Public Health Leadership And Management Self-Assessment Essay Sample For College


Leadership in public health entails a dedication to the community and the ideals that it represents. A community approach necessitates system thinking and a focus on complexity. The term “community” encompasses not just the local community in which a person works, but also the wider global community that has the potential to influence public health over time. Whatever health issues arise in other areas of the world will have an impact on how the public’s health in the local communities is affected.

Healthcare security executives must now adhere to every regulatory standard and how others do things and ensure that all security personnel receive appropriate training and adhere to these principles [Chu, 85]. The Australian Health Leadership Framework is used in the scenario analysis. It also includes a self-evaluation and leadership reflection. Helen is the subject of this assignment, based on a case situation (public health leader).


To some extent, public health professionals understand the world in terms of core functions (or, to put it another way, a core functions paradigm). They also perceive it in terms of a management and leadership paradigm. Leaders will occasionally make significant changes to a paradigm or replace it entirely. A paradigm shift is the term for this. A paradigm shift produces a new set of rules, processes, and viewpoints, and it generally takes a long time to accomplish. The phases of public health practice are linked to the functions of assessment, policy development, and assurance.

The challenge for public health professionals is to engage diverse groups in the community to work together to tackle a problem that is critical to public health. The possibility of influencing the political process exists. Local, state, and federal governments, as well as the public health community, may have competing goals. Special interest organizations frequently try to derail the public health agenda by donating to political parties and lobbying to prevent legislation from being passed. If public health officials are engaged in the enactment of legislation, they must keep track of the laws’ effects.


  1. Internship experiences at the Doctor’s Office

Working at the doctor’s office comes with very good experience as well as qualities that one needs so as to also become a very good medical expert in future. A person is able to take some responsibilities given to them by the doctor, among them including taking care of patients, performing minor surgeries, administering treatment to in-patients as well managing the records of the patients. One is also able to learn the qualities of a good doctor like being patient and kind to the patients, being punctual and responsible to their job.

  1. PH Assessment

Public health assessment is very important aspect when it comes to matters pertaining health. The regulations that are put in place, as well as the rules that exist are the ones which are supposed to guide the functioning of the health related institutions. The government here plays a very crucial role because it’s the major assessor when it comes to matters of this kind. The environment that has been put in place should be a very enabling so as to make the operations of the government department of health a success. Professionalism is a very key aspect in this case because health issues are very crucial in the current societal set-up.

  1. Human-metrics

Human-metrics is a service provider and a website which is full of very good researchers as well as practitioners with vast knowledge about psychophysiology, psychology as well as consumer analytics. Now, as a researcher, this is the best platform to acquire all the knowledge that is required for the personal assessment and leadership because, one will be able to conduct the best research about them and come up with a very good conclusion of whether or not they are on the right track. Since this is an online provider, it is very reliable and accessible anytime it may be required by the researcher or the person conducting their research.

  1. Other Health Science Course Exposure

There are so many other health science courses that are exposed to students apart from public health leadership. These courses can either be classified into biological sciences, chemical sciences or environmental sciences. All these courses are good for the students who are taking public health because in one way or another, they have a relationship or relationships. These are the courses that can earn a person an employment opportunity from anywhere around the globe, as long as the qualifications are excellent.


Finally, excellent healthcare performance is linked to effective leadership. It is connected to a wide range of clinic activities and is an essential part of the healthcare system. It is critical to developing leadership abilities among emergency nurses and other health professionals. According to the study, Innovation, engagement, communication, motivation, and problem-solving are all crucial skills for managing a team. Health related courses are very important in the modern world, especially the public health which deals directly with human lives on day to day activities. These are the courses which should be taken seriously by learners so as to make the society safer. When personal leadership is added to the public health, then it becomes so perfect because this is what is required in all the medical facilities so as to offer the best services.


Amiri, N. A., Kaabi, A. A., & Daradkeh, F. (2019). Leadership Styles and Competence among Generation Z Emirati Nursing Students. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 23-45.

Iqbal, K., & Fatima, T. (2020). The Impact of Transformational Leadership on Nurses’ Organizational Commitment: A Multiple Mediation Model. European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology, and Education, 262–275.

NHS. (2012). Leadership Framework: Self-assessment tool. Retrieved from NHS:

Pulmonary Embolism Treatment Essay Example For College


An embolism is a partial or complete obstruction of an artery. A blood clot or an oxygen molecule may block any artery. A pulmonary embolism occurs when a particular pulmonary artery in the lungs gets blocked. It is often caused due to blood clots that move towards the lungs through major arteries inside the legs and, in scarce circumstances, by veins in any other body parts. Since the clots prevent blood from flowing to the lungs, PE may be fatal. For example, a study indicates that PE is recently the third leading cause of cardiovascular mortality. Its clinical manifestations in critically ill patients can go undiagnosed or manifest as abrupt respiratory failure, resulting in death.

