Proposal For Cardboard-Made, Heat-Proof, Cost-Effective, And Environmentally Sustainable Packaging Sample Paper

Executive Summary

Every coffee or beverage lover wants to have their coffee hot in a cup or packaging that does not leak heat and perhaps cause accidents. After careful consideration, we assessed how we could find ourselves in the middle of the food and beverage industry by contributing positively to the customer experience. We, therefore, researched and put together resources to develop a unique product: well-sealed, heat-proof, environmentally sustainable, and innovatively designed packaging cups. With this unique product idea, we hope to bring out a long-term solution to the problem of single-use container waste in the beverage industry. As a small organization sensitive to matters of climate change and the preservation of our environment, we will use our cutting-edge packaging technology to contribute to the image of your company; that is, you will set an example for other companies by setting yourself apart as an ecosystem-friendly company. This proposal will include a statement of the problem, proposed solution, qualifications, timetable and costs, and benefit statement, where each section will provide related details.


The Catton Company began as a small innovative group, where all members’ ideas were put together to develop a viable idea. After learning about hot beverage accident reports and the rise in environmental injustices that impact the global climate, we settled on making heat-proof cups with various advantages to the customer and the organization. Subsequently, the Catton Company was founded on the principle of lessening the negative effects of the beverage industry on the environment without sacrificing quality, convenience or affordability.

Our company is grateful for the chance to submit this updated business proposal that intends to meet the market’s demand for innovative and eco-friendly beverage packaging (Moustafa et al., 2019). As stated earlier, Catton Company prides itself on its commitment to environmental sustainability and has the intention to disrupt the beverage industry by providing cheap and environmentally friendly cardboard beverage cups.

As loyal customers of Starbucks, we appreciate the kind of service you provide to consumers and seek to be part of this positive customer experience. With our idea of supplying environmentally sustainable options for beverage packaging, we are confident that it will have a good social and environmental impact which is in line with your organization’s stated objectives. Besides, we are proud of our standing as a relatively new company providing innovative and unique options at a rather fair price across the industry.

Statement of the Problem

Starbucks has been significantly involving itself in environmental sustainability by slowly moving towards the use of sustainable packaging. However, reports from the packaging drive as of April 2023 show that only 49% of Starbucks’ packaging, when assessed by weight, was reusable, recyclable or compostable. For a country already aware of the looming consequences of climate change (some significant changes are already happening), it is everyone’s responsibility, from single businesses to chains and multinationals, to work together to seek solutions. This is the most recent requirement in exercising corporate responsibility.

Starbucks faces the challenge of managing the environmental impact of single-use beverage containers, just like many other beverage companies (Graulich et al., 2021). The main cause of pollution in the beverage industry is the use of plastic cups, which do not decompose. When the one-time-use containers are disposed of, they often end up in landfills, where they take hundreds of years to decompose, contributing to environmental degradation. Furthermore, the production of these containers requires the extraction of natural resources such as petroleum and trees, which contributes to resource depletion and habitat destruction. Additionally, the manufacturing and disposal processes generate greenhouse gas emissions hence causing further destruction of the environment (Miller et al., 2021).

There have been reports of beverage spills in various beverage businesses, where most of the beverages are mostly hot and can cause scalding. When such happens, customers think of remedies like suing for negligence. Although these businesses are liable for hot beverage spills that cause injuries, the customer is also held liable for the accident. In such cases, consumers feel that the businesses are not doing enough to ensure the safe consumption of beverages like coffee. Even labels indicating that the contents inside the cup are hot and should be handled with care sometimes prove ineffective because not all customers take the time to look at the cups.

Thus, given the explanations above, that can be described as insensitivity towards the environment, and hot beverage-related accidents can be avoided when effective and relevant measures are taken.

Proposed Solution

The solution to environmental and consumer-related problems can be solved when your company takes actions that remedy both problems at once- heat-proof and environmentally sensitive packaging. Therefore, we recommend that Starbucks embrace a low-cost, eco-friendly beverage packaging solution that will indeed help the company alleviate its environmental pollution impacts. These solutions to the problems are discussed in detail as follows;

Environmental Impact

By adopting fully biodegradable and compostable materials for beverage packaging, Starbucks will significantly reduce its environmental pollution footprint. The materials our company uses in the making of the cups break down naturally over time, hence minimizing the amount of waste that ends up in landfills (Rhodes, 2018). At the same time, the materials used are recycled from cardboard to reduce further damage to the environment. As a result, this solution aligns with the principles of a circular economy where resources are reused or returned to the environment without causing harm.

