Promoting Trauma-Informed Care Practices In Police Administration Essay Example For College


Police officers often face traumatizing events that may cause emotional damage and negatively impact their performance or career path. Existing mitigation approaches by police administration can be inadequate in addressing the negative impact of these traumatizing events and related vicarious trauma. Scholarly research has shown that police officers have more significant mortality and morbidity than the general public. An established framework to mitigate the adverse consequences of emotional distress and trauma among police officers seems missing. Furthermore, there are gaps in scholarly literature addressing mental health issues police officers face. Some of the literature gaps could be inherent in the culture of police administration. This manuscript highlights the often unintentional barriers to help-seeking among police officers, often unintentional, as well as the importance of promoting mental health wellness with police. Specifically, a practice advance is recommended for formulating trauma-informed care policies and practices to ensure trauma education, stigma alleviation, peer support, preventative measures, and improved mental health for police officers. This practice advance is offered through collaboration with mental health agencies, clinical practitioners, and policing administration working together. Some police administrations have not yet developed trauma-informed practices to mitigate and address trauma among police officers. This practice advance aims to present strategies for all police administrations to implement trauma-informed care practices within its structure.

Keywords: vicarious trauma, trauma-informed care, machismo, law enforcement, stigma


Law enforcement agencies are comprised of individuals tasked with performing demanding activities. These activities encompass responding to fatal accidents, natural calamities, terrorist attacks, and multiple assaults, along with other traumatizing events. These events can create stress disorders within the police workforce (Carleton et al., 2018). Recurrent exposure or experiencing multiple traumatizing events may cumulatively result in conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder, social phobia, panic disorder, and agoraphobia (Carleton et al., 2018). Police officers can also face events that serve as triggers and reminders of past trauma. Such can cause emotional instability or extreme fear. For example, seeing and handling dead bodies after a terrorist attack or mass killing can trigger trauma.

The nature of the law enforcement occupation increases police officers’ vulnerability to high-stress levels, which can negatively impact psychological health (Carleton et al., 2018). Law enforcement officers can experience significant stress, substance misuse, and interpersonal violence, ultimately resulting in suicide (Richards, Suarez & Arocha, 2021). Individuals within the police force with undiagnosed post-traumatic stress may experience negative outcomes such as increased distress, poor decisions, and ineffective performance. Some officers may abuse substances to mask or reduce extreme stress or anxiety. Such engagement further impacts their capacity to fulfill their job duties. Consequently, police officers have higher morbidity and mortality rates than the general public due to mental health challenges (Jetelina et al., 2020).

Given these circumstances, proper screening protocols and timely interventions are needed to reduce any associated negative consequences. In addition, offering a relevant recovery procedure is paramount to ensure overall well-being among police officers during and after their service. Effective coping strategies are integral in mitigating such mental health conditions among police officers.

Despite the increased prevalence of mental health conditions among law enforcement, few interventions have been undertaken to help these officers. According to (Walden University 2023), there is a threefold increase in the number of suicides by police officers in the tiniest departments. Also, (Kimathi, 2021) states that police officers face increased cases of trauma as they strive to accomplish their various duties. (Rufo, 2017) explains that culture is why law enforcement officers are facing a rise in problems relating to mental health. Police officers need a suitable environment whereby they can seek assistance from the appropriate sources and establish various coping skills, thus enabling them to reduce the numerous negative emotions related to these challenges, grow past the actual trauma, and have good psychological health. This manuscript evaluates the various mental health issues present in police organizations. Also, it proposes a practice advance that recommends ways in which police administration can minimize or eradicate the mental issues related to such a profession. Such a practice advance will focus on the various ways through which the officers’ mental health can get improvement when these officers and the clinical officers collaborate to eradicate these issues. Therefore through practice, the advance will integrate various functional strategies for combatting these traumas into the structure of the police administration. Thus solutions are provided by the practice to advance the mental issues faced by police officers. This paper will also provide solutions for the tainted relationship between the police officers and the clinical officers since the police officers rarely open up to these medical practitioners so as to receive the proper assistance for the psychological challenges which they experience as they indulge in police work.

Literature Review

The literature review discusses a number of areas that are important in regards to having a paper comprehension of the main issue regarding the mental issues faced by police officers. These include; the types of training and education within the police academy, the police culture and how it contributes to the stigma of mental health, and the culture of machismo and how it prevents officers from seeking mental health services. The two other areas that the literature review will touch on are; risks associated with being in law enforcement, such as emotional distress, suicide, and the impact on families and the dangers of stigma within the police administration and the need for self-care and wellness promotion. Thus the literature will address all of these areas in the order listed above.

Police Pre-Service Training And Deployment

There are many steps one has to take to become a police officer. There is a written test, physical ability test, background checks, medical exam, psychological screening, polygraph test, and an in-person interview with a board (Blumberg et al., 2019). After completing all these activities, the next step is the police academy. Police academy pre-service training is mainly based on the execution of different procedures that fall under the facet of duties performed by police officers. Cadets must complete training focused on operations, firearms, self-defense, legal issues, mental illness, and self-improvement (Blumberg et al., 2019). Through classroom training, cadets learn about the legal policies, procedures, radio codes, and more of the administrative aspects of the job. The other half of the training is in the field, where cadets learn how to defend themselves, use firearms, and understand drills (Blumberg et al., 2019). The police academy should prepare the cadets for the emotional turmoil of the job. Cadets need education on vicarious trauma, trauma symptoms, coping skills, and resilience training. (Otto & Gatens, 2022) States that the solutions to the psychological problems faced by police officers are addressed by various police departments through practices like peer support, counseling and debriefing on critical incidences. These authors also indicate that the training of police officers by these departments focuses on aiding these officers to identify stress signs and symptoms and also have stress resilience which thus helps them.

