Psychology As A Science Essay Example

Psychology is a scientific study of behavior, mental state, and processes in humans and other animals. Psychology category as science is due to its nature in the use of scientific methods, studies in psychology are designed like other core fields in science. Professional psychologists understand psychology as a scientific discipline. Historically philosophers relied on logic and observation logic while today psychologists use scientific methodologies of study which enables them to conclude human behavior and thoughts.

Psychology can be characterized as behavioral, cognitive, or social scientists, who study various areas which include mental well-being, potential dysfunctions, and biological foundations. They investigate the interaction between biological factors, socio-cultural factors, and psychological factors. Psychologists try to learn the role of social behavior and mental functions in individuals and the biological and physiological processes that bring about cognitive behavior and functions. Psychology stretches to concepts such as resilience, motivation, phenomenology, brain functioning, interpersonal relationships, emotions, cognition, behavior, attention, personality, perception, resilience, and the unconscious mind. The results are then applied to various human activities including problems of different individuals that affect their daily lives and mental illness treatment. Psychology as science uses psychological research which has links to social sciences, humanities, medicine, and natural science

Scientists are said to be curious, biologists, physicists, and chemists are not different from each other. Psychologists are interested in finding the causes of behavior in mental processes this shows that they have a curious mind. Scientists use critical thinking not just in their work but also in other people’s work. Scientists evaluate the methods and evidence e used vigorously to identify the weaknesses and strengths of a study. A psychologist usually includes recommendations in the last part of research studies to indicate how future studies can be improved. Theories in psychology often compete or contradict one another this causes a struggle to efficiently satisfy or convince those working in the field. Such events make it hard for psychology to be ranked among the core sciences.

Neuroscience is the study of the nervous system using scientific methods. It analyses how the elements that make the brain and broader nervous system function. Historically, the study of psychology on a scientific level is essential in the study biology. Neuroscience focuses on physical groups of properties while psychology on the mental state, the two sciences may appear to be unrelated. Neuroscience plays an important role in psychology. Knowing how the brain works scientifically and utilizing advanced technology like brain scanners helps to learn the correlations between the mental state and the brain. Neuroscientists have created an advanced way to examine the biological process that causes behavior, this helps psychologists make well-informed decisions on the treatment and mental interventions for their clients. Early research on behavior and the brain had an impact on psychology by contributing to the application of scientific methodologies to the study of human behavior and thought.

Sensation is a biological process of receiving, converting, and transmitting information. Psychophysics studies the relationship between the physical property of stimuli and a human experience of the stimuli. We receive it, but we don’t seem to be consciously aware of it. Psychophysics science is the principle of psychology that studies the causes of physical stimuli on sensory perceptions. Perception is defined as the understanding and organizing of the incoming sensation information. Adding meaning to those sensations makes them useful and creates perceptions. This concept can be simplified by understanding sensation as a physical process whereas perception is a psychological process.

Emotion in science is associated with biological drives or instincts, perceptions produce emotions. The feeling is a component of emotions rooted in mental processes. Emotions can be biologically activated and motivate humans in taking an action. Psychology studies the effect of cognition, feelings, and behavior on human beings. Motivation is an important factor in our interaction with each other and with the world, thus motivational drive is a function of both external environment conditions and internal states. In the past few years, there have been various research done on the psychology and biology of motivation. The research includes the investigation of a specific aspect of motivated behavior by use of multiple levels analyses, which allows the classification of the supporting neurobiological mechanisms that support psychological processes.

Classical conditioning occurs when an association is made between stimuli that naturally evoke a response and previously neutral stimuli. The learning process for a response to occur a reinforcement or punishment is increased or decreased. The idea behind operant learning is that our behavior is shaped by the consequences o our actions. Observational learning occurs through imitating and observing others. Memory, attention, motivation, and motor skill are elements essential for effective observational learning.

An experiment on causal relationships is a research method used by scientists to study the effect of one or more variables on the outcome of one or more variables. This research method also determines if one or more variables cause other variables to change or occur. Causation is done in a controlled experiment and all variables must be constant except for the one which is being tested to study the effect of the specific variable.

