Public Health Problems: Bioterrorism Homework Essay Sample


To begin with, there is a strong necessity to mention that bioterrorism is generally defined as the intentional actions, aimed at making harm for the lives of the people or creatures, living in some particular area through the dissemination of biological agents (bacteria, viruses o toxins). These agents may be either of natural form or in human modification. Originally, the issues of biological terrorism are regarded as the actual and burning problem of nowadays, consequently, the attention of media sources is essentially increased towards these matters. This paper is generally aimed at analyzing the representation of the issues of bioterrorism in different mass media and informational sources for the deeper study of the seriousness of the problem, and how deep are the people concerned with it.

Media Attention

The fact is that media attention, which is attracted to the problem of biological terrorism is often regarded as unjustified, as this attention mostly increases the level of panic within peaceful citizens, while the best counteraction is the reasonable resistance and properly planned actions, aimed at neutralizing any threat. Kohrs (2008, p. 241) emphasizes bioterrorism as the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria, or other biological agents, which are harmful to human health, agricultural products, flora, or fauna of the attacked area: “Originally, these agents are typically found in nature. Nevertheless, it is possible that they could be changed to increase their ability to cause disease, make them resistant to current medicines, or to increase their ability to be spread into the environment. Biological agents can be spread through the air, water, or food. Terrorists may use biological agents because they can be extremely difficult to detect and do not cause illness for several hours to several days.” In the light of this fact, there is a strong necessity to mention that the definition of bioterrorism as deliberate actions is the generally accepted notion, nevertheless, non-deliberate actions are more likely than terroristic action, especially, taking into consideration that not all biological agents are infectious. Initially, the increased attention to terrorism in general and bioterrorism in particular, have appeared after the occasions on September 11, 2001. Since that time, the public has become essentially worried about the issues of bioterrorism.

This attention is expressed in the discussion of various terroristic organizations, their location, the location of their leaders, and the terroristic acts, which they perform. It should be stated, that the bio terroristic actions have not been registered for the recent three years, nevertheless, countries all over the world are aiming to become defended from the possible expressions of biological threats. Thus, AAMC (2008) provides the following data on the matters of anti-terroristic activity: “The final FY 2005 appropriations bill provides $1.164 billion for the anti-terroristic activity, which includes $396.8 million for the Strategic National Stockpile, $926.9 million for state and local preparedness, $141.1 million for improving the defense capabilities, $79.4 million for biosurveillance activities, and $16.7 million for anthrax vaccine research. The HRSA Hospital Bioterrorism Preparedness program receives $491.4 million, a $26.6 million (5.2 percent) decrease below FY 2004. The curriculum development program receives $27.5 million, level with last year. Another $47 million is directed to the NIH for research on countermeasures.”

As for the recent cases of bioterrorism, it should be stated that epidemics like SARS and N1H1 are regarded to be terroristic actions, resulted from the concealed terroristic activity. These viruses could not appear by themselves, and, most evidently, these are the results of human activity. On the one hand, the results of such “attack” are not displayed at once, on the other hand, these “attacks” are performed without the weapons of mass destruction, thus, there is no necessity to blame someone in it, and if there are some initiators, they are not regarded to be responsible in these actions. The fact is that these opinions are not discussed openly. As for the attention of media towards these issues, it should be stated that N1H1 is not regarded as the expression of terrorism, nevertheless, such supposition is made by FDA researchers: “the FDA may now recklessly approve inadequately tested, potentially dangerous vaccines and other drugs if ever the Secretaries of Health and Human Services (HHS) or Defense (DOD) declare a national emergency, whether or not one exists and regardless of whether treatments available are safe and effective. Around $6 billion or more will be spent to develop, produce, and stockpile vaccines and other drugs to counteract claimed biological agents, used for terroristic goals.” (Lendman, 2009, p. 462) Swine flu is also claimed to be some unsuccessful biological experiment, the results of which have spread extensively. Nevertheless, if they got spread with someone’s assistance, these are the symptoms of bioterrorism, and the fact, that these actions may stay unpunished.

The largest part of media attention for bioterrorism is applied in the context of biological defense and elaboration of means and measures, aimed at improving the defense levels of national armies and security services. Thus, the press service of WHO often publishes the facts as for the matters of international documentation, aimed at unifying various States for the collective defense and collective security within the frames of global terrorism resistance, and bioterrorism in particular. It is emphasized, that International Health Regulations (2005) have been revised in 2007, for the more effective terrorism resistance. WHO (Public Health, 2009) emphasizes that these changes have essentially changed the allover image of the global security system, and the way that key public health issues of global significance are handled by the international community. Consequently, these rules were updated and changed by the current needs of global security and health care systems. The attention of media towards these events is stipulated by the fact, that people wish to know how they may be defended by the governments of their countries if the threat of bioterrorism becomes real. Moreover, all the defense measures make people assured that they are cared for, consequently, everything is under control.