Waste Reduction

Traditional single-use beverage containers, such as plastic cups, contribute to the global waste crisis (Watkins & Schweitzer, 2018). Not every human will be thinking of disposing of the cups properly. By transitioning to fully biodegradable and compostable packaging, Starbucks can actively contribute to waste reduction efforts because customers can dispose of the packaging in compost bins where it can break down naturally and become a valuable resource for soil enrichment. The compost bin is another idea, although we recommend having recycling bins for the cups to be brought back to the company for recycling.

Customer Demand and Satisfaction

Consumer preferences are shifting towards environmentally friendly options, and customers increasingly expect companies to demonstrate sustainability initiatives (Angus & Westbrook, 2019). By embracing this proposed solution, Starbucks can meet customer demands for more sustainable choices. Customers who are conscious of their environmental impact will appreciate the effort Starbucks puts into reducing waste and may be more likely to choose Starbucks over competitors that do not prioritize sustainability.


We have been in business for three years, but still, consider ourselves a new company. This is because we are working to have a wider customer base based on our position and authenticity to help us grow and become the best in the industry. Nonetheless, we have a proven track record of delivering sustainable packaging solutions to small beverage businesses that have not yet integrated sustainability into their business model. However, we are working towards our advocacy role to welcome them into the bandwagon of climate sensitivity as part of the corporate responsibility in the beverage industry.

We have no doubt that Catton Company is equipped to meet Starbucks’ needs because we are a reliable partner thanks to our extensive knowledge, best track history in the sector and growing recognition. We have helped our clients achieve substantial waste reduction targets over a short time and won awards for innovative products and the best start-up. We have testimonials from our clients, who we hope will move towards using our services fully as opposed to complementary options. We have also received testimonials from the customers who have used our packaging through our customer feedback program available on our company website.

Timetable and Costs

Considering we prefer selling as a carton, we will be first offering the cups for $10- $20 for each reusable and recyclable cup, depending on its size. Therefore, a box with 24 cups will cost $240- $480.

Our solution can be implemented swiftly, ensuring minimal disruption to Starbucks’ operations as well as resources. However, once we enter into a contract, we will strive to supply your company with our product on a monthly basis and variably depending on your business’s demand. Otherwise, we have carefully evaluated the costs associated with our sustainable packaging solution, which has ensured the prices are competitive and aligned with your packaging budget (Nagle & Muller, 2018).

Benefit Statement

As a growing company, we look forward to a win-win situation by entering into this business relationship, i.e., by committing to our sustainable beverage packaging solution, Starbucks will enjoy a multitude of benefits ranging from significantly reducing the environmental impact of its operations, which will demonstrate a commitment to sustainability and strengthening brand image to protecting consumers from spillage accidents (González Alonso, 2022). Our win will be having a big company by our side, which will help us spread a message of sustainability through our solution, that is, providing cost savings in waste management and disposal, thereby contributing to improved operational efficiency and profitability.


Starbucks’s change in repackaging can help other brands to evolve and join the better option. Every company has goals to achieve with regard to waste management and reduction of pollution. Due to the climate change effects, every progress made is significant to the country and the whole world. In the same way, your company can also join the sustainable community by moving towards using environmentally tolerable materials, which in that matter, can be achieved by doing business with us.

In summary, our proposal has presented a comprehensive solution to address Starbucks’ need for sustainable beverage packaging. We believe that by partnering with Catton Company, your organization will become the industry leader in environmental stewardship hence satisfying the growing consumer demand for sustainable choices. The Catton Company is confident that its solution will deliver tangible benefits. Our organization is more prepared to engage your company and looks forward to answering any questions or concerns you may have during our upcoming communication.


Angus, A., & Westbrook, G. (2019). Top 10 global consumer trends. Euromonitor International: London, UK.

González Alonso, R. (2022). Sustainability, Brand Equity and Brand Benefits: Three fundamental concepts in Brand Management. An Analysis of The Nestlé Brand.

Graulich, K., Köhler, A., Löw, C., Sutter, J., Watson, D., Mehlhart, G., … & Lippert Tange, I. (2021). Impact of COVID-19 on single-use plastics and the environment in Europe. European Environment Agency: Boeretang, Belgium22.

