Problems Arising From Stereotypes Ideas Linking Certain Communities To Threats To National Security

When a country’s national security is threatened, leaders seek first to protect its people above everything else. That was the case with the “total and complete shutdown of Muslims entering the United States” order by President Donald Trump. Despite the outlook as a security measure, this action led to widespread protests and legal challenges across the country the implications were clear. Moreover, the order was discriminatory and unconstitutional, as argued by various human rights organizations and civil liberties advocates with reference to the First Amendment’s religious freedom provision and the due process recommended in the Fifth Amendment. While the President and his advisories sought the shutdown as an immediate remedy, it tore down the US relations with Muslim-majority countries as the sentiments represented the whole US’s hostility to Muslims. Subsequently, it created a tense environment where pursuing educational and economic activities in the United States was halted and faced uncertainty. Therefore, the sentimental stereotypes that link certain communities with threats to national security, like the stereotype towards Islam as a religion and its people, undermine efforts to combat terrorism and other forms of violent extremism, could lead to harmful policies and actions, and perpetuate negative attitudes and prejudices towards these communities.

Undermining Efforts to Combat Terrorism and Other Forms of Violent Extremism

President Trump’s directive for a Muslim shutdown was considered a counter-terrorism policy that was executed wrongly. The action alienated Muslims, especially young people and was likely to feed and sustain terrorism. In layman’s language, such stereotype reinforces the belief that the communities stereotyped are meant to be oppressed, and this self-perception increases criminality to give what people think about them. Liebow (2016) explains that self-perception is one significant problem likely to engulf communities and various groups of people stereotyped given the conception as deviant agents. The moral identity is likely to disappear as destructive actions take over. For example, if they continue the assumption that Muslims are terrorists, it may fuel anger from some to perpetrate the actual action they are accused of. On the other hand, the sense of agency is also caught in the mix as it reduces with the depreciating moral identity. For instance, people of color are often victims of stereotypes with regard to criminality and moral deviance that they internalize to see themselves as outlaws among the morality police. The subsequent actions lead to the materializing of the stereotypes to become wrongdoers. In the same way, barring the entry of Muslims into the United States was an attempt at the moral identity and position as a group, which creates an excuse for terrorists to attack the country. Therefore, stereotypes like in Trump’s order were harming the efforts to combat terrorism.

The shutdown was motivated by the stereotype that Muslims are a threat to national security, as mentioned. Therefore, the action was a form of playing into the narrative of extremists. Extremist groups normally portray the US and the West as being at war with Islam, something that was proved when the shutdown was ordered. In other words, President Trump yielded to the narrative by proving them right. Subsequently, the stereotype provided the extremist and terrorist groups leverage through the propaganda tool that would recruit and radicalize disaffected Muslims to join the bandwagon of hate (Courtesy, Rane, and Ubayasiri, 2019). A step that is now regarded as a miscalculation led to international debates where some groups began questioning if the stereotypes would materialize if they were applied to Americans who have previously committed a mass shooting. Aside from the San Bernadino shootings, there have been citizens, Caucasians, who have gone rogue and threatened national security at one point, and they were not faced with such a ramification. The stereotypes are only there to show what has been going on for several generations and that an automatic assumption is made that a certain group, like Muslims, threatens national security. This is the point where accountability is required because hopping onto an event to reach a conclusion leads to a whole group living in fear of reciprocation from the public- like burning down residencies. In general, stereotypical ideas that a certain community is linked to threats to national security remove the fabric that ensures community cohesion to even affect efforts to combat terrorism and other extremist actions.

The internal action proposed by former president Trump is used herein as a predominant example of how stereotypical ideas cause problems for the country and its citizens. As a misidentified strategy to protect the country by linking a group, which is distributed all over the world, to a country’s threat to national security, it weakened international cooperation. For instance, when President Trump made the directive that Muslims be shut down from entering the United States, the action attracted tension from Islamic countries and their allies because countries cooperate in fighting the common enemy of terrorism and extremism (Choudhury and Fenwick, 2011). When a certain community is blamed for breaching the efforts to combat terrorism based on stereotypical ideas, it causes rifts between allies. Moreover, the US has been cooperating with the countries targeted by the ban to counter extremist activities, and such a proclamation set back their joint efforts. As such, the US stood at a bad place in its ability to address global threats as they were blamed for discrimination and fuelling the alienation of the Muslim community. Besides, the action and other stereotypes that have majorly implicated Muslims as threats to national security lie in the category of misidentified sources of a problem. If assuming Muslim-majority countries are the imminent threats to security would solve half of the terrorist attacks in the US and European countries, then there would be fewer to no attacks carried out by citizens by birth. Nonetheless, the focus on the nationality of the terrorists and extremists rather than their ideology fails to address the real source of national security threats.