Finally, there is a strong necessity to mention that the issues of bioterrorism are not paid much attention in various media in comparison with other factors of everyday life on the global scale. It is stipulated by the fact that the public should not be shocked (as panic may be provoked) on the one hand, and the notion that bioterrorists act quietly, and the results of their activity are not displayed at once. On the other hand, the actions, performed by international organizations and governments of the states are extensively highlighted, as the anti-terroristic policies and health care systems should be constantly improved.


AAMC (2008) “Bioterrorism Preparedness, FY 2007 Funding”. Web.

Kohrs, B. (2008). Bioterrorism Defense: Are State Mandated Compulsory Vaccination Programs an Infringement upon a Citizen’s Constitutional Rights?. Journal of Law and Health, 17(2), 241.

Lendman, S (2009) “N1H1 (Swine Flu) Is now Level 6 Pandemic- Manditory Vaccinations?” Journal of American Healthcare. Vol.6 no. 45. Pp. 456-470.

Public Health (2009) “Bioterrorism” Grey Bruce Health Unit. Web.

Community Policing Assignment: A History Of Police Work In The Criminal Justice System


The criminal justice system helps in the enforcement of the laws by ensuring that any individual who breaks the law is arrested and charged for the wrongs done. The police are part of the criminal justice system and are responsible for the arresting of the law breakers and gathering evidence of the crimes committed before the individual is charged in a court of law. The establishment of the police force in the United States took place in the mid-nineteenth century and since then the police have taken different responsibilities. The ways that the police have operated in history have differed and this has led to many reforms in the police force meant to enhance work of the force and led to the introduction of community policing in the United States. The laws that have been enacted in the history have many effects on the social lives of different individuals in the United States. Some of the problems that exist today still existed in the history and these are just repetitions of the events. This paper will seek to analyze the history of the police work in the criminal justice system in America.

Injustices, Discriminations, and Corruption Cases in the Police Force

The relationship between the community and the police force was not that good in the United States due to cases of corruption and other injustices to some races. There were numerous cases of corruption where the police could arrest an individual having committed a crime only to release him or her for money (Lawrence 2002). Those who had money to bribe the police were never worried of committing crimes since their money offered them protection against the laws. Those who didn’t have enough money were mistreated and even if they proceeded to the police officers, no justice happened on their side. The individual could be arrested but within a short period of time, the individual would be set free and even mistreat the victim more. This led to frustrations on the part of the poor people and eventually hatred to the police because all the injustices happened to them as a result of the corruption in the police force. The poor people could not see the importance of the police force in the country and if anything, it led to more oppression than its absence.

In recruiting the policemen, some genders and races were not qualified to join the police force (Gary 2000). The African-Americans found it very hard for them to join the police force just because of racial discriminations. Women on the other hand were not allowed to join the police force with an argument that they were weak and their capacity was low to join the force. Other injustices were seen when the police were arresting the individuals where the African-Americans could be arrested for a crime and a white be left. This not only took place in the arresting but also in determining cases in courts where the African-Americans received long sentences or fines while the whites could receive a shorter sentence for a similar case. Poor management and unqualified officers in the police force could have contributed to these cases in the police force.


To try and reduce the cases of corruption, a method in which a policeman was not to spend much time in one center was introduced. There was an argument that the policemen were involved in cases of corruption because they got used to individuals in the communities due to too much exposure to the individuals. Transferring the officers after a short period of time was seen as a way of reducing the vulnerability of the officers to corruption. As a matter of fact, it is quite hard to find a police officer asking or accepting a bribe from some very new people to him or her and more so in a community where he or she doesn’t know the trends. The establishment of a nonpartisan police board was meant to help in improving the management and governing the police force. This would reduce the many claims made by citizens about the actions by the police officers. In search of professional qualified officers, a fair system of promotions within the department was adopted where the individuals to be promoted within the department was to be on merit and not on friendly basis (Jeffrey 2008). The process of recruitment was also to be enhanced and the salaries were to be increased so that professional officers could be attracted.

Other reforms took place aimed at freeing the police force from political interference so that their actions could not be affected by the party that was in authority (Jeffrey 2008). The roles of the police were also changed whereby they were now not required to take social work but to concentrate on law enforcement. All these in combination with the enhancement in technology where the telephone, automobile and the radio were introduced helped in reduction of crime by the policemen.

Emergence of Other Crimes

The introduction of professionalism did work very well for the local police officers. Professionalism was not being practiced at the local level which led to criticism on the issue. Other issues of crime started erupting where riots took place in urban areas, cases of assassinations were reported, and violence by gangs was also common (Jeffrey 2008). The force was extensively blamed for the vices and many individuals complained about the way that the police responded to their calls. The police force was seen to fail in implementing its duty to serve and protect the citizens and other individuals complained on the difficulties that they experienced in accessing the police services.