Miller, S. A., Habert, G., Myers, R. J., & Harvey, J. T. (2021). Achieving net zero greenhouse gas emissions in the cement industry via value chain mitigation strategies. One Earth4(10), 1398-1411.

Moustafa, H., Youssef, A. M., Darwish, N. A., & Abou-Kandil, A. I. (2019). Eco-friendly polymer composites for green packaging: Future vision and challenges. Composites Part B: Engineering172, 16-25.

Nagle, T. T., & Muller, G. (2018). The strategy and tactics of pricing. Routledge.

Rhodes, C. J. (2018). Plastic pollution and potential solutions. Science Progress101(3), 207-260.

Watkins, E., & Schweitzer, J. P. (2018). Moving towards a circular economy for plastics in the EU by 2030. Institute for European Environmental Policy.

Report Analysis

Despite the salutation as friends and colleagues, the Tempe Tourism annual report’s structure, the following tone, and content help in concluding that it is a formal report. Besides, the language used within the report is professional and objective to complement the structured format with clear sections of a formal report.

The key information present in the Tempe Tourism report includes strategies and results and revenues and expenses. These are significant areas of business as they show what strategies were employed in collaboration with resources to assess the results.

The industry area as the target audience is involved with hospitality and tourism businesses within Tempe. On the other hand, the target audience involves personnel and organizations external to the Tempe Tourism Office. This is because the authors have given an overview of how the businesses are doing, which shows that stakeholders like hotels, event planners, and local businesses involved in the growth of tourism in Tempe are being addressed.

The level of expertise of the audience can be placed at the managerial level. The report addresses people who own and manage businesses within the location. Again, they are not new in the businesses as the authors; Brian McCartin and Margaret Dunn, recognize that these stakeholders did well in the previous year and wish them to continue the same way.

The target audience is interested in destination marketing through various marketing activities, visitor experience, and tourism development as part of the results.

Based on the information above, the report authors presented the information clearly by following a logical structure and providing relevant and concise data analysis as the report progressed. Even the section breakdown contributed to the clarity of the information. I most especially liked the detailed analysis, from visitor spending and hotel occupancy rates to economic impact. Besides, the quantitative and qualitative inclusivity make the report authentic and reliable for reviewing and using as evidence. However, I recommend comparison and benchmarking for the report, which can be included in the conclusion to inform us what we can take away from the report while comparing the region with another.

Ryanair Airlines And IBM Free Essay

Disruptive innovation describes introducing a product or service into a well-established sector that outcompetes the existing market players and, in most cases, achieves that through a lower cost. The concept explains how a newer, smaller firm effectively competes with “established market players” by meeting the needs of a previously unmet market segment. A new product or service may not initially be superior to the market leader (Christensen et al., 2015). Still, if the upstart keeps improving its offering, it may eventually provide superior functionality at a lower price, attracting a significant user base. As a result, the demand for the product or service the startup offers grows beyond its initial niche market. Ryanair is an example of a company that operates through disruptive technology. When it first took off three decades ago, Irish low-cost carrier Ryanair caused a stir in the European aviation sector. More than 90 million passengers annually and annual revenues of 875 million euros have propelled Ryanair to the position of Europe’s largest airline (Diaconu, 2012). Ryanair has been successful due to a combination of a compelling value proposition for customers and a lean business style.

When introduced to the market, a low-level disruptive product will have at least one of the following characteristics: it will be cheaper, lighter, smaller, and more convenient, but it will also be inferior in quality or power (Barrett, 2004). In the beginning, Ryanair just copied Southwest Airlines’ low-cost model. The company has a simple business model: To provide budget-friendly plane travel for frugal consumers. Ryanair’s primary focus is customers who might otherwise choose less expensive or nonexistent travel options. The majority of the company’s operations are short-haul flights inside Europe.

The first step in disruptive technology is the disruption of the incumbent. At this point, the market has a new product, service, or technology that appears to replace an older one. The innovator is thrown into a dilemma. It is common knowledge that startups and established businesses may benefit from adopting innovative technologies. Although new technologies have great promise, it is rare that an established company will risk its future on them. Therefore, new companies are the most common source of such inventions (Christensen et al., 2015). Traditionally the European Aviation industry was dominated by national carriers that the government heavily protected. Consequently, customers had to incur the high costs of traveling. However, a deregulation initiative influenced by the European Commission and the European Parliament opened the market for airlines. Ryanair was founded in 1984 by three Irishmen: Liam Lonergan, Christopher Ryan, and Tony Ryan. The company aimed to provide Irish and British passengers with low-cost air travel between the two countries. After making losses for several years, the company introduced the low-cost model in 1991 (Diaconu, 2012). It is making the service cheaper opened markets for customers who had not considered airplanes as a means of traveling due to cost.