When deployed, police officers are frequently subjected to traumatic experiences, both directly and indirectly. For instance, officers might experience direct trauma when they are physically hurt while on the job or witness a traumatic occurrence, such as a violent crime (Cortez et al., 2016). When law enforcement officers witness the aftermath of a traumatic occurrence, they risk experiencing vicarious trauma. This trauma may be linked to developing various conditions, such as severe depression, anxiety, or post-trauma stress. If the newly hired officers or “rookies” were trained in identifying traumatic stress or symptoms and could implement coping skills, they would be able to decrease the negative impact these symptoms could have on their emotional well-being and performance (Cortez et al., 2016). For instance, an officer that experiences intrusive thoughts or images can freeze on the job, which puts them and their partner in danger. These invisible wounds are highly likely to have adverse outcomes for police officers.

Culture Of Machismo And Silence

Police culture is considered one of the aspects contributing to increased mental health challenges among officers (Burns & Buchanan, 2020). Also, (Burns and Buchanan 2020) noted that the law enforcement subculture is overtly masculine, communally isolated, politically conservative, and characterized by extreme loyalty among officers. The masculine culture of the police force translates to strength, violence, dominance, force, and aggression and such does not properly suit the female police officers who therefore have to upscale themselves in every possible way to match the abilities of their male counterparts in terms of performance. Thus these female police officers get stress from such struggles as they deal with dangerous people in the world. Also, since the police officers have a communally isolated subculture, they depend on fellow police officers for socialization instead of socializing with other members of the community. Such is because these officers have difficulties blending in and socializing with other members of the society because of their career identities and such takes place even when they are not at work. Thus, other members of the society stigmatize people who socialize with or are close to police officers and the police officers on the other hand do not trust members of the society who attempt to become closer to them. Therefore, these police officers often find it challenging to deal with stressful situations and may not likely open up to other members of the society about their stresses, which thus increases these stress levels since they may not find solutions mostly, these officers depend on their fellow officers for support relating to these stress and such may not be adequate, thus increasing the likelihood of these stresses becoming too much for these officers.

The politically conservative police culture results in the perspective by people that police are supposed to fight crime and there is no deeper explanation of the extent of such a role. Thus this is the only way people perceive the police officers and not like fellow human beings who also have feelings. Therefore people are more likely to not focus on the police officers’ feelings which thus increases the possibility of these police officers being stressed by other members of the society. Cohen et al. (2019) depicted that the police academy training process promotes behaviors that enable officers to emulate an idealistic persona of control, courage, and strength. The process is masculinized, creating a machismo culture (Cohen et al., 2019). Officers are encouraged to increase their commitment and loyalty to the organization and assimilate into the policing culture. Female officers must prove to their male counterparts that they are just as tough and have the same loyalty to the job (Cohen et al., 2019). Therefore the whole training practice becomes a source of psychological and mental health issues since these females have to strain to be like their male counterparts owing to the different biological structures between the males and the females in the police academy. The females in order to survive in the police academy have to possess certain male features like personalities, mindsets and traits so that they survive in the academy. The problem with masculinity s that men often have a notion of keeping things to themselves and such includes challenges which may ultimately result in mental issues. Thus by these female police officers possessing these features, they increase their likelihood of getting mental issues which also applies to men who are masculine oriented.

Policing culture hinders change in the administration by establishing chauvinist cultural values and beliefs that increase fear and stigma among officers (Burns & Buchanan, 2020). Such is because the police officers prefer withholding information regarding the issues that they face and which might result in mental illness in the absence of intervention. The chauvinist values thus make these officers to deter from sharing with other police officers or professionals about their various issues thus making it hard for the police academy to create strategies for minimizing mental health issues among its officers. The policing culture creates an environment where it is difficult for an officer to be vulnerable or seek mental health services and such is because of a number of reasons like negative thoughts and attitudes regarding these officers looking for help to solve their psychological issues (Porter, & Lee, 2023). Therefore these police officers prefer isolating themselves rather than expressing their issues to find solutions from others. Thus, officers continue to suffer in silence, where their invisible wounds grow because they do not get help and such easily might result in serious issues in the long run like maladaptive coping skills, and using substances to cope with their internal turmoil. They therefore prefer using these substances so as to suppress the mental pain which they are undergoing since these problems do not have solutions or have not received intervention through help from others.

Risks Associated With Law Enforcement

(Rudofossi, 2009) conducted a study on mental disorders in New York City Police Department, and the study reported that police might experience about nine hundred disturbing events while in service. Long-term exposure to traumatic events and extreme stress threatens the officers’ physical and mental well-being. For example, in (Andersen et al. 2016), cited in (Papazoglou & Tuttle 2018), the events experienced by officers lead to increased cardiovascular and hormonal activity. According to (Eddy et al. 2019), officers experience post-traumatic stress and burnout linked to aggression and anger. These events adversely impact behavioral and health outcomes. For instance, they lead to increased absenteeism, sleeping while at work, depression, and suicide among the officers.

If law enforcement officers do not seek professional help after experiencing trauma at work, their families and relationships may suffer. The officers can become reclusive and unable to communicate with their loved ones effectively. Additionally, they may feel unable to confide in their loved ones about the events they have witnessed or experienced, resulting in isolation and loneliness (Craddock & Telesco, 2022). In addition, the officers may feel that their families do not understand what they are going through (Craddock & Telesco, 2022). Such can result in frustration, a sense of being misunderstood, increased tension and conflict within the family, divorce, and may even lead to the officers leaving the force (Craddock & Telesco, 2022). Minimal interventions have been implemented to help officers with their mental health struggles (Queiros et al., 2020). Hence, this manuscript seeks to identify new ways mental health practitioners can use to improve the mental services of officers experiencing trauma and stress.

