Professional Development Of Nurses Sample Assignment

The Institute of Medicine’s (IOM) report has become a document that offers the most comprehensive range of recommendations and changes for improving and transforming healthcare. Its main points are aimed at reforming the education and practice of nurses since they are the most numerical in medicine and have the broadest responsibilities. Consequently, the recommendations of IOM in theory and practice influenced nursing in the United States, explaining the importance of the nursing transformation and suggesting practical measures to change it.

The four key messages of the report cover all aspects of the practice and education of nurses and suggest actions to improve them. The first message discusses the need to create an environment in which nurses can use the fullness of their knowledge and skills. This item includes changes by the federal government to regulations that allow patients to choose and have access to all medical services and nurses to be more independent in their practice, for example, to prescribe medicines (Institute of Medicine, 2011).

The efforts should also be aimed at changing the structure and infrastructure of hospitals, which would help reduce the overall time for patient care and increase the time for direct treatment, for example, by introducing new technologies.

The second message discusses the need to improve the education system, which contributes to a higher level of nursing knowledge. The proposed changes should be aimed both at improving curricula and offering opportunities for getting higher academic levels for nurse practitioners (Institute of Medicine, 2011). These changes will help BSN-trained nurses better serve patients and be universal, as well as allow nurses with master’s and Ph.D.’s to demonstrate leadership skills to improve the health care system. Thus, creating an environment conducive to constant education of nurses is an essential aspect of improving patient care.

The third message is aimed at involving nurses in making decisions to improve the quality of care and medical services. The authors believe that nurses are the most prominent members of the medical community because they have scientific knowledge, interact with doctors and pharmacists, and are close to patients, and understand their needs (Institute of Medicine, 2011). Therefore, nurses should not only accept and adapt to policy changes but have a voice and actively participate in the restructuring of the system. The fourth message is also related to changes in the system but its information infrastructure.

According to the Institute of Medicine (2011), today the healthcare does not have an efficient data acquisition system. Therefore, the main changes should be created for the introduction of computer technologies that will help to collect relevant data quickly, update, and use them to understand the internal processes in the healthcare system. This aspect will assist in understanding and satisfying the needs of patients and medical personnel.

The IOM’s report had a significant impact on the education and practice of nurses since it explained the need for changes and system deficiencies. According to Buerhaus, Auerbach, and Staiger (2016), the reforms proposed by the report increased the quantity and quality of programs. This improvement allowed nurses to get degrees, which resulted in the grown number of BSN-prepared nurses from 2011 to 2016 by about 35000 people (Buerhaus, Auerbach, & Staiger, 2016).

The report also opened up more opportunities for career advancement and decent pay for BSN- prepared nurses as hospitals prefer to hire staff with a scientific degree. (“Why are BSN-prepared nurses preferred,” 2017). Consequently, the main advantages for BSN-prepared nurses are educating opportunities that can bring them career growth and higher wages.

Furthermore, the USA is a multinational country where representatives of different ethnic groups live nearby, and they have their characteristics in the worldview, religion, and other aspects that affect the methods of care and treatment. Besides, according to Tabish (2019), “The patient population is aging and becoming increasingly complex, as a result, competencies necessary for today’s health care environment go beyond hands-on practical skill” (p.13). Therefore, the role and education of nurses must evolve and adapt to current trends to meet the needs of patients and offer them the highest quality of care.

For this reason, lifelong learning is the best solution to this problem. Understanding the characteristics of different representatives of social groups helps nurses motivate their patients to maintain a healthy lifestyle and move to a high level of wellness in the health-disease continuum. For example, knowledge of the characteristics of national cuisine can help to create a healthy and acceptable diet for a person. Lifelong learning means that a person is continually searching for knowledge and uses it to meet professional needs (Qalehsari, Khaghanizadeh, & Ebadi, 2017). Therefore, this type of learning can be implemented by using university programs, forums, or researches that address specific issues of nursing practice.

Nurses can participate in improving the health care system in several ways, namely improving their performance, proposing changes in the organization of the hospital, or at the state and country levels. However, the most successful is the promotion of ideas at the state or country level through medical organizations and associations. For this purpose, nurses can conduct research aimed at the improvement of treatment and prevention methods, staff education, or identification lacks the system. Thus, nurses can start the process of reforming and modernizing various aspects of healthcare by stating the need to pay attention to any issues.