The second step in disruptive technology is rapid linear evolution. When a new technology or product gains widespread popularity, developers focus on “filling out” the product. Product initiators in this step are still disruptors; they innovate along the path they have established for themselves, with a consideration on the first adopters who are also disruptors (Barrett, 2004). The innovators are moving in the direction they see fit. The current leaders keep on their prosperous course, thereby guaranteeing their doom. At the idea’s inception, industry players such as Southwest Airlines had shifted their focus to generating revenue by maximizing customers rather than the yield per passenger. Ryanair Airlines shaped its model by following the strategy by Southwest of offering no drinks and snacks to reduce the service cost. Ryanair faced stiff competition from other, more established airlines when it first took flight. However, they could break through the market because their pricing was so low. Because it mainly served minor rather than principal airports, it maintained its low fares.

The third step of the disruptive innovation process is the “Appealing Convergence.” As market redefinition continues, the category in which a new product is placed begins to shift subtly. Doing novel things well is no longer sufficient; the market demands replacing the current technology with the new. The market as a whole “wakes up” to the new product’s potential at this point. New airlines fighting for customers’ dollars emerged after the European countries’ deregulation, which made it possible for them to enter the market under more advantageous terms (Christensen et al., 2015). Competition on international routes expanded, prices became more competitive, and the dominance of national airlines was dwindling. In the 1990s, many low-fare airlines emerged; they included Virgin Express, Go, EasyJet, and Buzz.

The fourth step in the disruptive innovation process is “Complete Reimagination.” There is always someone with newer, more advanced technology who can disrupt the disruptor’s technology or product; therefore, they can never truly rest easy. The innovator’s curse describes this phenomenon. A company must regularly upgrade its product to manage and increase the competition and stay ahead of the curve (Christensen et al., 2015). At this point, the technology is wholly rethought so that the game-changing technology can receive consistent updates. The company has made tremendous developments to achieve the low-cost strategy. Most of Ryanair’s pilots are independent contractors rather than regular employees. Ryanair only compensates its pilots under these terms when they are actively flying and being put to good use (Barrett, 2004). Employee benefits are structured to cover any necessary professional expenditure. Due to this incentive, employees are reportedly vacationing at budget camping resorts in the south of France. The corporation can sidestep salary and benefit regulations mandated by several European nations by employing Irish labor contracts with its employees (Diaconu, 2012). Ryanair’s fleet consists entirely of Boeing 737s. As a result, Ryanair may save money on MRO, cut down on employee training, and have more leeway in how they’re deployed. The company is currently working on improving customer service and targeting business-class customers.

The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM)

In 1911 the IBM Computer Tabulating Company was founded the forerunner of today’s International Business Machines. By 1924, the company had become known as IBM. IBM’s main business areas are Hardware, Software, Consulting, and Hosting. IBM has come a long way since its inception; it has been around for over a century (Teece, 2007). Hardware, software, cloud services, and cognitive computing are all areas of expertise for IBM, a global technology business. Its headquarters are located in New York City, and it operates via five distinct divisions: finance, IT, telecommunications, business services, and software. IBM offers a comprehensive suite of goods and services and caters to a wide variety of clientele on a global scale. This ensures IBM’s continued dominance in the IT industry by ensuring that customers never go without the items they have ordered. IBM’s general approach to competitive advantage and intense expansion plans have allowed it to thrive in the global information technology market.