Dangers Of Stigma

Law enforcement is no exception to society’s preconceptions about mental illness. Many police officers suffer in silence since it is difficult for them to reveal their internal struggles in the workplace (Edwards & Kotera, 2021). Officers are discouraged from getting therapy because of the stigma attached to receiving it in a society that values male authority and emotional self-control (Boulton et al., 2017). Regarding work-related stress, police officers’ emotional reactions are frequently seen as an indication of weakness. They are not equivalent to the manly view of policing in the profession (Edwards & Kotera, 2021). When officers are exposed to a higher level of stigma, they develop a pessimistic perspective on their access to mental health treatment (Edwards & Kotera, 2021). Mentally ill police personnel are often stigmatized within the ranks of the law enforcement community (Violanti & Steege, 2021). Consequently, instead of seeking professional help, officers engage in maladaptive behaviors to cope with their trauma or traumatic stress, such as substance abuse, gambling, or sex addiction. Stigma can hinder police officers from getting the assistance they need for their mental health issues.

There are several reasons why the stigma surrounding police officers can be highly detrimental. First, there is a common worry among police officers that if they seek help for mental health difficulties, it will put their employment in jeopardy. For instance, if it is disclosed that an officer is seeking therapy for mental health difficulties, it might be used against them in court, or they could be perceived as weak and unable to manage the stress that comes with the job (Heffren & Hausdorf, 2016). Policing discourages emotion expressiveness and frequently upholds the stigma attached to asking for assistance for psychiatric suffering (Edwards, & Kotera, 2021). Officers are also concerned that their sessions with mental health clinicians will not remain confidential, which could result in them losing their guns if their superiors discovered they were in therapy. Officers are fearful that their peers would lose trust in them if they found out about their mental health treatment (Heffren & Hausdorf, 2016). Unfortunately, some police departments require officers to inform their supervisors if they seek treatment or are on medications (Heffren & Hausdorf, 2016). Such can limit the officers’ job functions and hinder future job promotions.

Law enforcement personnel frequently lack the confidence to ask for assistance because they feel they should be able to solve their issues independently. As a result, police officers can have problems with their mental health because they believe they have no choice but to suppress their feelings, suffer in silence, and figure out how to cope on their own (Heffren & Hausdorf, 2016). Additionally, this might result in police officers experiencing feelings of isolation and loneliness. Therefore, police departments need to provide services to officers battling mental health issues and encourage them to seek treatment when necessary (Heffren & Hausdorf, 2016).

Trauma-Informed Care And Self Care

Trauma-informed care according to SAMHSA refers to the approach which aims to prevent employees and customers from experiencing new trauma (Abuse, 2014). It is strengths-based and builds trusting relationships between providers, clients, organizations, and employees. It is an understanding that trauma can profoundly impact an individual’s physical, mental, and emotional well-being (McDonnell et al., 2022). Trauma-informed care policies can help build the emotional muscle that officers require to do their jobs and take individual care both during and after their service.

SAMHSA also talks about realization, recognition, response and resistance of re-traumatization as the four R’s. Realization is concerned with people being aware of trauma and the various impacts and people that trauma might affect. Recognition focuses on people being able to identify the trauma signs which mean that they can observe their surroundings and know the various symptoms which indicate trauma (Abuse, 2014). Response refers to people reacting to the trauma by blending together the information regarding trauma and making practices and policies of dealing with trauma. Re-traumatization focuses on people avoiding involving themselves in any activities that may result in trauma.

Furthermore, the component of trust entails companies ensuring that they conduct their activities openly so that their clients may trust them and also so that the various participants and stakeholders involved may trust each other. Thus in the police force, such translates to the police officers building trust among themselves and among the people they serve by doing things openly. Safety focuses on ensuring that the citizens and the police officers feel safe since these officers strive to ensure that both the interpersonal and physical environments are welcoming (Abuse, 2014). Collaboration focuses on bringing all the people together by leveling their authorities so that they can all participate in the trauma intervention. Empowerment entails organizations like the police force organizing services, police officers development and organizing operations so as to foster beliefs in the citizens, clients and the police officers (Abuse, 2014). Peer support entails organizations utilizing people who had previously experienced trauma to aid in trauma healing and recovery and also giving survivors hope. Cultural relevance involves organizations dealing with trauma by removing the various biases and stereotypes that relate to the cultures like religion, age, ethnicity, among others. Such involves creating procedures and policies which incorporate these racial differences and which eventually aid in dealing with trauma.

Law enforcement needs self-care and wellness promotion within its structure for several reasons. Self-care refers to the capacity of people to look after themselves in a conscious, self-reliant way so as to acquire, preserve, or improve the highest level of health and wellness (Martínez, et al 2021). Therefore the promotion of self-care means that the government or the police academy empowers its employees or the general public about looking after themselves before they face trauma and also after so that they can be able to get rid of the possible mental issues which might arise. Through such, these people are able to minimize instances of burnout and stress related to the traumas. Wellness promotion regards empowering people to take good care of their bodies in regards to the trauma. Thus the police academies need to incorporate wellness and self-care activities like healthy diets, exercise, meditation, counselling, and trauma awareness creation (Menschner, & Maul, 2016). Other practices which might assist include regular supervision and observation of the police officers to ascertain whether they are facing issues which might amount to mental illness and the creation of an embracing culture which allows these officers to easily open up about their issues. As stated, officers are constantly exposed to traumatic events, leading to long-term mental health problems (Reed, 2016). They are at a higher risk of suicide than the general population (Kravtsova & Datsiuk, 2022). Self-care and wellness promotion can help law enforcement officers cope with the stress of the job and prevent long-term mental health problems. Officers who participate in self-care and wellness activities such as yoga, meditation, and mindfulness training can reduce their levels of stress and improve their mental health (Kravtsova & Datsiuk, 2022). In addition, self-care and wellness activities can also help law enforcement officers build resilience and cope with the vicarious trauma they may experience (Tanigoshi et al., 2008).