Additionally, it is the primary cause of ICU admissions and is linked with a high morbidity and death rate. Identifying and managing PE is a difficult task for physicians. However, it has been shown that quick treatment and care for individuals with PE significantly lowers the chance of mortality. This paper focuses on the treatment and care for patients with pulmonary Embolism for more significant health outcomes by majorly focusing on pieces of evidence-based research. Adequate care and treatment are found to have positive impacts on health outcomes.


PE is a life-threatening condition that claims up to 30,000 lives annually. As previously stated, roughly one-third of PE-related fatalities happen during the first hour. Due to the wide variety of symptoms as well as manifestations, PE may be exceedingly difficult to detect. While the clinical manifestations vary considerably, some of the most typical symptoms are tachycardia, chest discomfort, breathlessness, hypoxemia, Low blood pressure, and shock. Additionally, various risk factors for PE exist. These risk factors include immobility, past myocardial injury and cerebrovascular disease, or current trauma. Although early symptoms include acute respiratory difficulties, the primary deleterious consequences of PE are on the cardiac system in terms of the blood clot occluding the pulmonary capillaries.

In the health industry, the treatment and care of individuals with PE are critical. As several studies have shown, drugs include a variety of blood thinners as well as clot dissolvers. Anticoagulants are the most often prescribed blood thinners. These medications inhibit present emboli from growing in size and additional clots from developing as the body attempts to dissolve the clots. Heparin is a commonly prescribed anticoagulant that may be administered intravenously or subcutaneously. It operates rapidly and is frequently used in conjunction with tablet anticoagulants, like warfarin, for many days before it gets effective, which may take multiple days. The current oral anticoagulants are much more effective and have fewer adverse effects when used with other drugs.

Additionally, most benefit from being administered orally, eliminating the necessity for heparin overlapping. However, these anticoagulants are associated with adverse risks, the most frequent of which is bleeding. When it comes to clot dissolvers, thrombolytics are the most often suggested. Although clots usually disintegrate independently, thrombolytics administered by vein may occasionally disintegrate lumps fast. Due to the risk of quick and heavy bleeding, such clot-busting medicines are often kept for the matter of life-threatening conditions.

However, some studies show that therapy may require surgical treatments such as clot excision or vein filtering. Dazley et al., for example, assert that anticoagulant drugs cause bleeding, necessitating emergency surgery. According to these experts, if a patient has a significant, potentially life-threatening embolism in the lungs, a physician may recommend extracting it with a slender, flexible tube inserted through the patient’s blood arteries. Additionally, a catheter may be used to place a filtration inside the body’s primary vein, that is, the inferior vena cava, which connects the legs to the heart’s right atrium. This filtration may help prevent blood clots from reaching the lungs. According to some scholars, catheter therapy is usually reserved for patients who cannot tolerate anticoagulant medications. Also, it is preserved for those with recurring clots following anticoagulant therapy. Certain filters may be deleted when they are no longer required. Additionally, another set of experts believes that frequent monitoring of patients’ health is crucial for improved health results. This type of care entails supportive care and treatment of the disease that resulted in the myocardial injury. Supportive care involves sufficient blood oxygenation through oxygen administration or reducing pain to improve respiration comfort.

The above analysis clearly shows that PE is a hazardous and urgent condition that requires immediate attention. Though numerous drugs have been offered, treating the sickness is challenging due to the ailment’s difficulties in diagnosis. As a result of this, I can recommend that more effective tools be produced for diagnostic reasons. Additionally, I may propose that folks undergo periodic testing to aid early discovery and treatment. Further, I suggest that these patients get effective treatment, including a well-balanced diet, regular cardiac monitoring, and frequent exercise.


Several studies have identified numerous strategies for preventing PE in high-risk patients, most of which center on the use of lower vena cava filtration or anticoagulation. For example, Weinstein, Deshwal, and Brosnahan (2021) assert that anticoagulation treatment reduces death in patients having PE. Dalen & Alpert (2020) state that most patients suffering from PE are managed with at least three months with just an injectable anticoagulant. Anticoagulants can be administered intravenously or parenterally (Lopez et al., 2021). Intake includes directly oral anticoagulants or Vitamin K antagonists. The most prescribed DOACs are apixaban and rivaroxaban. On the other side, the most prescribed vitamins are acenocoumarin and Warfarin (Lopez et al., 2021).