IBM’s standard tactic for gaining an edge in the market is to achieve cost leadership. The goal of this approach is to achieve competitive pricing or to maximize profit margins through the use of reduced costs in corporate operations. IBM’s significant economies of scale allow for these low prices. For instance, the company’s size allows it to offer cloud platform goods and specialized services at competitive prices (Walker, 2007). As a market leader in terms of cost, IBM is in a position to provide meager prices on various goods and services. Expertise in manufacturing processes and materials management also contributes to a competitive advantage within the context of the cost leadership generic strategy. IBM has operated for almost a century, giving it unparalleled knowledge and streamlined efficiency in all aspects of IT product and service creation (Teece, 2007). IBM’s information technology business is supported by economies of scale, which may be improved by implementing the general competitive cost leadership strategy. The corporation, for instance, may benefit from putting more money into enhancing its software development procedures to reduce the price at which it creates new solutions for its clientele (Harreld et al., 2007). Investment in R&D to increase IBM’s product value competitiveness is another strategic goal based on this general competitive strategy. The firm’s aggressive growth plans built on this generic strategy’s core provide the company with its competitive advantages.

IBM has relied heavily on product innovation as a means of rapid expansion. Implementing a product development strategy aims to expand the business by releasing new items into the target market regularly. Using this aggressive approach, IBM may expand via the creation and distribution of cutting-edge computer systems and automation solutions. The cost leadership generic approach helps the organization deliver innovative goods at affordable rates by reducing waste and increasing productivity. IBM’s purpose and vision stress the need to lead the industry, and this competitive advantage helps achieve that goal. The company’s IP portfolio benefits from this specific strategy as well.

IBM’s information technology division uses market penetration as an intense growth strategy. Increasing the company’s market share across all product lines and categories is a primary goal of market penetration as a business strategy (Walker, 2007). For instance, IBM is trying to increase its share of the cloud platform industry. The cost leadership generic competitive strategy includes cost reduction measures to ensure the company’s success with such a labor-intensive plan. Since the company is already among the world’s leading competitors, expanding into new markets is less crucial to its future success.

IBM uses market expansion as a backbone method to expand the company. One of the company’s goals should be to find novel uses for its existing products so that it may expand into untapped areas. One example is the new uses of the company’s information technology in autonomous vehicle research and development. The cost leadership generic strategy encourages expansion into new markets and segments by efficiently using resources that provide a competitive edge. With this aggressive expansion plan, IBM will be expanding into new areas, each of which will require adjustments to the company’s 4Ps of marketing.

Its active diversification strategy aided IBM’s expansion inside the IT sector. The plan’s end game is to broaden the company’s reach. IBM can buy up smaller companies in unrelated fields as one expansion method. Increased potential advantages based on diversified company skills support the generic competitive strategy of cost leadership (Harreld et al., 2007). The corporation may pursue this aggressive expansion plan to take advantage of the trend toward technology integration across markets.

IBM had to adjust its decision-making structure as part of its efforts to implement its global integrated enterprise strategy. For this approach to work, a corporation must provide regional managers with the autonomy to make choices based on the specifics of local markets (Harreld et al., 2007). However, management must keep in touch with corporate offices (Teece, 2007). The new approach also necessitates a shift in the organization’s communication structure away from a strictly vertical one and towards something more horizontal. Given IBM’s stated goal of maintaining its position as the market leader in both the domestic and international arenas through further acquisitions, the current strategic decision framework that the corporation employs is the leadership strategy.

IBM uses market-oriented and value-based pricing strategies. This market-oriented pricing approach aims to establish prices for particular products that are in line with the going rate in the IT sector. Due to the intense competition and price sensitivity in the market for cloud-based services, IBM’s online goods, such as cloud platform services, are offered at reasonable rates. However, the company’s value-based pricing strategy is implemented for specific product lines (Walker, 2007). The plan determines the market value for IBM’s products by considering customer perceptions and requirements. For instance, the company’s specialized office computers for restaurant chains are priced using a value-based pricing strategy. The cost leadership strategy and the enthusiastic market penetration approach impact this facet of a company’s marketing mix.

IBM has an elaborate structure that is strategically fitted to discharge its mandate. IBM’s CEO, Samuel J. Palmisano, takes a far more hands-on approach to management, collaborating with his direct reports to implement the company’s policies. IBM’s departments have a say in their leadership, but its top executive is ultimately responsible for its actions (Teece, 2007). Every team member contributes to fundamental activities, including defining objectives, discussing the significance of those objectives, and putting those objectives into action. Participatory leadership is viewed from this vantage point. The approach views a leader as a facilitator or coordinator of organizational matters. Instead of simply giving commands, the leader encourages everyone to participate in all they do.


Barrett, S. D. (2004). The sustainability of the Ryanair model. International journal of transport management2(2), 89-98.