Literature Gaps

Trauma-informed care practices have been increasingly recognized as an effective strategy for responding to traumatic experiences and providing appropriate support for those exposed to trauma. However there are a number of studies on trauma relating to the police, there are areas which have not received adequate focus and one of these is that there is little research on whether the practices of trauma informed approach have been efficient in law enforcement. Such involves examining the various trauma informed approaches which the police officers are currently using and assessing the changes that take place after these approaches are in play. Thus the difference between the activities before and after the implementation of these approaches can aid in determining their effectiveness. Most studies have centered on the application of the practices of trauma informed approach in places like healthcare institutions, schools and mental facilities. Another gap is that only a few studies centered on how the law enforcement officers are affected by the practices of trauma informed approaches. Thus, conducting such a study can aid in boosting the welfare of the police officers since it can indicate the responses of these officers to these approaches, and if the responses are negative, then ways of bettering them can be implemented by the police academy. Another gap is that there is little research about whether the practices of trauma informed approaches present in law enforcement are cost effective. In such instances, the implementation of the practices of trauma informed approaches may need a number of resources and having a proper analysis can thus determine if the government is using the optimum amounts of resources or is overspending on these approaches. Such involves assessing the monthly or the annual budgets put in place by the police academy in assisting the police officers deal with trauma and avoid mental issues. another assessment would be the response of the police officers to these trauma informed approaches and if the academy uses a heavy budget but there is little responses from these officers, then these approaches may not be cost effective.

These literature gaps are concerning because police officers are frequently exposed to traumatic events, such as violent crime scenes and domestic disputes and it is essential to assess every possible areas relating to how to better provide trauma assistance to these officers o that they can effectively handle their duties and handle citizens with care. They risk developing secondary traumatic stress, negatively impacting their mental and physical health and job performance. Trauma-informed care incorporates principles such as safety, trustworthiness, choice, collaboration, and empowerment into the delivery of services (Cortez et al., 2016).

Police officers are exposed to traumatic events daily, which can harm their mental and physical health. Studies have shown that police officers have a higher prevalence of mental health disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), than the general population (Cortez et al., 2016). In addition, research has found that police officers are at an increased risk of suicide due to the high-stress levels associated with their job. The prevalence of mental health issues in police officers has been linked to the need for trauma-informed care practices in police departments.

The Rationale For Addressing Literature Gap

The rationale for filling these scholarly literature gaps is to contribute to the existing literature and aid law enforcement administration in integrating this knowledge into practice. Work-related stress, police culture, and mental stigma hinder officers from rendering mental health services. Supervisory officers are not trained to identify warning signs or symptoms that officers may be presenting. Therefore, the police academy needs to set aside a training budget and ensure that these supervisors get trauma training from certified and accredited professionals who will engage them in all the aspects of trauma including the identification of all symptoms of trauma. Therefore, such will improve their supervisory capacities as they will be able to provide early intervention to their officers and fellow supervisors in cases of trauma. Such will thus minimize severe cases of mental illnesses and any other consequences that result from these traumas. Thus the police officers will work effectively and productively, and the entire nation will benefit from these trainings.

Also, the existing framework for addressing risk or trauma experienced by law enforcement officers is inadequate and needs strengthening. Therefore more research needs to expand on the numerous causes of trauma in the police force, and such can help in assessing trauma in these officers and also coming up with solutions to solve these traumas. With the increased knowledge on the possible causes of the trauma, police officers can have a wide range of possible risks related to trauma which can therefore help in minimizing mental illnesses from the traumas since such knowledge will also provide countermeasures for all the causes and risks.

Formulating a new approach to mitigating stress, trauma, or depressive states among the officers is paramount. Therefore, the police administration needs to engage other stakeholders like scholars and mental health professionals to help design an effective approach that they can use to prevent mental health challenges. Such is important since whereas the vast majority of police enter the profession aware that they may see awful sights, most are unprepared for the effects (Mazur & Collins, 2023).

Addressing the literature gap is a necessity not only for the police organization and its officers but also for the communities they serve. An emotionally distressed officer is unlikely to perform their duties as usual, which could affect civilians, families, and communities. As stated previously, officers must be aware of their surroundings and environment. If an officer is experiencing intrusive thoughts, stress, or flashbacks, it could place other officers and civilians in danger. Therefore filling these gaps can aid in providing a vast amount of solutions to these police officers when they undergo any form of trauma and therefore they can easily serve other people better and have better relations with other officers since these traumas and mental illnesses emerging from them will become lower.

Advancing Trauma-Informed Practices to Enhance the Well-being of Police Personnel

This practice advance addresses sundry ways that clinical practitioners and the policing administration can improve mental health services for officers. It offers strategies for embedding trauma-informed care practices within the police administration structure. These strategies encompass an alliance between law enforcement and mental health agencies. This alliance will mitigate the culture of machismo and silence, address direct and vicarious trauma, reduce emotional and suicidal risks, and facilitate self-care practices at the organizational, supervisory, and individual employee levels.

Policy Academy Pre-Service Training

The police academy does not prepare the cadets for the emotional turmoil of the job. When deployed, police officers are frequently subjected to traumatic experiences directly and indirectly (Cortez et al., 2016). For instance, officers might experience direct trauma when they witness a traumatic occurrence or are physically hurt in the line of duty (Cortez et al., 2016). When an officer learns about a catastrophic incident that has occurred to another person or witnesses the aftermath of a traumatic occurrence, such as a mass shooting, they risk experiencing vicarious trauma. Teaching police officers about trauma, vicarious trauma, and its impacts throughout their training might help them understand the repercussions of failing to seek care for trauma, which can include emotional and suicidal dangers. It can help to prepare police officers for the work environment and work-related risks.

According to Drew and Martin (2021), there is a need for police organizations to take genuine steps that address conventional artifacts of policing in order to assist in addressing stigma among officers who are through training at a police academy. Despite the increased prevalence of trauma exposure among police officers, most police officers fail to seek mental health treatment due to policing subculture. The assimilation of this subculture begins at the police academy (Trombka et al., 2021). Papazoglou and Andersen (2014) suggested a need to discourage emotional distress and suppression by promoting resilience in the police academy. This intervention is vital in enabling the officers to survive burnout and cope with symptoms of trauma or traumatic stress in real-time. The efficiency of this intervention is evident in Western and Colleagues’ (2010) study findings on male police officers cited in Papazoglou and Andersen (2014). This study indicates that most officers avoided seeking help from a mental health clinician because of the stigma linked to the counselor for support. The results further suggested standardizing police training programs to promote resilience and reduce mental health challenges. By promoting a culture of openness and support from the beginning, police organizations can help officers cope with the job’s stressors and seek help without fearing being judged by their superiors and peers.