In conclusion, the IOM’s report drew attention to the main problems of the healthcare system associated with nursing. The main messages were aimed at reforming the education system for nurses, expanding the possibilities for their practice, improving electronic data collection technologies, and involving nurses in the reform of healthcare. The proposed changes are relevant for modern US medicine since the aging, and increasing diversity of the population requires new approaches to patient care and treatment.

Significant improvement of the education system and the involvement of nurses in the reforming are results of implementing the report’s recommendation. However, these processes must always continue because the main task of medicine is to meet the needs of patients and ensure the health of the nation.


Buerhaus, P., Auerbach D., & Staiger, D. (2016). Recent changes in the number of nurses graduating from undergraduate and graduate programs. Nursing Economic$, 34(1), 46-48.

Institute of Medicine (IOM). (2011). The future of nursing: Leading change, advancing health. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Qalehsari, M. Q., Khaghanizadeh, M., & Ebadi, A. (2017). Lifelong learning strategies in nursing: A systematic review. Electronic Physician, 9(10), 5541–5550.

Tabish, S. (2019). Shaping the future of nursing education & practice in the twenty-first century. Global Journal for Research Analysis, 8(8), 13-15.

Why are BSN-prepared nurses preferred? (2017). Web.

ADN Vs. BSN Debate: Contemporary Nursing Practice


Nurses represent a significant element of the whole health care industry. These specialists serve as a link between patients and higher medical staff, which is essential for better patient outcomes. That is why it is necessary to draw specific attention to their training to provide these representatives of the health care system with the required skills and abilities to solve significant issues. Thus, the given paper tries to explain the evolution of nursing practice, comment on various types of education in nursing, and discuss the work of nursing with interdisciplinary teams.

Evolution of Nursing Practice

Nursing is not a stable phenomenon, and it has changed a lot over previous years. Nurses only used to be assistants of doctors, but they are highly specialized members of the modern health care industry. This shift has resulted in the fact that more specific attention is drawn to education. Now, individuals have to pass appropriate exams to become licensed nurses. The extensive use of technology is another issue that reshapes medicine. Consequently, nurses should have the necessary skills and abilities to use technological devices and applications properly.

It is not a surprise that the information above influences nursing practice and the way how nurses treat individuals. Thus, more sophisticated education provides these medical specialists with higher freedom of action. Papandrea (2016) states that nurses can sometimes make diagnoses, administer medication, and even work autonomously. In addition to that, technology allows them to become more professional and efficient in performing their functions. Thus, this information denotes that modern nurses deal with a vast scope of practice, which helps them treat individuals timely and more accurately.

Differentiated Practice Competencies between BSN and ADN Nurses

Associate (ADN) and baccalaureate (BSN) education variants represent accessible career pathways that an individual can follow to become a Registered Nurse. The two are similar in the way that they teach nurses how to provide patients with care of decent quality. However, a closer analysis reveals the differentiated practice competencies between the BSN and ADN nurses. The main difference is represented by the fact that a specialist with an associate degree performs ordinary clinical tasks. In contrast, a Bachelor’s degree makes it possible for a nurse to deal with more sophisticated issues.

For example, an ADN nurse records medical history, uses simple medical equipment, and educates patients on diseases, while a BSN nurse’s responsibilities include nursing research, disease prevention, conflict management, and others (College for the People, 2017). Thus, the information above demonstrates that the roles of BSN and ADN nurses differ in the level of care that they distribute to patients.

Patient Care Situation

One should consider a specific patient care situation to identify how nursing care differs between the two types of nurses. It is possible to imagine that a woman with elevated blood pressure goes to the hospital. After reading her record, ADN nurses usually dispense an appropriate medication because it is what they are trained to do. If they believe that some additional measures are needed, they should describe it to a physician.

However, when it comes to BSN nurses, these specialists take more effort to improve patient outcomes. Conversation with the patient can reveal that pain is the reason for the elevated pressure. Furthermore, the woman can describe that she has some problems with her husband, and it makes her nervous. In this case, a BSN prescribes a pain relief medication to decrease the blood pressure and serves as a psychologist to offer decent services. This information denotes that a Bachelor’s degree provides nurses with advanced knowledge, skills, and abilities to improve nursing care.

Significance of Evidence-Based Practice

Nurses should be involved in a lifelong process of education to improve their expertise, and evidence-based practice is a suitable option here. This phenomenon provides nurses with the required theoretical materials on how to handle various issues. This practice presents scientific and proved data explaining how a challenge has been successfully solved. It denotes that when a nurse wants to know what decision to make in a particular situation, it is reasonable to consider appropriate studies or records of the clinician’s expertise to find an answer.

