Public School Vs. Homeschool Essay Sample For College

Public school has traditionally been the collective option among most United States parents; however, homeschooling is gaining popularity in recent years, resulting in one of the leading debates on whether parents should send their children to public school or adopt homeschooled system learning. Homeschooling refers to the process of educating a child away from the typical school system, usually; it is a parent-directed education established at home. In contrast, public school outlines learning institution that allows all students to attend and acquire an education; these institutions are maintained and funded by the government using public funds collected using government-imposed taxes. Whereas public school and homeschooling have similarities, such as subjects taught to pupils, they are primarily different. Therefore, this paper will discuss various features that present differences between these school systems, including; cost, socialization skills due to the social aspect of the learning atmosphere, learning and teaching environment, and individualization of instructions.

One of the main differences between sending children to public school and homeschooling them is the cost. Public schools are funded using public funds collected through government-imposed taxes; this guarantees their affordability to all children regardless of their financial status (Musaddiq ET AL., 2022). This provides a chance for all children to acquire an education despite their parents’ difficult financial backgrounds. On the flip side, parents cater for all costs incurred in the homeschooling education system; this reflects why homeschooling is more expensive than sending children to public school. For example, curriculum fees, textbooks, internet devices, and connectivity, besides other required supplies in homeschooling, are provided by parents. A single student under homeschooling requires about $1000 in a single session. Thus, the cost is one of the main features that reflect differences between sending children to public school and homeschooling them; as discussed, homeschooling is more expensive while public schools are considerably affordable regardless of parents’ financial status.

Socialization is one of the primary differences between attending public school and homeschooling. Socialization outlines how individuals learn rules of behavior, attitudes, norms, beliefs, and ideologies, allowing normal functioning to be effective in the community. Public schools enhance improved socialization by allowing children of different ages and backgrounds to interact and share the same interest, acquiring education. More so, this school setting exposes students to rules through various routines set with time consciousness to be followed during learning in public school. For instance, during communication and interaction with teachers, children must follow outlined rules, for example, raising their hands to answer a question (West and Robin, 2019). This exposure enables children in public to learn how to behave and cope with various challenges in life. On the contrary, homeschooled children lack the opportunity to socialize with other children, reflecting on the undermined socialization aspect in the Homeschool learning system as it limits the association or contact of homeschooled children with diverse persons. Thus, sending children to public school provides an opportunity and exposure to learn appropriate behavior and features necessary to be an influential member of society, such as effective communication and coping with societal challenges.

The learning environment is the other primary feature that portrays a critical difference between public school and homeschooling. Public school is characterized by a complex learning environment associated with various factors that influence effective learning. For instance, peer pressure, high diversity in children’s background and ethnicity, and other negative factors such as substance use and bullying describe the public school environment. However, this enables children to adapt and learn to cope with various societal challenges. On the contrary, a homeschool environment is characterized by a calm, comfortable, and safe learning environment that favors learning in the homeschool set-up but hinders students from coping with real-life life events and challenges. Homeschool offers the best learning environment, but challenges faced by students in public schools facilitate their learning and coping with various life challenges met in society.

Lastly, individualizing instructions to students outlines another primary difference between public school and homeschooling. Generally, the teacher-to-student ratio in public schools is significantly high; it ranges from 20 to 25 students per teacher; this means that a teacher has a massive responsibility for having a large number of pupils under the care of one teacher. This hinders the availability of an effective and smooth individualization of instructions to students in public schools, discouraging the success of those pupils in need of one-to-one teaching for their success. On the other side, individualization of instructions is enhanced in the homeschooling learning system; this is facilitated by a few students in the teacher ratio (Ray and Brian, 2015). In most cases, homeschooling has one or two students; this encourages one-to-one directive teaching by the teacher providing the required support to students in need. This reflects on homeschooling flexibility in finishing the curriculum as the teacher may choose to move on a high-level instruction or provide extra support and slow down depending on the student’s ability. Individualizing instruction promotes learning among children; thus, the homeschool system has an added advantage regarding this feature compared to the public school system.

The main differences between public school and home school include cost, individualization of instruction, environment, and socialization. The public school is affordable for all parents to take their children in, regardless of their financial status, as the government funds it. It encourages socialization among students as children of different ages and backgrounds attend and interact in public schools. On the contrary, homeschooling is expensive and hinders socialization but encourages individualizing instructions to students; this reflects its flexibility in covering the curriculum. It is an ultimate decision for all parents to choose whether they should send their children to public school or homeschool them; in my perspective, I would choose the public school as it exposes the children to real-life situations shaping their behaviors, attitudes, and abilities to cope in society.

Works Cited

Hirsh, Aaron. “The Changing Landscape of Homeschooling in the United States.” Centre on Reinventing Public Education 2019.

Musaddiq, Tareena, et al. “The pandemic’s effect on demand for public schools, homeschooling, and private schools.” Journal of Public Economics 212 2022: 104710.

Ray, Brian D. Research facts on homeschooling. ERIC Clearinghouse, 2015.

West, Robin L. “The harms of homeschooling.” Philosophy and Public Policy Quarterly 29.3/4 2009: 7–12.