Addressing mental health disorders among law enforcement requires understanding the stress management intervention concept and resilience enhancement. This understanding helps minimize the potential negative impact that increases stress. Various mental strength training programs have been developed, such as mental imaging and resilience training. These programs teach skills that officers may use in preparation for any traumatic incident and when they experience traumatic events. The efficiency of this program is evident in Patterson et al. (2012) research findings, which assess the program’s efficacy among all participants and its benefit to officers exposed to post-traumatic events. The results from the study indicate that mental strength training was the most suitable program to enhance mental resilience. Therefore, this practice advance recommends adopting such programs in the U. S. policing agencies, starting with the police academy.

Mitigating The Culture Of Masculinity And Silence

In promoting trauma-informed care practices, there is a need to mitigate the culture of masculinity and silence within police administration (Kim & Cho, 2020). The machismo culture within police organizations can lead to an environment where officers are discouraged from seeking help for mental health issues, including post-traumatic stress disorder. Such can result in officers feeling isolated and unable to cope with the stressors of the job, which can lead to further mental health issues among the officers. In addition, the culture of silence within police organizations can prevent officers from seeking help for mental health issues, as they may fear retaliation or be seen as weak (O’Connor, 2019). Such can also lead to further mental health issues. By promoting a culture of openness and support beginning in the police academy, police organizations can help officers cope with the job’s stressors and seek help when needed. Planting this seed in the police academy can shift the idea that seeking mental health services is a sign of strength, not weakness.

Trauma-Informed Care Policies

There is a growing body of evidence that suggests that trauma-informed care policies can have a positive impact on police officers (Kim & Cho, 2020). Trauma-informed care policies consider that many police officers have experienced trauma in their own lives and are more likely to be exposed to trauma on the job. These policies seek to address the needs of police officers and their communities by providing support and resources to help prevent and address the effects of trauma. Some of the benefits of trauma-informed care policies for police officers include the following:

  1. Increased job satisfaction and retention rates: Officers who feel supported and validated are more likely to be satisfied with their jobs and less likely to leave the force (Kim & Cho, 2020).
  2. Improved mental health: Police officers with access to resources and support to deal with trauma are likelier to experience improved mental health (Kim & Cho, 2020).
  3. Reduced use of force: Police officers trained in trauma-informed care are more likely to de-escalate situations and use less force when necessary (Kim & Cho, 2020).
  4. Improved community relations: Police officers who are trauma-informed are more likely to build trust and rapport with the communities they serve (Kim & Cho, 2020).

Mandatory Debriefings and Wellness Checks

Officers must only have one wellness check a year, which lasts about 30 minutes (Kim & Cho, 2020). The primary purpose of debriefing is to provide psychological first aid to individuals who have experienced trauma or critical incidents. This psychological first aid helps reduce psychological harm by allowing those individuals to witness their traumatic experiences. Therefore, mandatory debriefings with mental health practitioners should be encouraged for law enforcement officers.

The benefits of mandatory debriefing for law enforcement officers can be seen in reduced psychological harm, improved communication and teamwork, improved mental health, and improved job performance. Officers can process their thoughts and feelings in a safe and supportive environment by providing regular and structured debriefings. Such helps them to cope with the psychological effects of trauma and can help to prevent the trauma from being stored in the body. Furthermore, debriefing sessions can allow officers to communicate with each other, which can improve team cohesion and morale.

Law enforcement officers can benefit from improved mental health by providing regular and structured debriefing sessions. Such is because they can process their thoughts and feelings in a safe and supportive environment. They can also receive guidance and advice from a mental health practitioner, which can help them to develop resilience and coping strategies. Finally, regular debriefings can help improve job performance by allowing officers to address any issues affecting their job performance.

Peer Support Opportunities

Police ingest misery daily but do not frequently share that sorrow with others. Often, police will commit themselves to the concept that they must always be emotionally sound. They believe that discussing grief is a show of weakness. Everyone encounters mental health issues – even persons who do not frequently confront potentially unpleasant circumstances daily.

Police peer assistance programs attempt to help promote focused intervention with at-risk officers. Providing the necessary tools and supporting therapy for officers has been proven successful and efficient in assisting police personnel in need (Horan et al., 2021). There is no rivalry between the various types of wellness regarding peer support (Horan et al., 2021). It can play a role in the therapeutic process alongside other modalities such as professional counseling, group therapy, or medicinal treatment. In times of crisis, providing mental and physical support to officers by their fellow officers is the ultimate objective of peer support programs (Papazoglou & Tuttle, 2018). Officers can be given the tools necessary to address their concerns and pointed in the direction of services that may provide them with the assistance they need.

The reason why police peer support is effective is that it establishes a link between the officer experiencing a crisis and their colleagues (Horan et al., 2021). The healing that occurs is a direct result of this connection. The law enforcement officials gain each other’s confidence inside the program and can talk freely about the anguish that they are going through (Papazoglou & Tuttle, 2018).

Annual Training on Trauma, Mental Health, and Warning Signs

Annual training regarding trauma in police personnel helps regulate the emotional response to terrible scenarios like accidents, rape, or natural disasters. The trauma training sessions are developed for the officers to understand the symptoms, impacts, and trauma treatment in law enforcement agencies (SAMHSA, 2022). The training not only provides insights into the symptoms, impacts, and treatment but also provides the police officers with an understanding of the stress caused by trauma and how it influences both the mind and body. The training can aid police officers in acknowledging how they can control their emotions when dealing with horrific scenarios, among many other tasks they handle.

Mental health is a fundamental aspect of police officers. Law enforcement officers should have the emotional armor to maintain their mental well-being. Such includes emotional, physiological, and social wellness and will impact how the police officers think, feel, and act. The mental health of police officers is essential in helping them determine how they will handle scenarios to deal with the law (SAMHSA, 2022). If police officers have poor mental health, the chances of effectively handling crimes are minimal. As a result, mental health agencies should ensure training on the same. It will help strengthen how police agencies relate to others and make healthy choices.