Surgical therapy is also advised as an effective technique of PE treatment. In most acute cases of PE, surgical embolectomy is performed using cardiac surgery. This is proceeded by dissection of two major pulmonary arteries then excision or evacuation of new emboli (Konstantinides et al., 2020). Lopez et al. (2021) state that surgical therapy for PE consists of either open PE or catheter-directed thrombolytic therapy. Catheter-directed therapy is the ideal therapeutic method for individuals with high-risk PE who cannot receive thrombolysis or is a less intrusive option to surgery embolectomy. Treatments with a hybrids catheter may help lower fast heart rates, increase PA pressure, and enhance gaseous exchange indicators and results (Yamamoto, 2018). According to Dalen & Alpert (2020), this embolectomy procedure is routinely utilized in people with chronic PE. Additionally, it is conducted in individuals who are not suitable for thrombolysis (Yamamoto, 2018). Embolectomy surgery may be used to swiftly re-establish pulmonary blood circulation and treat acute blockage (Weinstein, Deshwal & Brosnahan, 2021).

Additional therapies include: respiratory support, which ensures tissue oxygenation prevents organ failure; intravenous fluids therapy, vasopressors, and extracorporeal oxygenation (Lopez et al., 2021). These medications are quite successful in preventing and treating PE. For example, diuretics are related to a reduction in the intensity of PE in cognitively normal individuals with PE without impairing kidney function; this might be owing to a reduction in RV and secondary vein obstruction (Lopez et al., 2021). Additionally, vasopressor medication assists in maintaining mean artery pressures higher than 65 mmHg (Weinstein, Deshwal & Brosnahan, 2021). Additionally, cardiopulmonary assistance is beneficial in individuals with a greater risk of PE or respiratory failure (Konstantinides et al., 2020).


Pulmonary Embolism is a severe illness with a high frequency. Though there are many counterarguments on the disease, treatment, and care for patients with this illness are vital. Some treatments found to be effective include: anticoagulation therapies, surgical treatment, vasopressors, and frequent monitoring of the patient. Though these treatments are of significant efficacy, there are still high mortality rates related to the illness. Therefore, more research is needed to identify possible treatments for more effective outcomes.


Dalen, J. E., & Alpert, J. S. (2020). Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Embolism: What Have We Learned in the Last 50 Years?. The American Journal of Medicine133(4), 404-406.

Konstantinides, S. V., et al. (2020). 2019 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of acute pulmonary Embolism developed in collaboration with the European Respiratory Society (ERS) The Task Force for diagnosing and managing acute pulmonary Embolism of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). European heart journal41(4), 543-603.

Lopez, E.Z. et al. (2021). Management of Pulmonary Embolism in the Intensive Care Unit. Clinical Hematology, 21.6. Retrieved from:

Weinstein, T., Deshwal, H., & Brosnahan, S. B. (2021). Advanced management of intermediate-high risk pulmonary embolism. Critical Care25(1), 1-8. Retrieved from:

Yamamoto, T. (2018). Management of patients with high-risk Pulmonary Embolism: a narrative review. Journal of intensive care6(1), 1-9.

Race And Ethnic Relations Free Sample

In our current society, race matters as people tend to be hostile to those people who are not like them; this results in racism. Most black people, especially those living among the whites, often face rejection and ill-treatment. The whites perceive them as inferior people and should be their slaves. Some whites bury their heads in the sand and object to recognize the explicit racism that the Black people are habitually subjected to in America. Racism can deny people access to resources in society, some of which they have been involved in generating (Staff, 2021). Biologically, racism does not matter; there are no differences within the human species. Racism matters a lot because it can determine the quality of life of both white and black people.

Racism is a two-edged sword; it causes harm to both parties. The white people do not understand that they hurt themselves by denying the Blacks opportunities to contribute sufficiently to society. Racism can also, to some extent, be of benefit to the Blacks in that they can be become super successful (Staff, 2021). The resistance they receive from the whites makes them stronger, giving them the ability to evolve. When the Blacks realize this concept and make good use of the resources available, the sky will be their limit of what can be achieved.

Colorblindness is the racial ideology that speculates the best way to eliminate discrimination by treating and viewing all individuals as equal regardless of their race, culture, or ethnicity. The doctrine believes that racism does not exist as long as we ignore it. It also encourages disengaging from conversations of race and racism in totality. Individuals embracing colorblindness see racial disparities, history of brutality, trauma, and inequalities perpetuated in a racist society. In a race-related crisis, colorblindness individualizes conflicts and shortcomings instead of viewing the larger picture with stereotypes and cultural differences. Therefore, colorblindness is one of the critical foundation pillars of a disunited society.

According to Mazzocco, there are four different types of colorblindness (Swhelper, 2017). They include protectionist, egalitarian, antagonistic, and visionary. He explains what it means to be racially colorblind in today’s society through his model. Protectionists have a high prejudice and low awareness. They believe minimal racial inequalities and the minorities complaining of imbalance are “playing the race card.” Egalitarians have low discrimination and shared understanding. They believe that racial; justice has been achieved, and thus there is a need to discuss racial issues. Antagonistic have high prejudice and high awareness. They know there is an error in racial justice, but they are okay with it. Visionary has common discrimination and increased awareness. They believe that racial injustice is present, and the way to overcome it is to stop emphasizing racial differences and boundaries and focus on what people have in common.

According to Mazzocco, colorblindness leads to the failure of the discussion about racial justice. Different colorblind such as visionary and antagonistic, have different beliefs. Color blindness is harmful since it does not acknowledge the myriad problems the minority groups face in society. People should not have the perception that racial discrimination does not exist. Minority groups indeed face real struggles and actual costs. One remedy to racial colorblindness is multiculturalism. In a multicultural society, the community members tolerate and embrace differences in culture. In this society, people highly acknowledge that racial disparities exist, and therefore, they celebrate diversity.

Colorblindness denies the lived experiences of other people. Most white people adopt an individualistic lifestyle. Most white majorities live in segregated parts of the cities, making it difficult to think about the social policies and laws that lead to the gaps in wealth and education equality along racial lines. The individualist lifestyle casts problems such as poverty as personal failings. Colorblindness allows the whites to live in ignorance, innocence, and naivete. Therefore, it is crucial to acknowledge that racial injustice exists and fight against it. Individualism is not the best lifestyle.

Colorblindness dims the value of ethnic and racial cultures and identities. Racial cultures cannot be neglected since they are our identities. Colorblindness implicates that identity doesn’t matter, yet the blacks are ill-treated because of their identity (VergeNetwork, 2016). The identifying race begins so early that children as young as five years and below can note the difference. At this stage, parents and guardians need to affirm that the physical differences exist, celebrate the beauty and diversity, and explain why Black people have darker skin. The minority group will always know right from their childhood that people will often judge them due to their color. Colorblindness should not be the thing, but systems of inequality should be visible to be dismantled.

Researchers have found out that this ideology of ignoring institutional racism promotes racial injustice in terms of housing, education, income, and criminal justice. The concept is an antipathy towards the minorities and justification of policies that oppress the minorities. Seeing the existence of racism leads to the development of policies and laws that fight racism.

Embracing colorblindness has blinded the whites that the Blacks depend majorly on whites on almost every quality of their lives (Gallagher, 2017). It explains why there is a need to note the existence of race. Although the Black people should not be treated to make them feel inferior and lower their self-esteem, it is also a fact that they are also a little bit lower than the whites and thus, a great need to be supported. The Blacks mostly need support in finances, health services, and education. Colorblindness allows the whites to see that they are equal to the Blacks and thus, tend to deny offering help to the Black people.

One possible way of getting out of colorblindness is to avoid thinking of racism exclusively as views and acts done individually but instead think about it from a broad perspective (Vincenty, 2020). People should also read books concerning racism. Apart from self-examination, it is significant to value other people’s life experiences because they also got implications in your life. There is a need to have in mind that racism exists.

Another way of eradicating colorblindness and racism is by talking about racism. The techniques help people to evade racist behaviors. People should be enlightened on the different forms of racism, the negative implications, and the consequences of practicing racism. People should take note of racism and speak it out. It also helps to assess the rate of racism and therefore put other measures if the speed is high. The government can introduce tight measures to curb racism.

Racial colorblindness is, thus, dangerous to society. It blinds people to the fact that racism does not exist and fails to fight racism. It denies us our cultural identities live experiences of other people and blinds the white from the fact that the Black people majorly depend on them for most of their lives.


Gallagher, C. A. (2017). Colorblind privilege: The social and political functions of erasing the color line in post-race America.

Staff, C. (2021, September 23). Does race matter? The Chicago Crusader.

Swhelper. (2017, August 23). 403 forbidden. 403 Forbidden.

Vincenty, C. (2020, June 12). Being color blind doesn’t make you not racist—In fact, it can mean the opposite. Oprah Daily.

VergeNetwork. (2016). Why ‘colorblindness’ is toxic. Retrieved from