Harmful Policies and Actions

The harm concept included in this discussion is the aftermath of the stereotypes against certain communities. If the Muslim shutdown held on for a longer time, it would be a harmful action, and its supporting policies would fuel anger. One of the significant problems likely to arise from harmful policies and actions include discrimination. When the perception is built and pushed that a particular community threatens national security, the members of that community are likely to face discrimination from the larger community who have been made to believe so. Such is unfair and counterproductive because such discriminatory actions take the form of racial profiling, surveillance, and harassment that would even deny these groups the opportunity to live and work to sustain their families. It has been determined that once it has started, discrimination has a lasting impact that not even activism and other reconciliation steps can erase what has been done. It is more dangerous when a prolific person starts such a dangerous stereotype that their followers take it as a social action to discriminate against other people.

Increased surveillance goes without saying as one of the problems that arise when a community is a victim of stereotypes like terrorist attacks. This surveillance is not limited to public places but to their houses and their loved ones as the groups are monitored most, if not at all, times. Such actions breach privacy and civil liberties, further alienating the communities. The surveillance, now racialized, is a fixation on Muslims, making them the perennial suspects even when they live rightfully amongst themselves and other communities. In a study on racialized surveillance, Alimahomed-Wilson (2019) found that FBI materials went as far as including disturbing assertions in training with the thought that “mainstream” Muslims in the US are most likely to be “terrorist sympathizers.” These training materials were leaked in 2011, and the majority of the training aspects with regard to Islam and Muslims were found to be Islamophobic distortions of the religion and the people. Muslims reportedly endured significant repression despite every other group experiencing an initial crackdown after 9/11. As Alimahomed-Wilson (2019) explains, the shift from exposing all people, Muslim and non-Muslim, all together to be fixated on Muslims alone as security threats marked the beginning of intense scrutiny of social activities, political beliefs, and religious practices of the community. The scrutiny included financial and governmental investment in monitoring and surveillance of the communities (Alimahomed-Wilson, 2019). When a person or a group knows they are being watched because they are assumed to be threats, it can lead to agitation and a negative response.

Travel restrictions are the consequent actions that result from harmful stereotypes. For instance, if other countries absorb the ideology that Muslims are the primary threats to national security, they would follow suit, one after the other, to put travel restrictions and bans in place, which would ruin international community relations. In the same way, the former President ordered a shutdown; it is restricting to movement through visa denial, which will affect education, trade, and employment opportunities, as the victims will reiterate. On the other hand, having bans and travel restrictions as counter-terrorism policies and practices will create a well of sympathy in various sections of society because they increase repression, stigmatize, and alienate a community group. In the latter section, stereotyping against a community as a national threat was presented as an action that could hinder efforts to counter terrorism and extremism. For this section, harmful policies and actions like travel bans create an opportunity for the threats to execute their actions. For instance, Choudhury and Fenwick (2011) report that groups like Al-Qaeda and other extremist groups in Western Europe use social and political marginalization (like Trump’s Muslim shutdown) and general discrimination to drive their narrative on why they need to attack more, hence recruitment of more people. Therefore, it is safe to state that stereotypical behaviors perpetrated by the head of state can spread to citizens, leading to laws that are applied unfairly or discriminatory.

Perpetuation of Negative Attitudes and Prejudices

Negative attitudes and prejudices summarize the prior points on harmful policies and actions and undermining efforts to combat terrorism and other forms of violent extremism. These negative attitudes and prejudice include; confirmation bias, dehumanization, and group polarization. The refugee crisis and other extremists attack on Western countries have led to a polarized opinion in the countries (Schmuck, Heiss, and Matthes, 2020). The opinions have become prevalent online and offline that crimes and assaults happen on a daily. Schmuck, Heiss, and Matthes (2020) ask the question of what extent or degree the discourses about Muslim immigration in both the media and social networking sites participate in the polarized opinions about the community. Mainstream media is a large contributor to the polarization through the overwhelmingly negative portrayal of Muslims (Schmuck, Heiss, and Matthes, 2020). Therefore, the threatening content often present can significantly contributed to a polarized opinion because the non-Muslim majority have limited direct contact with the minority. Research has paid little to no attention to how attitude congruence is in group polarization. In other words, news consumers already have an existing attitude, which is further reinforced by the information and news presented to them. There is uniformity when congruence interplays with existing attitudes and the news, somehow making prejudice prime. In fact, there has been no attempt to look at the influence of congruent and incongruent opinions about the Muslim community because they are predominantly portrayed as hostile.