Strategies Assumed

Other strategies were assumed where in some cases police-community relations were established aimed at reducing the difficulties that the minor individuals experienced (Lawrence 2005). This took place in the 1960s but a problem erupted where the issue of trust between the police and the members of the community was the problem. This led to the adoption of team policing in the 1970s which introduced the more police officers traveling in patrol cars and few patrolling on foot. A team of officers was assigned a certain region to manage and protect. This brought an isolation of the officers from the individuals and reduced corruption. However, this method made control quite difficult for the policemen. Community policing led to the introduction of a system where the police officers and members of the community get a closer relationship. The police officers not only arrest criminals and respond to emergency calls by individuals but also perform social work with an aim of creating solutions to the problems that exist. The policemen work closely with the minor individuals and aims at improving their conditions in the society.

Problems Associated with Community Policing

Community policing has been adopted by many departments just because the funds required to sponsor it are available. Many departments do not take time to plan on how to implement it. Another issue is the specific individuals to be served where the police are at times not sure of whom to serve. Complaints from residents on ignorance by the police officers are common and this may lead to resentment in the community. The abolishment of the foot patrol reduced the possibility of the required efficiency in offering services. Community policing is also likely to increase corruption cases since it brings the officers closer to the citizens leading to vulnerability and temptations to corruption. The involvement of the police officers in community policing may reduce the capacity of the policemen in fighting crime since the officers are involved in several activities at the same time (Marvin 1996).


The police force is an important arm in the criminal justice system and has the major responsibility of fighting crime. The police force has gone through major reforms with an aim of improving the way that it offers its services to the members of the community. Cases of corruption have been common and several steps have been taken to help reduce these cases. Some of the strategies assumed include transferring officers from one station to another so as to reduce vulnerability to cases of corruption. Other issues of concern have been the treatment of the minor in the community where some ways of improving the status of these individuals have ban adopted. Some other reforms have taken place in the history of the police force such as changing the roles of the police officers where they can control crimes and perform social work on behalf of the individuals in the community. Some of the initial reforms did not materialize very well and the results were riots, violence by gangs, assassinations, etc. this led to the emergence of other trends such as police-community relations, team policing, and community policing. Community policing has been extensively used and has brought some changes.

Work Cited

Gary, Marx T. Undercover: Police Surveillance in America. New York: University of California Press, 2000.

Jeffrey, Patterson. Community Policing: Learning the Lessons of History. 2008.

Lawrence, Friedman A. A History of American Law, 3rd Ed. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005.

Lawrence, Friedman M. American Law in the Twentieth Century. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002.

Marvin, Dulany W. Black Police in America. New Jersey: Indiana University Press, 1996.

The Roles Of Organization Design In Proper Business Management

Organization design is a process of creating roles and designing reporting relationships in an organization. It is a guided process that integrates people and technology within the organization management and is aimed at improving the collective responsibility in the handling of duties thus ensuring success in achieving set objectives (Roberts, 2008). The management and other workers design the organization goals after which teams are created to ensure the set objectives are all achieved. The teams are required to follow systematic procedures and critically analyze the environmental factors that would hinder the accomplishment of the set goals.

Principles of setting organization design

The organization design is based on the hierarchical principle. In this concept, organizations are managed through a bureaucratic system in which duties, authorities, and responsibilities are passed downwards. The organization’s policies are passed from the top management to the subordinates under the guidance of departmental heads who supervise different activities at every level in the organization. The principle encourages specialization as workers are assigned responsibilities in areas where they own technical skills such as sales, accounting, and event production. Every employee within the organization reports to the higher authority in the hierarchy. However, the principal faces many challenges such as oppression of workers in lower ranks hence low morale in accomplishing the set goals. These factors arise due to putting different workers from different cultural backgrounds together to achieve common goals as the differences might hinder the organizational work ethics and workers’ commitment to achieving the set goals.

The design process

The process begins with strategy creation which involves the establishment of guidelines to accomplish the set organization goals. The management derives strategy from the organization’s mission and vision as well as statements of purpose which defines the organization’s philosophy of existence (Roberts, 2008). The strategy enhances unity within the organization by enabling stakeholders to work towards achieving the set organization goals. After this, workers are grouped and assigned responsibilities to accomplish within a specific period and ensuring that every objective is achieved.