Scientists use descriptive research, and psychology as science uses descriptive research seeks to show what already exists in a group or population by describing the variable. The use of relational research helps the psychologist study the behavior, mental process, and human mind. Relational research is a study of the connection between two variables in scientific research. Psychologists do various experiments and systematic research to create, modify and study theories like other scientists. Psychologists use different research methods since the use of a single research method for collecting research data may not be reliable and accurate results. The research method used depends on the type of research. Most research is divided into two types, non-experimental and experimental research. In experimental research, two or more variables are used to study the cause-effect relationship, the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable while non-experimental research does not involve any manipulation of variables.

Controversies in Psychology

Psychology research methods can be difficult to measure. There are no research projects that produce a clear conceptual core that is widely accepted by psychological experts. The core challenge in the field is that it lacks a specific agreement on what its foundational frameworks or even theories are.

Science can be defined as an analytical attempt at how we view the world, it’s a systematic approach to finding out what’s going on through controlled observation and experimentation but psychology works differently by attempting to see how the human mind works which is not possible through controlled experimentations.

Understanding the human mind is an objective in psychology while the objective of science is to understand the world beyond our world. Psychology aims to understand and control human behavior which is not possible since people make choices and we can never understand why people do what they do.

Future of psychology

Psychology as a core science discipline, psychological science is not always viewed as one of the core Sciences, despite the relevant application of psychology research methods which are similar to the ones used in core sciences. Psychology as comparative effectiveness research will give reliable and relevant results that are an important tool for advancing an evidence-based approach to healthcare decision-making. Psychology as health disparities research through a focus on the connection between the mind and body.


What makes psychology a scientific principle and not just a study of the word through experiment and observation is the research-based discipline. The research used in psychology can show the cause and effect of the study if it has sufficient controls, the use of scientific equipment by biological psychologists, and when performing research in psychology hypothesis is generated and tested empirically. However, human beings are complex and this may reduce the validity of research since they are usually aware they are being studied. It may be difficult to account for all variables due to altered behavior.


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Passer, M. W., & Smith, R. E. (2004). Psychology: The science of mind and behavior. McGraw-Hill.

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Stevens, S. S. (1939). Psychology and the science of science. Psychological bulletin36(4), 221.

Public Brief – Emergency Management Free Essay

Executive Summary

In 1986, Congress signed the Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act (EMTALA) into law. President Ronald Regan signed the EMTALA into law after the Senate approved it on both the Republican and Democratic sides. As mandated by EMTALA, every patient who seeks medical attention in a Medicare-participating hospital emergency department must receive a medical exam. In the event of a medical emergency, a hospital must complete a screening assessment and stabilize or transfer patients regardless of the individual’s health status or financial ability to pay for healthcare. Because EMTALA is an unfunded mandate, it has the potential to cause significant problems and overcrowding concerns in emergency rooms, and it is a constant source of frustration and concern for emergency department physicians. When it comes to policy issues, the first thing federal legislators should do is improve reimbursement rates and policies. Modifications to EMTALA, which permits informal mediation between hospitals on borderline violations, would be the second answer to the problem. Option three is to improve reimbursement rates and policies while amending EMTALA to provide informal mediation between hospitals in cases involving borderline breaches. The recommended solution is to adopt both methods so that hospitals can successfully care for patients and talk to hospitals about the importance of the EMTALA to them and their patients.

Problem Statement

In 1986, Congress approved the Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act, signed into law by President Ronald Reagan. EMTALA is an unfunded mandate that can lead to complications and overcrowding in emergency rooms, and it is a constant source of worry and aggravation for the emergency room department. Worldwide, hospitals and emergency departments are underfunded. Hospitals face a higher financial burden due to increased healthcare reimbursement rates. Numerous data patterns point to threats to patient access to emergency care due to financial strains on hospital emergency departments. Annual emergency department visits increased by 18%, from 93.4 million in 1994 to 110.2 million in 2004. A total of 703 hospitals, 425 emergency departments, and 198,000 hospital beds were lost in the United States during the same period due to decreasing Medicare and Medicaid reimbursements by managed care organizations and growing expenditures. The emergency hospital issue in the United States has resulted in higher expenses, more overworked doctors and nurses, and a more litigious, perplexing, and convoluted regulatory environment. EMTALA has an effect on emergency medical technicians and doctors on call. In 2001, the American Medical Association found that in a normal week of practice, more than 95% of emergency department physicians and more than 30% of total care provided were covered by EMTALA, according to a survey of patient care physicians. In addition, EMTALA-mandated treatment requires emergency doctors and surgeons to work 22.9 hours each week. The American College of Emergency Physicians conducted a poll of emergency department directors in 2004 and found that 69.5 percent of the problem was due to insufficient on-call expert coverage (O’Shea, 2007). EMTALA is referenced because of a dearth of medical specialists who are available to provide on-call emergency services.