On the other hand, prejudice is compounded by terms such as principled objection, which make certain behaviors against the Muslim community somewhat acceptable. As such, groups of people slowly get comfortable with the stereotypes reinforcing existing beliefs and attitudes, i.e., they seek out information that confirms their stereotypes and ignore information that contradicts them. Adelman and Verkuyten (2020) explain that anti-Muslim feelings are more common and widespread than negative attitudes toward other minority immigrant groups. Besides, the negative attitudes are connected to anti-Muslim feelings, and their strength increases with more people leaning towards confirmation bias. A worse combination arises from negativity and intolerance, especially political intolerance. Ignoring a person centered-approach to negativity towards the Muslim community, it can be found that significant figures shift other people’s beliefs, making them object to the communities. The resultant effect is the dehumanization of the community and making them internalize the oppression, which harms their morals with regard to their perception of criminality and reduced agency. Moreover, they become more alienated because of the perception of threat as they struggle with both social and political marginalization. Even law enforcement becomes a challenge because trust is lost, and engaging the community to build trust for effective policing is a long shot. At the end of the day, stigma becomes prevalent with a low acceptance rate, perpetuating negative attitudes and prejudices, leading to a cycle of discrimination and exclusion (Yilmaz, 2016).

Conclusion

Counter-terrorism policies and practices have various implications for certain communities, especially if they are based on stereotypes that the community or group is a threat to national security. Implied and sentimental stereotypes have been known to cause more harm than improving safety because they belittle a community and mostly alienate them. Therefore, they can undermine efforts to combat terrorism and other forms of violent extremism, perpetuate negative attitudes and prejudices towards these communities and push harmful policies and actions to an extent. As part of the remedy, applications of policies and laws should seek to be neutral and not target but identify a source and seek diplomatic strategies that will not come out as unfair or discriminatory.

References

Adelman, L., & Verkuyten, M. (2020). Prejudice and the Acceptance of Muslim Minority Practices: A Person-Centered Approach. Social psychology51(1), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1027/1864-9335/a000380

Alimahomed-Wilson, S. (2019). When the FBI knocks: Racialized state surveillance of Muslims. Critical Sociology45(6), 871-887. https://doi.org/10.1177/0896920517750742

Choudhury, T., & Fenwick, H. (2011). The impact of counter-terrorism measures on Muslim communities. International review of law, computers & technology25(3), 151-181. https://doi.org/10.1080/13600869.2011.617491

Courty, A., Rane, H., & Ubayasiri, K. (2019). Blood and ink: the relationship between Islamic State propaganda and Western media. The Journal of International Communication25(1), 69-94. https://doi.org/10.1080/13216597.2018.1544162

Liebow, N. (2016). Internalized oppression and its varied moral harms: Self‐perceptions of reduced agency and criminality. Hypatia31(4), 713-729. https://doi.org/10.1111/hypa.12265

Schmuck, D., Heiss, R., & Matthes, J. (2020). Drifting further apart? How exposure to media portrayals of Muslims affects attitude polarization. Political Psychology41(6), 1055-1072. https://doi.org/10.1111/pops.12664

Yilmaz, I. (2016). The nature of Islamophobia: Some key features. Fear of Muslims? International Perspectives on Islamophobia, 19-29. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-29698-2_2

RC Research Project Report

Introduction

The topic selected for the research project is “the impact of stress-related injuries on employee-return to work outcomes.” Work-related stress has emerged to be among the most common occupational-related health problem and has been reported to affect the health and well-being of employees (Woods & Matthewson, 2021). Work-related stress comprises a pattern of emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and physical reactions to adverse and harmful aspects of work content, organization, and work setting. It is a health condition characterized by increased agitation and distress, and feelings of not coping.