Roles of organizational design

Organizational design plays a major role in achieving the set objectives of an organization. It helps the stakeholders to concentrate their efforts towards attaining the organizational objectives by specializing in activities they are well suited to and those that would ensure prosperity and customer loyalty. First, it promotes innovation within the organization. Innovation entails the successful introduction of new methods of carrying out activities within an organization that is meant to add value to the product already in the market (Mackernzie, 1986). It includes the synthesis of knowledge from the original concept to add relevant value to the new products of the organization. Due to greater specialization in various organizations, workers are assigned duties in departments they are well suited to due to their skills and experience. As a result, they can create new ideas that would ensure the achievement of the goals and objectives. Similarly, they can create new ideas on the best production methods, product branding systems, and even best methods to market their products. These inventions are brought about by changes in technology and are later put into operation under the guidance of the manager who ensures their full implementation for the sake of future prosperity according to the mission, vision, and direction (Burton, 2006). The inventions enable the organization to withstand the challenges brought about by stiff market competition that might make it lose brand loyalty.

Promotion of social responsibility

Business organizations are endowed with various responsibilities within the organization itself and society. Organization design ensures these responsibilities are achieved by assigning every stakeholder his/her duties to accomplish in an effort the meet the set goals and maximization of the organization’s values. The design ensures that the organization maximizes the shareholder’s revenue by rising beyond the environmental barriers and ensuring workers are paid their dues promptly to motivate them towards achieving the organization’s goals. In enhancing social responsibility, the design encourages the employment of the society members into the organization, improving public image through accepting consumer associations, charging acceptable prices on their products, and ensuring maximum use of resources to avoid wastage (Mackernzie, 1986). These strategies enable the organization to operate in a friendly environment in which both the society members and the organization enjoy using the products thus increase in sales of the organization’s productivity.

Ensuring improved product quality

Organization design enables the business to make proper use of the Six Sigma technique. This technique ensures effective communication between customers, shareholders, and even employees. It ensures improved production methodology and aims at eliminating defects and inefficiency in production by indicating performance level that culminates in reliability and value addition to the services rendered to customers. Since the design ensures specialization according to skills possessed by workers, they can put much effort into areas such as production, sales, and finance among others (Roberts, 2008). As a result, departments associated with production and customer services can undertake research activities towards high-quality production of goods and services that ensure customer satisfaction. Similarly, they can undertake blending and branding of the organization products thus assuring the consumers of high-quality products and easy identification of products hence the organization can compete effectively in the market.

Improvement in the quality of management

A properly designed structure of workers’ responsibilities and well-defined reporting techniques are essential in improving the quality of management in an organization. Managers are considered the role models in any organization as workers tend to copy their commitments towards achieving the organization’s goals (Burton, 2006). Organization design through specialization ensures that the duties of top management are not pegged on issues such outside the organization but rather on general supervisory of activities going on within an organization. As a result, the management has to establish proper evaluation and reward systems for workers who commit themselves most towards the achievement of organization goals. The rewarded workers get motivated and work harder towards retaining the reward that could be monetary or not. This promotes the spirit of hard work and full commitment to the organization’s duties among workers as they compete against each other in meeting organizational goals. As a result, accountability, transparency, and loyalty to the organization are encouraged leading to profit maximization.

Proper utilization of organizations assets

An organization’s assets are for its own needs. These assets include business strategies, organization data, organization’s confidential information, equipment, employee time, and vehicles among others. The strategic design ensures maximum utilization of these assets as well as frequent renovation to ensure continuity in organization activities (Burton, 2006). The management has the responsibility to protect the organization’s assets from vandalism and ensures that the assets such as equipment and vehicles are used for valid organization purposes. Through the clear separation of duties and responsibilities, organization design enables workers to protect every asset in their departments as this reduces expenses on repair costs and channels the money to other duties.

Encouraging financial management and investment

For an organization to achieve its goals there must be financial stability. The finance department must keep records of expenses incurred within a given period of operation while implementing the organization’s goals. The design promotes accountability over the use of organizational resources such as finance by ensuring that every department accounts for its expenses at the end of the financial period. Also, the design provides for the investment of extra capital in the stock market (Mackernzie, 1986). The remaining capitals are sold to the public in terms of shares during the Initial Public Offer (IPO) and are used to measure the country’s economic development. The design, therefore, allows for accountability in financial handling leading to expansion in a business capacity.

Organizational design is therefore the major determinant of the prosperity of any organization. This is because it incorporates skilled workers whose ideas are shared all over the organization and assigns individuals to implement the various policies created by them( Burton, 2006). The design also promotes the incorporation of technology into the management and production systems thus enabling companies to produce high-quality goods and services to satisfy customer needs hence prosperity of the organization.


Burton, R. (2006).Organizational design: a step-by-step approach.Cambridge: Cambridge University press.

Mackernzie, K. (1986).Organizational design: the organizational audit and analysis technology, Communication and information science. New York: Ablex Publishers Corporation.

Roberts, J. (2008).The Modern Firm: Organizational Design for Performance and Growth. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.

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