Psychological Impact Of Crisis On People’s Lives Sample Paper

When people’s lives are overwhelmed with a crisis, their psychological and physical well-being is affected. Frustration and aggression can affect them if the misfortunes are not resolved successfully. Therefore, it is important for the people who are hit by a crisis to strive to bounce back to their positive sides of life, regardless of the severity of the incidence. The Indian Ocean’s Tsunami, which occurred in 2004, led to huge loss of lives while the survivors were left with serious traumatic experiences (Sattler, Assanangkornchai, Moller, Kesavatana-Dohrs, & Graham, 2014). A dual-process model is an almost-perfect approach, which describes how individuals cope with the loss of lives of the people who are close to them. Nevertheless, the use of this model in other types of losses and traumatic events is yet to be systematically explored.

The dual-process model indicates that grief operates in two ways, between which people switch as they mourn the loss of a loved one: loss-oriented and restoration-based phases. The loss-oriented phase comprises of thoughts, emotions, occurrences, and actions that make a person concentrate on his or her grief and pain while the restoration-oriented mode includes things that help a person go on with his or her normal life and protect him or her from anguish for a moment (Evans & Stanovich, 2013). The back-forth switching between these two modes helps the victims overcome grief gradually. After losing my grandmother as a result of gang rape, I was in an intense grieving mood. I almost developed depression, but my psychological health improved after I enrolled in a piano class, a recommendation that was offered by my aunt. After six months, I started coming to terms with the demise, and now I celebrate my grandmother’s life with a broad smile.


Evans, J. S. B., & Stanovich, K. E. (2013). Dual-process theories of higher cognition: Advancing the debate. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 8(3), 223-241.

Sattler, D. N., Assanangkornchai, S., Moller, A. M., Kesavatana-Dohrs, W., & Graham, J. M. (2014). Indian Ocean tsunami: Relationships among posttraumatic stress, posttraumatic growth, resource loss, and coping at 3 and 15 months. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 15(2), 219-239.

Cultural Hierarchy And Media Effects

Lay Theories of Media Effects by Ellen Seiter

In this text, Ellen Seiter presents the results of her interviewing the three pre-kindergarten teachers about the problem of kids and television. Speaking of the teachers’ positions, I entirely disagree with Sara Kitses from a Montessori pre-school. Her primary objection to television is that it comes not from children but the adults (Seiter, 2003, p. 370); but so do other things surrounding a child, including education. Sara believes that television is frightening and makes children consume more (Seiter, 2003, p. 370), but she “denied having any knowledge of popular children programming” (Seiter, 2003, p. 369), so she cannot know what television teaches children.

The approach of Gloria Williams from Gloria’s Place looks more sophisticated to me: while being aware of the effect of marketing strategies, she does not dismiss television entirely, but advises parents to choose carefully what their kids would be watching (Seiter, 2003, p. 378). Jean de Witt from the hospital daycare facility won my approval, by the way, in which deals with gender problems well. De Witt maintains gender equality during the games, in which children reenact the events of TV shows; girls can be active characters, as well as boys (Seiter, 2003, p. 380).

Trash, Class, and Cultural Hierarchy by Laura Grindstaff

The given work is an excerpt from Laura Grindstaff’s book The Money Shot Trash, Class, And The Making Of TV Talk Shows, devoted to the analysis of how talk-show producers make stars out of ordinary people. In this text, Grindstaff mentions the fact that talk shows are very much alike to other media forms. For instance, the job of a talk-show producer is similar to that of a journalist in having particular often used topics, deadlines they need to hit, and regular channels to secure participants (Grindstaff, 2013, p. 407).

They have to follow the rules of media organization (the pattern, according to which the way of telling stories is defined) and, at the same time, consider the limitations of outside world, such as the availability and competence of their guests and their willingness (Grindstaff, 2013, p. 407). The producers of daytime talk shows have to maintain active interaction between the participants, as the producers of late night-celebrity talk (Grindstaff, 2013, p. 407).

White trash and trashy

In her text, Grindstaff examines the meaning of the terms trashy and white trash. According to her, white trash, a term applied to poor white people, demonstrates that typically white people are associated with power and wealth, and if a person is poor and white, the latter fact needs additional specification (Grindstaff, 2013, p. 417). “The primary function of invoking the term white trash,” states Grindstaff,is to solidify the middle and upper classes a sense of cultural and intellectual superiority” (Grindstaff, 2013, p. 417-418). Trashy goes beyond the class characteristics and consists of behavioral, aesthetic, and cultural qualities (Grindstaff, 2013, p. 418).

In American culture, the concepts of body and privacy determine the things that people keep to themselves; while in trashy talk shows white trash people are encouraged to open these things to public (Grindstaff, 2013, p. 418-419). White trash and trashy stereotypes are widespread in American culture; for instance, the term white trash is used in black folklore (Prahlad, 2006, p. 966). The representation of white trash in the American media includes the portrayal of them as rapists, prone to incest, living in trailers, etc. (Harter, 2013, par. 2-5).


Grindstaff, L. (2013). Trash, class, and cultural hierarchy. In L. Ouelette (Ed.), The media studies reader (pp. 407-426). New York City, New York: Routledge.

Harter, G. (2013). The representation of white trash in the media, specifically in tv shows and movies. Web.

Prahlad, A. (2005). The Greenwood Encyclopedia of African American Folklore (Vol. 2). Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press.

Seiter, E. (2003). Lay theories of media effect: Power Rangers at pre-school. In G. Dines & J.M. Humez (Eds.), Gender, race, and class in media: a critical reader (2nd ed.) (pp. 367-384). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.

China’s Economic Activities In Africa

China in Africa

China is among the countries in the world which have experienced the most rapid economic growth. The middle-class population in the country is also quickly increasing, resulting in an unrivaled need for resources. On the other hand, Africa has dormant oil and mining sectors which attract China for a boost, and in return, the countries get favorable trade deals. China receives imports such as mineral fuels, lubricants, iron ore, metals, and agricultural products from Africa and exports manufactured products and various types of machinery to the continent. China’s economic and political influence in Africa has been warmly received by the majority of African leaders. However, civil societies from the Western and African countries see China’s activities in the continent as unfair, citing the violation of local laws and non-compliance with environmental and safety standards among other issues.

China Denies Building Empire in Africa

China has for a long time been under criticism by the Western countries for what they perceive as cunning ways to exploit African resources. It is beyond doubt that China has played a major role in the improvement of agriculture and health sectors as well as overall infrastructure in Africa. More than half of China’s foreign aid goes to Africa, and this has given the continent a significant boost to its economy. As China’s foreign minister, Wang Yi, said on his African tour, the trade between China and Africa aims at benefiting both parties, and the claims made by the Western countries are just political gimmicks. Although China’s involvement in South Sudan’s political issues is seen as a selfish move, Wang clarifies that the country is doing so as part of its duties and responsibilities.


Council on Foreign Relations. (n.d.). Council on Foreign Relations. Web.

error: Content is protected !!