Bachelor’s degree education supports this idea because its curriculum focuses on this practice more heavily in comparison with an associate degree. This fact has significant benefits because “bachelor’s degree RNs reported being significantly better prepared than associate degree RNs in 12 of 16 topics” (Djukic, Stimpfel, & Covner, 2019, p. 180). Thus, the academic preparation of BSN nurses proves the effectiveness of evidence-based practice.

Nurses in Interdisciplinary Teams

Nurses are integral parts of the whole health care industry, and they cooperate with other specialists. Effective communication and collaboration within interdisciplinary teams are necessary for successful patient outcomes. It refers to the fact that nurses are usually the first representatives of medical personal who become aware of patient changing conditions (Streeton et al., 2016). Thus, their task is to communicate these changes to physicians to provide them with an opportunity to assign adequate treatment. In addition to that, when nurses act as fully-fledged members of a team, it increases the safety of patients. It is so because the fact that numerous specialists follow the same strategy of providing care creates an environment of safety.


It is impossible to imagine the health care industry without nurses because these specialists perform essential functions. Their role has changed significantly because they have started dealing with more responsible tasks recently. Now, individuals can get a Bachelor’s or associate degree to become a nurse. Even though these two variants are based on the same principles of providing decent care to patients, their different focuses create nurses who specialize in various fields. Finally, nurses should know how to work with interdisciplinary teams to contribute to better patient outcomes.


College for the People (2017). ADN vs BSN debate: These are the real differences between ADN and BSN prepared nurses. Web.

Djukic, M., Stimpfel, A. W., & Covner, C. (2019). Bachelor’s degree nurse graduates report better quality and safety educational preparedness than associate degree graduates. The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety, 45(3), 180-186.

Papandrea, D. (2016). Nursing is in transformation, and that is good for nurses. Web.

Streeton, A., Bisbey, C., O’Neill, C., Allen, D., O’Hara, S., Weinhold, M., … Grubbs, P. (2016). Improving nurse-physician teamwork: A multidisciplinary collaboration. Medsurg Nursing, 25(1), 31-34.

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Concept Of Worldwide Health


By definition, health is defined as the absence of illness or injury, but the World Health Organization and many medical professionals and theories suggest that health is a state of complete “physical, mental, and social well-being” (Huber et al., 2011).

The modern health continuum has evolved to provide a holistic approach to care that offers integrated services and treatment for a wide range of conditions, as well as viewing patient health from multiple perspectives. This allows for competent and efficient identification, treatment, management, and maintenance of personal health and diseases. Consistently evolving and utilizing evidence-based practice, healthcare has become highly institutionalized and being a concept in a society that is not only used during illness but to improve quality of life and longevity.

Definitions and Attributes of Health

Health can have broadening definitions which are intertwined by various in certain areas. Karimi and Brazier (2016) provide the WHO definition of health, presenting a discussion surrounding the inclusion of social well-being. They also provide a definition that health is the “individual’s level of function” that is compared to societal standards of physical and mental well-being to determine the optimal status of health. At the same time, Charlier et al. (2017) argue the WHO definition is outdated. It does not consider autochthonous communities and needs to consider variables such as human equilibrium in nature (financial, social status, access to healthcare, etc.), spirituality, and adaptation.

Meanwhile, Stucki, Rubinelli, & Bickenbach (2018) argue that common definitions of health focus on complete health and well-being, it being futile and impractical as few if any individuals are universally completely “healthy.” They argue a system is needed to classify and operationalize health that would measure and describe health as a lived experience, aspects that matter to people about personal health, as well as providing a frame of reference.

Høye et al. (2016) list that from a Scandinavian perspective, the three attributes of health are wholeness (health is holistic), pragmatism (health is relative to age and medical conditions), and individualism (health is personally unique). Based on the WHO definitions, the basic attributes of health can be considered as simple as physical, mental, and social. The common theme emerging from these explorations of health is that the concept is less about personal health and even scientific basis, but a societal and anthropological perspective of what is considered healthy and well-being. Health is highly relative based on perception and available knowledge, as well as societal influences.