Patients with an EMC are often sent to a hospital that doesn’t have the required technology to stabilize them. This is a big problem for Medicare-associated facilities. To inquire about a patient’s health insurance status or capacity to pay for services is prohibited by law. There is a lot of stress on hospitals and doctors when patients are transferred to another facility that is not Medicare-associated with EMTALA. When a patient is transferred from one hospital to another, the transferring hospital does not notify the breach of EMTALA. Hospitals are reluctant to speak out because they do not want to jeopardize their relationship with their patients and further complicate the EMTALA regulations and rules.

Critique of Current Policies

Hospitals are legally obligated to perform three main tasks under EMTALA. According to the law, only facilities that partake in Medicare are included, yet this accounts for nearly 98% of all U.S. hospital facilities. Every patient who arrives at the hospital in need of treatment must undergo a medical screening examination (MSE) in order to ascertain if an emergency medical condition (EMC) exists (Zibulewsky, 2001). Patients with an EMC must be stabilized to the extent possible by hospital staff or transferred to a hospital with the necessary expertise. Because of the unique needs of burn patients, hospitals with specialized facilities or capabilities (e.g., burn units) must accept transfers from other hospitals capable of treating them.

EMTALA’s impact on emergency care has been the subject of two distinct schools of thought (Monico, 2010). Some see the law as a temporary fix to ensure that the increasing number of uninsured and underinsured Americans can get medical attention in the event of a true medical emergency. The uninsured and others have allegedly increased their usage of the ED due to EMTALA, which has weakened the nation’s emergency health care system.

EMTALA’s implementation has been linked to a dramatic increase in emergency department visits, the closure of more than 1,200 EDs and 560 hospitals, and the shuttering of several trauma units, tertiary referral facilities, and maternity wards. 90% of larger hospitals are at full patient capacity, primarily due to a lack of financing for the maintenance of inpatient intensive care beds and nurses to staff them (Monico, 2010). There has been a 33 percent increase in wait times in emergency rooms, and a tripling of the number of patients who leave without being treated as a result of overcrowding and widespread diversion of emergency medical services.

Policy Recommendations

Medicare-participating hospitals that have EMTALA legislation in place can help alleviate overcrowding by providing better reimbursement rates and policies and amending EMTALA to allow informal mediation between hospitals that breach its borderline standards of care. State politicians might mandate EMTALA medical screenings to reimburse the costs of Medicare and Medicaid agencies and managed care organizations. Assuring that all medical facilities adhere to EMTALA’s laws and regulations. Patients, doctors, and staff should be educated about the necessity of EMTALA at a meeting with other institutions. To prevent congestion, patient transfers to another hospital due to a lack of equipment or staff, and EMTALA violations, hospitals must meet the needs and requirements of EMTALA. Reimbursement rates must be changed to allow hospitals to treat more patients with EMTALA. Increased reimbursement rates from Medicaid and Medicare will pay for the screening exam when patients first arrive in the emergency department of hospitals.

In conclusion, hospitals with emergency departments participating in Medicare and Medicaid must continue to offer emergency care for established patients and those who are uninsured, and those who have not yet been accepted. Before the EMTALA Law, hospitals were free to choose which patients they would treat, while most refused to aid those who were uninsured. The cost of delivering health care has skyrocketed since this legislation, and hospitals have been forced to shift their attention to financing care for those patients who cannot afford it (Dollinger, 2015). Because of this transformation, society has to pay for health care, notably by implementing Medicare’s future payment system. As a result of the EMTALA Law, underinsured or uninsured people have been able to access emergency medical care from hospital emergency rooms across the country. With better reimbursement policies and informal mediation between hospitals to ensure all hospitals comply with the EMTALA law, overcrowding and stress will be alleviated. At the same time, all physicians, on-call specialists, and staff can help all patients who come to EDs receive treatment for their medical conditions.


Dollinger, T. (2015). America’s Unraveling Safety Net: EMTALA’s Effect on Emergency Departments, Problems,and Solutions. Marquette Law Review, 98(4), 7.