The topic is relevant to the injury management process since injuries associated with work-related stress and other conditions have cost employees and businesses billions of dollars as a result of increased levels of absenteeism, loss of productivity, and poor quality of work alongside increased insurance premiums (Page & Tchernitskaia, 2014). Work-related stress and other conditions, such as depression acquired at work, can affect both workers and their employers since they are most unlikely to return to their previous places of employment after experiencing a traumatic incident due to the memories and symptoms of avoidance, which accompany the injury (Schwartz et al., 2020). Most employees are left in a vicious cycle when the anxiety and depressive symptoms keep them away from their places of work, and absenteeism from work can keep them from overcoming the problem.

Review of Related Literature

The definition of stress has contributed to much confusion in mainstream literature (Mahfouz, 2020). This literature review explored the experiences of workers affected by work-related stress and the effects of the psychological implications on their abilities to return to work (Prang et al., 2016). Four main themes were identified during the study: frustration, depression, discrimination, and challenges in comprehending how employees’ compensation system operates and in obtaining care. The literature review suggested that various interventions and rehabilitation programs coupled with psychological interventions can assist employees injured by work-related stress to return to work.

A systematic literature review used EBSCOhost and full text as the search criterion. The search terms applied comprised “injured-employee-experiences,” “injured employees and psychosocial factors,” and “stress-related injuries and return to work.” Based on the literature reviewed, it is evident that employees injured due to work-related stress and other conditions share the same experiences toward a return to work, which affects many aspects of their performance and the organization’s productivity (Cancelliere et al., 2016). Besides, frustration with several aspects of return to work was an overarching theme.

Qualitative researchers reported that frustration is a common experience among employees injured due to work-related stress. This could stem from retraining and unsatisfying tasks after returning to work, which usually contributes to feeling valued. Most injured employees reported being unwilling to be retrained if the new areas were unrelated to their previous duties (Cullen et al., 2018). Due to changes in the assigned tasks, frustrations may also arise within the family or community setting. Since the injured employees are no longer the sole breadwinners of their families because they are out of work, they may feel a burden to their families and communities.

The stress linked to the family and lifestyle changes and dealing with employers and the compensation systems has been described as “too much to bear” (Shaw et al., 2020). Some workers report that their health and well-being are affected due to the daunting claims process; hence, they feel stress. Besides, some injured employees experience depression, negatively affecting their ability to return to work following work-stress-related injuries (Joyce et al., 2016). Some factors significantly related to depression comprise time away from work due to work-stress-related injury.

The link between the Chosen Topic to the Course Content

There is a link between the selected topic, “the impact of stress-related injuries on employee employee-return to work outcomes,” and the key aspects of the injury and disability management course content. First, in the course content, it has been explained that different types of work-related injuries harm workers and employees. Thus, stress-related injury management and appropriate to return-to-work programs make sense from different perspectives, and such intervention strategies are ever-increasing in frequency as both workers and employers have understood and recognized their benefits (Cancelliere et al., 2014). The topic is also linked to the course content since there are several compelling reasons for employers to establish and implement effective workplace injury management and return-to-work programs. The availability of injury management and intervention programs can lead to a safer workplace setting, hence minimizing and alleviating the likelihood of other workplace-related injuries, which could contribute to employee absenteeism or time lost from the job.

A Potential Focus for Further Research

A potential focus for further research is to investigate workplace response to work-related injuries or disabilities. The significance of the proposed research on the injury management process is that despite several return-to-work programs available, very minimal evidence exists of what can be considered to constitute an optimal workplace response to occupational injury or disability (Durand et al., 2014). Nevertheless, from the review of relevant literature coupled with the ongoing qualitative studies, it is necessary to focus on supportive workplace policies that support workplace response to injuries or disability.

Conclusion

Workplace stress-related injuries place immense demands on employees’ physical and mental health and ultimately affect their behavior, performance, and relationships with other co-workers. Therefore, understanding how to manage and control the factors contributing to injuries related to stress at the workplace is important to managing employees effectively. Therefore, to effectively manage injuries related to stress at the workplace, employers should focus on deploying a systematic approach to identifying the risks associated with stress and other conditions at the workplace, such as carrying out a stress risk assessment. This will ensure that work-related stress is addressed and dealt with effectively by including an understanding of different types of stress common at the workplace, issues associated with the injuries, effective treatment modalities, and promotion of an early return to work where practical.