Recognizing warning signs are essential to police officers. Mental health agencies can provide police administrations with education on warning signs that an officer may experience. Combating mental health illnesses will be easier for police personnel thanks to these signals. The mental health program should be approached in conjunction with these warning flags. Police officers with insight into warning signs can detect mental health symptoms early enough to prevent further de-compensation. This annual training may help police officers avoid and manage signs of mental illness, trauma, and other negative performance issues. Police officers need to know that mental health symptoms do not need to be significant to ask for support.

Social workers and medical specialists are doing empirical research to enhance and expand on existing therapy techniques that help reduce the intensity of everyday trauma symptoms. Annual training will armor officers with strong coping skills to help manage or prevent traumatic symptoms. These annual training can become prevailing practices that police administration supports and promotes.

Trauma-Informed Care Trainings At The Leadership And Supervisory Level

The supervisors and the leadership of the police administration have the power to decrease the stigma related to police personnel asking for help, which is why the leadership within the police and criminal justice is crucial (DFPS, 2022). They establish the standard for what is expected of a police officer. Leaders and supervisors must receive training in trauma-informed care to recognize early warning signals of their fellow officers’ mental health de-compensations and act swiftly enough to avert tragedies that could otherwise happen without the assistance of mental health clinicians.

When the leadership and the supervisory are provided with the training, they can better understand how trauma impacts police officers (DFPS, 2022). As a result, they can support their fellow officers and assist them with seeking treatment early. Leadership can understand how trauma can be prevented and address secondary traumatic stress among officers. As a result, police supervisors can help normalize their fellow officers’ struggles with dealing with trauma and mental illness symptoms.

Help-Seeking And Health Promotion In Workplace

Help-seeking and health promotion are essential aspects of the police organization. Since it increases post-traumatic growth, removes the barriers of stigma, and retrieves mental health, the initiative is also associated with other advantages for police officers. Help-seeking will aid police officers in challenging the distortion that they are the only ones suffering from mental illness or trauma symptoms (Newell et al., 2022). It will aid police officers in improving their quality of life. Promoting health in police settings will increase morale and decrease burnout (Newell et al., 2022).

Additionally, health promotion in the police workplace increases the performance of police officers since they are satisfied with the working atmosphere (Newell et al., 2022). Promoting health in the police working settings is essential since it will increase the personal well-being of the police force, giving them the emotional energy to deal with traumatic issues. Therefore, police organizations need to be provided with help-seeking and health promotion to increase post-traumatic growth, empowerment, and endurance.


It is evident that law enforcement officers execute demanding tasks and risk their lives. These tasks are highly associated with destabilizing their emotional well-being. They may experience physical or non-physical harm, culminating in increased stress, burnout, depression, anger, and aggression. The cumulative outcomes of stress and depression include suicide. In connection, the police administration lacks an elaborate framework to mitigate the negative outcomes of emotional instability amidst increased stress and trauma.

The reviewed literature indicates gaps in addressing the mental health issues police officers face. The police academy heavily focuses on operating equipment such as firearms, self-defense, and legal policies or procedures. Despite this, maintaining one’s mental health or developing coping mechanisms after experiencing a traumatic incident is not adequately covered throughout the course. Cultural machismo or silence has barred officers from seeking mental health services promptly. The subculture of masculinity, chauvinistic values or beliefs, and isolation have prevented the effective usage of existing services from enhancing mental wellness among the officers. The stigma of seeking mental health services prevents officers from seeking treatment due to the fear of personal shame and what their fellow officers would think and concomitantly jeopardizes job security. Importantly, the result of the police culture and stigma includes officers developing maladaptive strategies, which may encompass substance abuse and gambling. The officers’ maladaptive coping skills and isolative behaviors could affect their family’s well-being, resulting in familial conflicts like divorce.

There is a need for trauma-informed self-care. This framework can positively impact the mental well-being of officers reducing their stress and building needed resilience. The manuscript increases awareness and elevates the insight of most officers concerning seeking professional guidance on mental well-being. Police officers are essential in any community setting as they help protect lives and properties. They require emotional and mentally stable life to ensure efficiency in their services. However, work-related stress and mental illness make it difficult to render these services. The policing administration needs to engage other stakeholders like health professionals and scholars to help design a workable approach that they can use to prevent mental health challenges.

The identified gaps limiting trauma-informed care render the relationship between clinicians and police administration indispensable. Police administration must address officers’ mental issues from a collaborative focal point. The culture of machismo that hinders officers from seeking mental health services should be abolished, and ways to mitigate it should be reinforced. The formulation of trauma-focused policies plus measurement of their effectiveness should be established. Recommendations include formulating trauma-informed care policies to ensure job satisfaction, improved mental health, and better community relations. Mandatory debriefings and wellness checks may help reduce psychological harm. Peer support may promote focused interventions and establish needed cohesion between officers. Annual training on trauma, mental health, and warning signs may help officers prevent and manage trauma symptoms. Finally, those in supervisory positions should be trained on trauma impact and ensure that they support their fellow officers, such as supporting them to seek early mental health treatment in the case of emotional instability.

The manuscript contributes to being mindful of the police welfare and care provision when mentally struggling. The roles of police officers are challenging, making them prone to emotional instability. Officers’ mental health is one of the critical things that police administration should consider. Enhancing their longevity with stress-free lives and experiences is essential.

The significance of the manuscript is informing trauma-informed policies and offering a suitable platform to evaluate and foster the need for the mental well-being of police officers. The investment in the practice development is well worth it since it provides a lens through which the detrimental effects of traumatic experiences may be examined. It provides a basis for evaluating the overall well-being of police officers. The findings in the manuscript can help advocate for proper mitigation policies in the future. Police officers fulfill an incredible community role, and it is time to consider their welfare.