Monico, E. (2010, June 1). Is emtala that bad? Journal of Ethics | American Medical Association. Retrieved April 9, 2022, from

O’Shea, J. (2007.). The crisis in hospital emergency departments: Overcoming the burden of federal regulation. The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved April 9, 2022, from

Zibulewsky, J. (2001). The Emergency Medical Treatment and active labor act (emtala): What it is and what it means for physicians. Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings14(4), 339–346.

Puma Data Analysis And Conclusion Sample Assignment

Puma has been in operation since 1950 and has taken pride in being one of the most renowned sports brands in the world. The company is not only interested in making a profit but also on a mission to support an athletic society that is mentally and physically fit. Therefore, it uses sports to attract attention and customers to become a unique brand of athletic products in the market. Being a multinational company, Puma invests a lot in its employees, meaning that it hires the best in the market. Additionally, it understands the value of teamwork, thus providing a conducive work environment that supports productivity vital to remaining relevant in a competitive market. Puma being a German brand, intends to expand to the UK market, which has a promising consumer base. Either way, it will need to consider certain factors, including the target market, possible competition, and risks.

Target market

The British market is wide, but it depends on the products a company provides to make it successful. Therefore, understanding it is vital before investing to avoid unnecessary losses. British consumers love quality and classy products that match their statuses, meaning that Puma will have to step up its game with its sports products. Additionally, it will be essential to ascertain the kind of games and sports people love in the UK to make sure it releases the right products. According to Das (2022), people in the UK engage a lot in netball, football, athletics, and tennis, among others. Therefore, Puma will need to know the sports products that would penetrate the market fast, thus investing in them. The sporting products market has grown significantly in the UK, and according to Tighe (2021), the growth rate is at 1.7%, making it a promising market for Puma.

Possible competition

As much as Puma is a famous brand in sporting products, it is bound to face a lot of competition in the British market. The major sports and games products brands in the UK market include Nike, Adidas, and Reebok (Robert, 2018). Nike is the leading independent brand in the UK, followed by Adidas, meaning that Puma will have to develop a unique product to help penetrate the market and beat the competition (Robert, 2018). Nike accounts for 42% of the entire market, with the rest of the brands accounting for 41% of the market. Therefore, Puma will need to strategize on how to take over the market or at least acquire a reasonable market share.


Some of the risks that Puma will need to consider before venturing into the British market include political risks, economic risks, and foreign exchange rate risks.

Political risks

The UK market depends on its political stability as it is important to have a conducive environment to run the business. Conflict is never favorable for business, meaning that it will be important for Puma to ascertain the political stability of the UK. According to Hilton (2017), it is dangerous for businesses to depend on politics and politicians for the outcome of the expected profits, which is the case in the UK. That is because the government controls the policies involved in running businesses in the country, which means instability if these policies are not favorable. One of the major political risks in the UK market is Brexit which has affected business with other countries, and Puma will need to establish if it will have any effect on its investment.

Economic risks

The UK market has an economic risk regarding the availability of affordable labor. That is because it has switched to using technology a lot, making manual labor expensive. Another risk concerns conscious buying among consumers meaning that they buy products they find worth buying (Gillham & Duong, 2021). That affects their buying habits which could favor or fail a product in the market. Therefore, Puma will need to ascertain the taste of the targeted consumers to help identify their purchasing behavior and power to help make the right choices. Even though the UK market is promising, the Brexit issue is causing an economic crisis in the market as it makes globalization unachievable to some extent.

Foreign exchange rate risks

Currency fluctuations can cause losses to a business making it vital to invest in a country with a stable currency. Puma is a German brand meaning that it transacts using the Euro while the UK transacts using the Pound Sterling. Therefore, Puma will need to know if the currency exchange rate will be favorable for its business.


Puma would easily thrive in the UK market as it has an extensive market and brings products that have demand. Even though competition may seem high, Puma can find a way to deal with it by introducing new products. Understanding the target market will also be crucial to its success in the UK market as it will offer unique products that match their taste. In that case, Puma stands a chance in the British market as long as it identifies its niche and how to approach the consumers.


Das, S. (2022, January 11). Top 10 Most Popular Sports In The United Kingdom. Retrieved from Sports Browser:

Gillham, J., & Duong, H. (2021, October 1). Reset on risk: four trends shaping the UK economy and how we need to respond. Retrieved from PWC:

Robert, K. (2018, October 10). 10 Biggest Sports Brands in the world. Retrieved from Pledges sport:

Tighe, D. (2021, October 8). Sporting goods in the United Kingdom (UK). Retrieved from Statista: