ritual until her death. It is evident that in any society where unjust activities occur, some people are opposed but lack autonomy due to fear of authority.

The Passion of Christ is a beautiful but brutal movie, which is a masterpiece of cinematic art. The movie is generally gut-wrenching, excruciating, and emotionally draining. It depicts the last twelve hours of the life of Jesus Christ in shockingly violent detail (Garber 52). The movie was not made for entertainment purposes; Mr. Gibson’s real intention was for the audience to identify with Jesus. Similarly, the story reflects the author’s literary skills with the aim of depicting weaknesses in human nature and baseless traditions. He creates suspense throughout the story by mixing anxiety and fear in a way that keeps readers guessing about what this lottery really means. Jackson gives a wake-up call to humanity to disapprove and do away with norms and traditions that are not in accordance with religious beliefs.

The short story and the movie share similarities and differences as they both offer a similar perspective on the society we live in. Jesus was killed due to the selfishness of the high priests, while Mrs. Hutchinson died due to her primitive society following a tradition passed down over time. The author and actor both call upon people to embrace change, just as Jesus did on the cross, saving mankind from sin.

Works Cited

Bakerman, J. And Then There Were Nine: More Women of Mystery. Popular Press Publishers, 1985.

Garber, Z. (2006). Mel Gibson’s Passion: The Film, The Controversy and Its Implications. Boston: Purdue University Press.

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