References

Cancelliere, C., Donovan, J., Stochkendahl, M. J., Biscardi, M., Ammendolia, C., Myburgh, C., & Cassidy, J. D. (2016). Factors affecting return to work after injury or illness: best evidence synthesis of systematic reviews. Chiropractic & manual therapies24, 1–23. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12998-016-0113-z

Cancelliere, C., Kristman, V. L., Cassidy, J. D., Hincapié, C. A., Côté, P., Boyle, E., … & Borg, J. (2014). A systematic review of return to work after mild traumatic brain injury: results of the International Collaboration on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Prognosis. Archives of physical medicine and Rehabilitation95(3), S201-S209. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003999313010691

Cullen, K. L., Irvin, E., Collie, A., Clay, F., Gensby, U., Jennings, P. A., … & Amick, B. C. (2018). Effectiveness of workplace interventions in return-to-work for musculoskeletal, pain-related and mental health conditions: an update of the evidence and messages for practitioners. Journal of occupational rehabilitation28, 1-15. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10926-016-9690-x

Durand, M. J., Corbière, M., Coutu, M. F., Reinharz, D., & Albert, V. (2014). A review of best work-absence management and return-to-work practices for workers with musculoskeletal or common mental disorders. Work48(4), 579-589. https://content.iospress.com/articles/work/wor01914

Joyce, S., Modini, M., Christensen, H., Mykletun, A., Bryant, R., Mitchell, P. B., & Harvey, S. B. (2016). Workplace interventions for common mental disorders: a systematic meta-review. Psychological medicine46(4), 683-697. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/psychological-medicine/article/workplace-interventions-for-common-mental-disorders-a-systematic-metareview/2AD6672BE73FB23B329DC9EED4E11985

Mahfouz, J. (2020). Principals and stress: Few coping strategies for abundant stressors. Educational Management Administration & Leadership48(3), 440-458. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1741143218817562

Page, K. M., & Tchernitskaia, I. (2014). Use of motivational interviewing to improve return-to-work and work-related outcomes: a review. The Australian Journal of Rehabilitation Counselling20(1), 38-49. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/australian-journal-of-rehabilitation-counselling/article/use-of-motivational-interviewing-to-improve-returntowork-and-workrelated-outcomes-a-review/80CD1A0B031336EE1CFBDB86231DD2D7

Prang, K. H., Bohensky, M., Smith, P., & Collie, A. (2016). Return to work outcomes for workers with mental health conditions: A retrospective cohort study. Injury47(1), 257-265. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020138315005495

Schwartz, A. M., Wilson, J. M., Boden, S. D., Moore Jr, T. J., Bradbury Jr, T. L., & Fletcher, N. D. (2020). Managing resident workforce and education during the COVID-19 pandemic: evolving strategies and lessons learned. JBJS Open Access5(2). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7408274/

Shaw, W. S., Main, C. J., Findley, P. A., Collie, A., Kristman, V. L., & Gross, D. P. (2020). Opening the workplace after COVID-19: what lessons can be learned from return-to-work research? Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation30, 299-302. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10926-020-09908-9

Woods, M, & Matthewson, M.L. (2021). Managing and mitigating suffering in the return-to-work process. Frontiers. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.805855

The Impact Of Artificial Intelligence On Different Industries And Job Markets

Discipline awareness

Computer Science

In the modern world, the computer is the most significant device for solving modern-day problems. As such, computing is part of everything in the contemporary world. Through computing, there is the drive for science, education, research, and innovation that enable the functionality of all other sectors of current civilization. Computer science enables computational systems, invention, creation, study, and analysis.

Correspondingly, computer scientists apply different coding sequences, mathematical algorithms and programming to develop computational methods and software. Consequently, there are other areas of study in computer science like security and privacy, programming languages, artificial intelligence, systems and networking, vision, and graphics computer engineering and robotics. As such, the discourse community that makes computer engineering is extensive and details in research and study frameworks (Sakr et al., 2023). This computer science framework aims to make the use and utilization of resources available venture. Extensively, there are ongoing, already done, and future research frameworks that explore the details of the field of computer science.

Most of the research is booming, and so is the use of the research results to assess the technological problems that need solving. A critical computer science analysis establishes a few ways this information availed into the world: trade journals, peer-reviewed scholarly journals, and the general public (Trivedi, 2023). Trivedi investigates whether it is possible to encrypt customer data without undermining privacy yet still allow the computation of the same data without decrypting it. As a result, the data will quickly be outsourced to commercial cloud environments and have encryption (Trivedi, 2023).