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Building And Construction Materials Sample Paper


In building and construction, roofing is one of the essential processes, which is done with keenness to ensure that the building is roofed according to the design by the architect and structural engineer. Various roofing systems could use different roofing materials depending on the owner’s preference, method or circumstances, each with advantages. Various roofing materials include clay tiles, solar panels, asphalt shingles, metal, and green roofs, where each has its properties depending on the material used. Choosing a suitable roofing material depends on various factors such as budget, climate, and aesthetic preferences. Hence, consulting with a roofing professional is important to determine the best material for your specific needs.

Properties of various roofing materials in building and construction

Clay Roofing Tiles.

The oldest roofing materials still used today by ancient buildings and construction are clay roof tiles. These tiles, made of natural clay, have a distinctive aesthetic appeal and are strong and long-lasting. Clay roof tiles have been used for centuries, but they are still useful today because of their many advantages. They offer superior insulation, which lowers energy costs, and are fire resistant, making them a secure option for residences and commercial buildings. Additionally, clay roof tiles are environmentally friendly because they can be produced sustainably and are recyclable. Clay tiles have the following properties.

  1. They are fire resistant as they are inflammable, cannot catch fire, are poor conductors of heat and will slow the spread of fire. This property makes it work best in places vulnerable to fire outbreaks. Being bad conductors, it prevents houses in hot regions from heating up.
  2. Clay roof tiles are rugged, solid and durable and can withstand extreme weather conditions such as hails, heavy rain, strong winds and other natural phenomena. Their hardness also makes them very hard to wear out quickly.
  3. The environmental friendliness of clay roof tiles makes them suitably recommendable in the current environmental policies, which advocate for the use of non-polluting material. Also, they are soundproof, and the materials are recyclable, whereby at the end of their lives, they can be used for other construction purposes.
  4. Clay roofs are long-lasting for decades when proper maintenance is done on them, especially on firm, adequate decking. In the end, clay times becomes one of the most cost-effective materials to use on roofing. Also, they are resistant to a chemical reactions such as a salt attack.
  5. The weight of the clay times makes it appropriate in areas prone to strong winds, which would overturn the roofing when light. It also assures the roof’s stability because it is not shaken easily, only if it is the overall building effect.
  6. Clay times are Water absorbing and permeable, which makes it able to overcome the effect of freeze-thaw cycles in cold weather or in cold climates. This property adds to the durability significance. It would not break easily in case of coldness.

Solar Roofing Panel

Solar Photovoltaic cells create the photovoltaic roof tiles, and cables connect each tile to the power distribution board. Solar cells are made by integrating solar technology into your home without detracting from the natural design of your home. Solar tiles completely replace your roof tiles. With this clever solution, you can use solar energy to generate your own electricity. Solar roofing tiles have various properties, which include

  1. Aesthetic appearance because they are well design with pleasing technology and modernity.
  2. Environment friendliness whereby it produces clean energy at the same time, sheltering. They are soundproof hence minimizing noise pollution. They are also an economical option for rehabilitation or projects involving scratch building.
  3. They are designed with improved durability properties to serve for a longer time.

Asphalt Shingles Roofing

Asphalt shingles are materials used to make roofing characterized majorly by waterproofing. The material is also known as fibreglass shingle, linoleum shingle, and fibreglass, whose roofing is one of the modern roofing tiles and is especially suitable for roofs with 5-90 degrees and slopes roofs of any shape though not ideal for flat roofing systems. The primary material is asphalt, generally called asphalt shingles popularly used in China. Typically, asphalt shingles can be made to conform to diverse shapes and wide application ranges. They are poor heat conductors; hence, they insulate heat from heating the room in hot regions and preserve it in the house in cold areas. The significant properties of an asphalt shingle are as follows.

  1. The Asphalt shingles material makes the tiles durable as they are resistant to making different types of damage.
  2. They are poor sunlight absorbers, reflecting ultraviolet rays from the sun, thus keeping the house cool in hot areas.
  3. Asphalt shingles are light materials which will not require extensive designing of the wall to support their weight since they cannot strain the building.
  4. They are soundproof hence they don’t allow noise into the house
  5. Damage resistance to severe weather conditions such as storms, fire outbreak, and growth of mould, algae and mildew. This property makes the material possible to recycle.

Metal Roofing

This is the most used roofing material, commonly categorized into three materials; standing seam, ironwood and metal shakes. Metal roofing could be of materials such as aluminium, steel, copper, zinc and time depending on the purpose of the roofing. They have the following properties;

  1. They are fire resistant since metal does not readily catch fire
  2. Metal roofs can withstand storms because of their toughness, and a metal roof is a good option for homes in areas known to experience hailstorms.
  3. The quality of the metal making the roofing is strong and durable and thus has a long lifespan, probably for decades because they resist strong winds, debris, rain, and hail hold among others. This makes it possible to recycle the materials.
  4. The material is moldable to the shape the user would like th roofing to look like

Green Roofing

Green roofs, also called “vegetated roofs” or “living roofs,” are ballasted roofs covered in vegetation, a growing medium, and a waterproofing membrane. Green roofs that are appropriately planned, built and maintained offer numerous advantages for the environment, society, economy, and aesthetics. The following characteristics of green roofing exist;

  1. Green roofing boosts thermal performance because it acts as an insulator to substantial heat from the sun during summer and preserves heat in the room during winter.
  2. It helps in the absorption of carbon dioxide around the house as it is released during house activities such as gas cooking, hence cleaning the air around.
  3. It helps improve air quality by reducing pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, nitrous acid and dust particles.
  4. It has an increased life span because it is naturally resistant to negative phenomena such as strong winds, rails, ultraviolet light and fluctuating temperatures.
  5. Green roofing also improves the drainage system; hence they act as a solution to flooding since Water does not run into sewer lines but gets stored in plants and substrates.