Christensen, C. M., Raynor, M. E., & McDonald, R. (2015). What is disruptive innovation? Harvard Business Review, 93(12), 44–53.

Diaconu, L. (2012). The evolution of the European low-cost airlines ‘business models. Ryanair case study. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciencespp. 62, 342–346.

Harreld, J. B., O’Reilly III, C. A., & Tushman, M. L. (2007). Dynamic capabilities at IBM: Driving strategy into action. California management review49(4), 21–43.

Teece, D. J. (2007). Explicating dynamic capabilities: the nature and microfoundations of (sustainable) enterprise performance. Strategic management journal28(13), 1319–1350.

Walker, L. (2007). IBM business transformation enabled by service-oriented architecture. IBM Systems Journal46(4), 651–667.

Students With Severe Disabilities In Inclusive Settings Free Sample

Prompt 1

Some Concerns for the Instruction of Students with Severe Disabilities in Inclusive Settings

Chapter One of Snell & Brown (2013) explains some concerns about instructions for severely disabled students in inclusive settings. One of the concerns discussed in the article is uneven access to inclusive classrooms. I agree with the authors’ concern about students with severe impairments having uneven access to inclusive classrooms. The principle that all students, regardless of their ability, should have the chance to study alongside one another in normal educational settings is promoted by inclusive education. The practical use of inclusive policies, however, might differ significantly based on some variables, including a student’s location and their specific handicap category. The opportunity for students with severe impairments to study alongside their classmates without disabilities may be limited due to inconsistent access to inclusive classrooms. Thus, this issue must be addressed by providing all children with equal access to inclusive education regardless of their location or category of impairment.

Another concern about instructing severely disabled students in inclusive settings is the questionable quality of the curriculum and instruction. Snell & Brown’s (2013) concerns about the curriculum and teaching for students with severe impairments being of uncertain quality are true. Students with severe impairments may need customized teaching strategies and tools to meet their specific learning demands. However, I agree with this concern since the accessibility and usefulness of these tools might differ amongst various educational environments. To guarantee the meaningful involvement and successful learning outcomes of children with severe disabilities in inclusive classrooms, it is essential to offer a high-quality curriculum and teaching adapted to their unique needs.

In addition, the lack of professional sensitivity to the educational requirements of children is another concern discussed in the article. Snell & Brown’s (2013) concerns about adults’ unwillingness to respond to students’ educational needs are reasonable. Teachers and other professionals must be receptive to and aware of the specific learning requirements of individuals with severe impairments. Therefore, I agree with this concern since it entails using research-based instructional strategies, routinely gauging student progress, and making necessary modifications to match their unique learning objectives.

Prompt 2

Some Actions I May Take As a Classroom Teacher to Ensure That All Families Are Welcome in the School

Chapter 2 of Snell and Brown’s 2013 book, Instruction of Students with Severe Disabilities, illustrates the need to build strong relationships with families, especially considering the needs of families like the Gonzalez family. There are various actions I may take as a classroom teacher may take to make sure all families feel welcome in the school and to encourage the formation of solid alliances; therefore, one of the actions is to establish a classroom that is warm, inviting, and inclusive for all families to create a welcome and inclusive atmosphere. Promote a feeling of belonging for every student and their family by showcasing multicultural resources and recognizing and celebrating differences.

As a classroom teacher, another action I can do is to offer effective communication that keeps families informed about classroom activities, events, and their child’s development, using clear and regular communication channels. Provide information in various languages and formats to satisfy the requirements of varied families. Use technology such as email, newsletters, websites, and online platforms to improve communication. In addition, a classroom teacher should promote family participation in school programs, parent-teacher conferences, and volunteer opportunities by actively encouraging and inviting families to attend. Provide flexible scheduling choices to consider a range of personal and professional obligations.

Furthermore, another action that a classroom teacher should take is to offer help and resources. Provide seminars and instructional sessions that speak to the particular requirements of families, particularly those suffering special difficulties like the Gonzalez family. To help families find extra assistance outside of school, provide information about local organizations, support services, and resources. Therefore, by taking these actions, classroom teachers may foster an atmosphere that is welcoming and inclusive for all families, including those with special needs. For students with severe impairments to succeed, solid family connections are crucial. They also encourage a cooperative approach to education that benefits all parties.


Snell, M. E., & Brown, F. E. (2013). Instruction of students with severe disabilities: pearson new international edition. Pearson Higher Ed.