In conclusion, computer scientists use various coding techniques, mathematical algorithms, and programming to create computational systems and software. Consequently, there are numerous areas of study in computer science, including robots, vision and graphics, artificial intelligence, programming languages, systems and networking, and security and privacy. As a result, the discourse community that creates computer engineering is substantial and specific in its research and study frameworks. Many ongoing, completed, and future research frameworks delve deeply into the topic of computer science.

Research proposal

Introduction

Many sectors have been radically altered, and new technologies have been introduced as a direct result of the advent of AI. The information technology industry was an early adopter of AI technology. Questions regarding the possible demise of manual labor have grown alongside the widespread use of AI in Computing. Potential on the workforce, the types of occupations most at risk, and the best approaches to prevent the spread of AI have all been cited as concerns regarding the broad use of AI in the computing sector.

The computer science sector is essential to global economic expansion and development, providing millions of worldwide jobs. This broad category includes job titles like data analyst and software developer. Because of these positions’ high compensation and employment security, they have been in high demand (Hammad, 2023). However, as AI becomes prevalent, some employment functions risk becoming automated, raising questions about the sector’s job security and future employability.

The worries about how AI will affect job security are not unjustified, as research indicates that AI will significantly impact the labor market. A World Economic Forum (WEF) analysis estimates that by 2022, the Fourth Industrial Revolution, incorporating AI, will eliminate 75 million jobs while creating 133 million new positions. The paper emphasizes that the industry, the area, and the job function will all impact the net employment loss or growth. Due to the integration of AI, the IT sector will probably see both job increases and losses. While AI will undoubtedly perform many mundane activities, reducing the need for human labor, it will also give rise to new, highly trained employment categories.

Several studies have investigated how AI would affect job security across various industries. In one example, the impact of AI on job security in the United States is investigated in the article “The Effects of Digitization on Employment.” The impact of AI on employment prospects in specific industries like medicine and transport was additionally studied. There is a need for more research on the particular effects of the IT industry, even though these studies offer insights into the influence of AI on job security (Webb, M. 2019). The quick rate of technological advancement and the wide variety of job types offered make the IT sector distinctive. The relationship between AI and job security is complicated because the IT sector is the engine behind AI advancement. Consequently, the purpose of this study is to use expert interviews to ascertain the effect of AI on job security in the IT sector.

I will employ the expert interview technique to get opinions from professionals with experience in the IT field. The expert interview approach is a qualitative research technique that involves speaking with authorities in a specific field to get their thoughts on a particular subject (Prentice et al., 2020). To get their perspectives on the effect of AI on job security in the sector, I will speak with specialists from our class research participation group who have experience in the IT industry.

Literature Review

According to research by Lane and Martin, the introduction of I will likely have far-reaching adverse effects on the job economy. While some positions may be automated, others may see an increased demand for data analysis and computer science skills. Moreover, the authors in their study revealed potential detrimental impacts of AI, such as the likelihood of greater labor market inequality and the risk of job displacement for some individuals, as the necessity for people to reskill and upskill to adapt to new technology (Lane et al., 2021). The study’s authors also suggested further avenues for investigation, such as exploring the ethical and societal ramifications of implementing AI and conducting in-depth analyses of how AI will affect various industries and occupations.

The study aimed to investigate the employee perspective on emotional and artificial intelligence. Prentice, Dominique, and Wang highlighted that employees view AI as better suited to tasks involving data processing and analysis rather than tasks requiring emotional intelligence and interpersonal skills. Specifically, employees believed AI suits data processing and analysis tasks better. In addition, to further support their findings, employees reported feeling apprehensive about their jobs (Prentice et al., 2020). This event is because AI has simplified their work excessively; hence, their fear of losing their jobs has become an even more significant source of anxiety and concern. Finally, as a crucial recommendation based on their research, Prentice, Dominique, and Wang suggested that businesses should invest in training and development programs to assist employees in developing their emotional intelligence abilities and adapting to new technology. In Webb’s study on the impact of artificial intelligence on the labor market, he makes several interesting observations. His research shows that some occupations will be mechanized, and others will require new abilities due to the widespread adoption of artificial intelligence (Briganti et al., 2020). This research highlights the significance of stakeholders and policymakers carefully examining the possible impact of AI on the labor market and establishing policies to ensure that the advantages of this innovation will be distributed evenly and fairly. This requirement is highlighted throughout the paper.