Health Continuum

The health continuum, also known as the illness-wellness continuum, is a practical tool used by health professionals to evaluate health and guide patients in the right direction to well-being. The continuum begins at a neutral point and goes in opposite directions. One side represents wellness, with optimal high-level wellness as the end goal. On this side of the continuum are steps such as awareness, education, and growth in regard to personal health. The other side is the treatment paradigm which results in pre-mature death if health deteriorates. It has the steps of signs, symptoms, and disability.

The continuum is known as the wellness paradigm, which encompasses the 6 components of health, such as physical, emotional, mental, social, environmental, and spiritual, that are consistently revolving around and contingent upon the continuum (Penwell-Waines, Greenawald, & Musick, 2018). The WHO definition of health seeks to imply that health is the purpose of wellbeing on the continuum, it is not a static concept. Therefore, it is necessary to go beyond the neutral point of no disease to have health. Using the components of health are essential attributes that define one’s health status.

Holistic Perspective of Health

Holistic healthcare is defined as total patient care that encompasses aspects of physical, emotional, socioeconomic, and spiritual needs of an individual, their response to illness, and ability to self-care. Holistic healthcare often includes a multidisciplinary, coordinated approach and can benefit a wide range of patients such as those with disabilities or mental health illnesses significantly, improving quality of life and patient outcomes.

It is a form of treatment that seeks to achieve optimal health and wellness through a highly balanced approach to the factors listed above and allows health professionals to utilize all forms of care in order to identify causes and treatments for an illness (Ventegodt, Kandel, Ervin, & Merrick, 2016). Holistic health directly coincides with the continuum as it focuses on the 6 components of health and attempts to shift the well-being of an individual on the continuum towards optimal well-being. One can argue that holistic healthcare and the health continuum are correlated as one is necessary for progress in other. The continuum serves as a good foundation on which progress is made in the treatment process.

Personal Definition of Health

A personal definition of health would be: a state of being in which an individual meets scientific standards of physical and mental health and managing any social determinants of health. This meets the definition of health by outlining the fundamentals of what is meant by a healthy individual. The health continuum is included by the mention of the scientific standards of health, suggesting that illness can have stages and is treated based on that.

An individual’s health can be diagnosed, understood, treated, and managed on the health continuum. Finally, the holistic health principles are encompassed through mention of mental health that remains highly overlooked as well as management determinants of health. By directly identifying these as factors of health, a holistic approach is necessary to address the whole complexity that a patient may be experiencing with their own well-being.


Healthcare is a constantly evolving field, both practically and theoretically. This research demonstrated that some notions about health concepts have to be reexamined to become more broad, complex, and inclusive. Meanwhile, the health continuum must expand to consider factors beyond basic perceptions of health and include intricate societal influences on health as well. Holistic healthcare that supports a broad and overarching approach to care can be a beneficial tool in improving the competency and outcomes of the health system.


Charlier, P., Coppens, Y., Malaurie, J., Brun, L., Kepanga, M., Hoang-Opermann, V., … Hervé, C. (2017). A new definition of health? An open letter of autochthonous peoples and medical anthropologists to the WHO. European Journal of Internal Medicine, 37, 33–37. Web.

Høye, S., Kvigne, K., Aiyub, I., Gillund, M. V., Hermansyah, H., Nordström, G., … Hov, R. (2016). A healthy person: The perceptions of Indonesian and Scandinavian nursing students. Global Qualitative Nursing Research, 3, 2333393616651766. Web.

Huber, M., Knottnerus, J. A., Green, L., Horst, H. v. d., Jadad, A. R., Kromhout, D., … Smid, H. (2011). How should we define health? BMJ, 343, d4163–d4163. Web.

Karimi, M., & Brazier, J. (2016). Health, health-related quality of life, and quality of life: What is the difference? PharmacoEconomics, 34(7), 645–649. Web.

Penwell-Waines, L., Greenawald, M., & Musick, D. (2018). A professional well-being continuum: Broadening the burnout conversation. Southern Medical Journal, 111(10), 634-635.

Stucki, G., Rubinelli, S., & Bickenbach, J. (2018). We need an operationalisation, not a definition of health. Disability and Rehabilitation, 1–3. Web.

Ventegodt, S., Kandel I., Ervin D.A., Merrick J. (2016). Concepts of holistic care. In Rubin I.L., Merrick J., Greydanus D.E., Patel D.R. (Eds.), Health care for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities across the lifespan (pp. 1935-1941). Cham, Switzerland: Springer.

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