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Quality Management & Risk Management Free Writing Sample

Part One

Process 1: Vulnerability Scanning

Vulnerability scanning can be used to find security holes in a network, system, or application. This procedure aims to report and find vulnerabilities to be fixed before being used maliciously (Willumsen, 2019). The main indicator of the process include; the number of vulnerabilities discovered and the severity of the vulnerability. Several vulnerabilities discovered reveal how well the scanning procedure worked and any possible security dangers the application or system might face. The security posture of a system or application is increasingly critical the more vulnerabilities are discovered. Vulnerability severity demonstrates how serious the vulnerabilities found during the scanning process are. While some flaws may not affect the system much, others could be critical and constitute a serious risk to the company. It reveals how well the scanning procedure worked and any possible security dangers the application or system might face. The security posture of a system or application is increasingly critical the more vulnerabilities are discovered.

Quality ControlThe tool would conduct quality control during the scanning process, checking for false positives, the correctness of the results, and any omissions. Quality Control (QC) would ensure that the assessment scans are thorough and comprehensive and that all vulnerabilities found are appropriately categorized based on severity (Upadhyay, 2020). After the vulnerabilities flaws have been discovered, the control would confirm that they have been fixed. Furthermore, QC would guarantee that the scanner tool is correctly set up and identifies vulnerabilities without producing excessive false positives. The tool’s ability to detect brand-new weaknesses as they are found and be up to date with the most recent security updates would also be confirmed as part of the control procedure. Lastly, QC would ensure that the required corrective steps had been implemented to fix any vulnerabilities found and that they had been properly tested to ensure they had been effectively remedied.

Quality Assurance: QA would take place throughout the whole procedure to ensure that the scanning process is thorough and accurate and adheres to best practices and procedures for vulnerability scanning. Moreover, QA would guarantee that the repair process is efficient and covers all vulnerabilities found (Willumsen, 2019). To reflect emerging security risk threats and best procedures and practices of the industry, the vulnerability scanning method would be updated and reviewed regularly, according to the quality assurance component (Willumsen, 2019).

Process 2: Intrusion Detection

Unauthorized entry to a network or system can be found through intrusion detection. To avoid or reduce potential security breaches, this process’s objective is to find and report them. The quantity, organizational impact and intensity of the occurrences that are found serve as the main intrusion detection indicators of the procedure. These metrics aid in assessing how well the procedure works at spotting and notifying potential security breaches. By monitoring these signs, organizations may strengthen their security protocols and lower the danger of unauthorized users to their systems and networks (Willumsen, 2019).

Quality Control: The software would do quality control during intrusion detection, checking for false positives, the correctness of the results, and any exclusions. QC would verify that the intrusion detection system is set up correctly and identifies any potential security breaches (Fraser, 2021). The control also would confirm that any remedial measures have been successful and that the flagged incidents have been thoroughly examined. In addition, Quality control would ensure that the detection intrusion system is fully compatible with the most recent security updates and patches, confirming the accuracy of results and spotting any security breaches. By doing so, the probability of false alarms would be lower and new vulnerabilities would not be as likely to be exploited. Quality control would also guarantee that the detection intrusion system is correctly linked with other protection tools and procedures to deliver a comprehensive and efficient security solution.

Quality Assurance: The goal of quality assurance (QA) is to ensure the intrusion detection procedure is thorough and accurate and adheres to best practices and procedures for intrusion detection across the entire process. QA also would guarantee the repair procedure’s effectiveness and that all security incidents were addressed (Wee, 2019). The quality assurance component would confirm that the intrusion detection procedure is routinely evaluated and modified to consider new security risks and accepted business practices.

Part II

Risk Management

The process of locating, evaluating, and controlling possible risks that can adversely affect an organization’s goals is known as risk management. It entails assessing risks, creating mitigation or avoidance tactics, and monitoring and evaluating the efficacy of these measures (Wee, 2019).

Risk Assessments

A vital part of risk management is risk assessment. This entails detecting and assessing possible risks to a company and determining each risk’s possibility and repercussions. The development of strategies for risk management is then done using this knowledge (Upadhyay, 2020).

Importance of Risk Management

The ability to proactively manage and identify risks, lessen the possibility and impact of unfavourable events, and ensure that goals can be met sustainably and securely are all benefits of risk management. Organizations that effectively manage risk can preserve their assets and reputation, comply with regulatory obligations, and enhance the process of decision-making (Willumsen, 2019).

Risk Control Strategies

Risk management techniques help a business reduce or manage potential hazards. Risk termination and acceptance are often risk management techniques (Willumsen, 2019).

Risk Acceptance: Understanding the risk and potential repercussions is a key component of risk acceptance as a control method (Willumsen, 2019). This tactic is frequently employed when the hazard or risk is modest or when the expense associated with risk acceptance would be greater than the expense of risk mitigation. Additionally, organizations may take the risk if they have enough safeguards to mitigate or lessen its effects.

Risk TerminationA strategy of risk control known as risk termination is a management tactic that entails completely removing the risk (Upadhyay, 2020). This tactic is frequently employed when the possible risk’s repercussions are severe or if the expense of mitigating the risk is minimal than the possible losses the hazard or risk could cause (Fraser, 2021). Avoidance, minimization, and transfer are a few strategies that can be used to end a risk.

IT Audits

The efficiency, effectiveness, and security of information technology systems of an organization and operations are assessed through IT audits. IT can assist businesses in identifying possible risks and weaknesses in their IT infrastructure, confirming compliance with legal obligations, and enhancing overall management and IT governance (Upadhyay, 2020).

IT Auditing in Governance Cyber Security

An essential part of the governance of cyber security is IT audits. They support businesses in evaluating the efficiency of security policies and procedures, locating weak points and weaknesses in their systems of IT, and ensuring compliance requirements (Willumsen, 2019). Organizations may limit the risk of intrusions, secure sensitive information from unauthorized exposure and access, and actively detect and address possible security hazards and weaknesses by regularly conducting IT audits. Moreover, IT audits are utilized to spot problems and recommend fixes by confirming that security procedures and controls are working correctly (Upadhyay, 2020). The integrity and security of an information technology systems of an organization and data are generally ensured through IT audits, which are crucial instruments for sustaining effective cyber security governance.


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