Additionally, Webb suggests that the study’s findings can be used to inform future research and policy decisions related to the implementation of AI in the workplace. Additionally, he believes this point should be seriously considered by future researchers who wish to study AI further. A study conducted by Webster and Ivanov on Robotics, artificial intelligence, and the evolving nature of work presented significant concepts, such as the possibility that the nature of work might change and that the skills required at workplaces might also change due to the incorporation of robotics and artificial intelligence into routines and manual labor (Webster & Ivanov., 2020).

In addition, as robotics and AI are automated into labor, the labor market will shift because there will be an uneven distribution of the nature of occupations, as some jobs will require more automation than others. This will force some jobs to pay more for automation than others. Webster and Ivanov’s conclusion that AI would cause employment losses is consistent with other studies conclusions. Simultaneously, more job openings would appear associated with computer sectors (Chen et al., 2020). In conclusion, one of the essential things that can be learned from this research study is that many stakeholders need to get ready for the changes that are coming by making investments in education and training and adopting policies that encourage justice and equity.

Research Question

  1. How is the emergence of AI affecting job security in the IT industry?

To answer this question, we developed three secondary research questions:

  • Firstly, what are computer science’s AI pros and cons?
  • 2) Which computer science jobs would AI affect?
  • How can computer science job security be protected against AI?

Methodology

This study used the expert interview methodology to gather information about how AI affects job security in the IT sector. In expert interviews, a qualitative research technique, information is gathered from highly knowledgeable and experienced people in a given field of interest. As surveys and other quantitative tools cannot adequately capture the viewpoints and experiences of participants, this method was chosen (Braun & Clarke, 2006).

Participants

I recruited five participants who have extensive experience and expertise in the IT industry through our class research participants group. We chose computer science professionals from software development, data analytics, cybersecurity, and project management to present different viewpoints. All participants consented to the study and were informed of its goals and methodology.

Procedure

Semi-structured interviewing provided flexibility in addressing the study issues while guaranteeing consistency between interviews. Each video conference interview lasted between 45 and an hour, and it was done in this way. With the participants’ permission, the interviews were taped and then transcribed verbatim.

Data Analysis:

Thematic analysis, which includes finding patterns and themes in the data, was used to examine the interview data. The transcripts were reviewed and reread numerous times to see trends and themes in the data. For each topic, codes were created, and the codes were then grouped into broader groups based on their similarities and differences. The categories were finally evaluated to determine the main themes and sub-themes from the data.

Validity and Reliability:

I took several steps to ensure the data’s accuracy and dependability. Secondly, I conducted the interviews using a semi-structured method that allowed me to be flexible in exploring the study issues while guaranteeing uniformity. Second, I recorded the interviews with the participants’ permission and verbatim translated them to ensure the information appropriately reflected their perspectives. Lastly, I used theme analysis, a tried-and-true technique for interpreting qualitative data, to analyze the data. To confirm the integrity of our conclusions, I employed member checking last. I presented the results to the participants and solicited their opinions.

Ethical Considerations:

The ethical guidelines for research involving human beings were followed in this study. All participants gave their assent voluntarily after I gave them assurances about the privacy and anonymity of their answers. Also, I ensured that the volunteers were not forced or improperly influenced into participating in the study.

Findings report

Many insights on the effects of artificial intelligence on job security in the IT industry have emerged from the analysis of expert interviews. The experts generally concurred that job security is an issue for many people, and AI is quickly transforming the industry environment. However, the experts highlighted several potential mitigating factors that could lessen AI’s detrimental effects on job security.

The study’s primary finding was that the influence of AI on job security varies on the type of position. For example, the experts say that data entry and customer service positions are most at risk of becoming automated. These jobs include routine and repetitive operations. On the other hand, project management and software development are less likely to be impacted by AI since they involve human contact, creativity, and critical thought. This study’s results align with earlier studies (Tiku, 2022).

The experts also identified several talents that will become increasingly crucial in the computer science sector led by AI. These include adaptability, ingenuity, and communication. Experts say AI-driven workplaces favor technical and soft skills. The study also found that AI technology cannot be applied uniformly. The experts advise organizations to carefully analyze their industry’s and personnel’s unique requirements before determining which AI technology to implement. Additionally, they must guarantee their staff members receive the necessary training and preparation for the new technology.

The experts also talked about how the government and policymakers may handle any possible harm AI might do to job security. The experts contend that through efforts like retraining programs and unemployment benefits, governments must actively support employees who lose their jobs due to AI. They also have to guarantee that employees can embrace novel innovations and that AI advantages are distributed equitably.

The outcomes of this study suggest that the effect of AI on employment stability in the computer industry is complex and multifaceted. Although some workers will be made redundant due to AI’s widespread adoption, the technology can boost industrial productivity and effectiveness while creating new job openings. Careful planning and financial commitment in programs for training and reskilling are essential to minimizing the detrimental effects of AI on job security.

The experts were asked the questions below, and their responses were recorded. The responses were then analyzed to identify patterns and trends in the expert opinions and were recorded in the tables.

Table 1: Expert opinions on the impact of AI on different job roles in the IT industry

Job role The positive impact of AI The negative impact of AI
Software engineer Automation of tasks Job replacement
Data scientist Faster data analysis Replacement of job
Cyber security Improved threat detection Replacement of job
Technical support Automation of tasks Replacement of the position
It manager Improved decision Replacement of job

Table 2: Expert opinions on the new job opportunities created by AI in the IT industry

Job role The new opportunity created by AI
Software engineer Development of AI systems
Data scientist Development of AI systems
Cyber security Development of security-based AI systems
Technical support Maintenance of AI systems
It manager Management of AI-based projects

Table 3: Expert opinions on the skills required in the age of AI in the IT industry

Skill Importance in the Age of AI
Machine learning High
Data analysis High
Critical thinking High
Problem-solving high
communication High

According to what experts have predicted will happen to IT jobs, the data show that AI will have beneficial and detrimental results. As technology improves in efficiency and AI technology, certain occupations may be eliminated, although numerous additional ones will be generated. As AI-powered systems are developed and maintained, analysts predict increased available labor. Last but not least, the experts outlined the vital abilities in high demand in the IT sector as AI takes hold, including machine learning, data analysis, critical thinking, problem-solving, and communication.

 Discussion

The study’s findings based on expert interviews provided insight into how Artificial Intelligence (AI) may affect job security in the IT sector. According to the experts’ replies, AI can upend the IT sector by automating several traditionally conducted human processes and functions. However, this disruption is sometimes good because it can lead to new job possibilities and occupations that require human abilities that technology cannot replace.

With certain occupations being automated and replaced by AI and others being created and improved by technology, the usage of AI in the IT industry is anticipated to impact job security substantially (Zhang &amp, 2021). Many jobs, including data entry and document processing, could be automated with AI. It will not likely take the role of occupations that demand creativity, problem-solving, and human communication, though (Webster & Ivanov, 2020). However, it is vital to pay attention that computers could swap some productions in the imminent.

The specialists accessed for this learning highlighted the implication of getting new aids and apprising old ones to defend one’s engagement in the background of developments in expertise. Those adept at using AI and interacting with machines are likelier to experience more excellent job stability. Governments and businesses must invest in education and training initiatives to provide employees with the knowledge and abilities to coexist with AI and automation.

AI also expands employment opportunities and professions that demand human skills that technology cannot replace Jobs involving AI engineering, data analysis, and machine learning are just a few examples of those expanding due to the growing use of AI (Webster & Ivanov, 2020). it shows that AI not only gives chances for new and improved occupations but also poses a danger to job stability.

This research found that decision-makers, educators, and those working in the IT sector should seize the opportunities offered by AI and collaborate to ensure a stable workforce. Organizations must consider how AI will affect their workforce and establish plans to reskill and redeploy their workers. By investing in education and training programs, businesses and governments can equip workers with the skills to operate alongside AI and automation.

This literature analysis concluded that AI could completely transform the IT industry, with some occupations being automated and replaced by AI while new and improved jobs are created. Decision-makers, educators, and people working in the IT industry should take advantage of the opportunities presented by AI and work together to establish a stable workforce. Upskilling and reskilling are crucial to sustaining job security in technological upheaval. Governments and corporations must invest in education and training programs that give staff members the skills and knowledge necessary to get along with AI and automation. If this is done, employees will be more equipped to adopt new technologies and profit from AI.

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