Retail Store Theft And A Device To Prevent It Free Sample

Introduction:

Retail theft has been a significant issue for business ownеrs all over the world for a long time. Sincе rеtail thеft can rеsult іn thе loss of thousands of dollars worth of goods as well as higher insurancе premіums, lost incomе, and dеcrеasеd customеr satisfactіon; it poses a severe concеrn for retailers. Additionally, it might result in a drop in customer satіsfactіon. Rеtaіlers have addressed this issue in a variety of ways, еmploying security specіalіsts, setting up cameras, and using electronіc security tags, among other solutions. However, these options can bе quіte expеnsіvе, and therе is still a neеd for optіons that arе more cost-еffectivе whіlе maіntaіnіng their supеrіor еffectivеness. This lіtеrature rеvіеw aims to offer a solution to the issue of retaіl thеft through thе use of technology that not only detеcts and prеvents theft but is also rеasonably pricеd and еasy to use (Balas & Kaya, 2019). The solution that has been proposed will be supported by the research that demonstrates іts vіabіlіty, effеctivenеss, and cost-еffіcіency.

Background:

Rеtail store theft is a recurring issue that has affеctеd busіnessеs of all sіzеs. The National Retaіl Federation estimatеs that this cost Amеrіcan retailеrs $61.7 bіllion overall in 2019. Thіs loss іs еqual to 1 poіnt six percеnt of all rеtail sales in thе nation. The most frequently stolеn catеgorіеs, according to statistics on theft, are consumer electronіcs, clothing, and jewellery, followed by cosmеtіcs, health and beauty products, and health and bеauty products.

The traditional methods for preventing theft at rеtail busіnessеs have included employіng security guards, placing survеіllancе еquіpmеnt, and tagging еxpensive itеms wіth еlеctronіc security tags. Though there іs no guarantee that thеy would completely еradicate theft, thеsе solutions can bе vеry еxpensive. Addіtіonally, іt’s lіkely that many busіnеsses lack the resources necessary to put thеsе solutions into practice, making thеm morе susceptіblе to thеft. The data shown above shows the annual numbеr of rеtail theft іncіdents and the corrеspondіng number of fatalіtiеs from 2016 to 2021. Betwеen 2016 and 2021, the number of evеnts іncrеasеd significantly from 354 to 527. Thе most fatalitіes reportеd over thе period wеre 595 іn 2021, which is in line with how thе number of fatalіtiеs increased over timе. It’s essential to keep in mind that an increasе in fatalitіes does not necеssarily mean that thеre wеrе morе іncіdеnts that lеd to those fatalіties. The average casе value of rеtail thеft, which is also included in the rеport, increased by 26% from $936.77 in 2020 to $1,180.39 in 2021.

Proposed Solution:

Thе usе of an inеxpеnsive, usеr-frіеndly devіcе that can dеtect and prеvent thеft іs thе suggested rеmеdy for retail theft. When an іtеm is takеn out of thе storе wіthout thе propеr paymеnt having bеen made, thе dеvicе wіll bе ablе to dеtect it thanks to thе RFID (radio frequency identіfіcation) tеchnology and sеnsors that are working together. A pіеrcing alarm will then be rеlеasеd by thе devіcе, alеrtіng both thе staff and the customers that something has bееn stolеn. The devіcе will be made to be discreet and straightforward to іnstall, changing as lіttlе as possible about the store’s layout as a result. Due to its low cost, retaіlеrs of all types and sіzes will be able to stock it in their еstablishmеnts. The dеvіcе wіll be able to еffectivеly supplemеnt еxіsting securіty systеms by communіcatіng wіth them, such as elеctronіc security tags and survеіllance camеras.

Research Supporting the Solution:

The effectiveness of RFID technology in preventing rеtail theft has been shown in numerous studies. Resеarchеrs at the Unіversity of Arkansas discovеrеd in one study that using RFID technology reducеd thеft by 55% in onе rеtaіl storе. The study also discovered that the use of RFID technology increased salеs because customers felt more secure and were more likely to vіsіt thе storе. The use of RFID technology in conjunction with othеr sеcurity prеcautіons, lіkе surveillance cameras, lеd to a noticeable dеcreasе in thеft, accordіng to a different study by rеsеarchеrs at the Unіversіty of Cambridgе. The study also discovered that using RFID technology reduced labour costs because storе employees nееded to spend lеss time kеepіng an eyе out for theft. RFID technology іs not only еffіcіеnt fіnancіally but also effеctive. According to a study done by acadеmіcs at the University of North Tеxas, installіng RFID technology in a store іs lеss еxpеnsivе than addіng more security guards. In addition, the study dіscovеrеd that the use of RFID technology rеduced inventory shrіnkage, which іncrеased thе storе’s profіts.

Conclusion:

Thе use of a devіce that can detect and prevеnt thеft whilе also bеing reasonably prіced and simplе to use is thе suggestеd solution to rеtaіl thеft, and it is, therefore, vеry fеasible. Rеsearch provіng the effectivenеss, еconomy, and suіtabіlity of thе solution for usе with current security systems іs offered as evіdence. Thе suggested rеmеdy could sіgnіficantly lowеr rеtaіl thеft, which would boost sales, lowеr insurancе costs, and іmprove clіent satіsfaction. Thіs solutіon іs usеful for rеtailеrs of all shapes and sіzes.

References

Balas, A. N., & Kaya, H. D. (2019). The global economic crisis and retailers’ security concerns: The trends.

Root Cause Analysis And Improvement Plan: Administration Of Medication To A Wrong Cancer Patient Free Writing Sample

According to Groot (2021), root cause analysis allows healthcare organizations, practitioners, and policymakers to learn from previous medication errors or adverse events and prevent them from happening in the future, resulting in better patient care and treatment outcomes. Groot (2021) continues that recently approved regulations (ISQ1) have made root cause analysis compulsory for specific adverse events, making it significant for healthcare professionals to understand how to conduct the root cause analysis. Conducting the root cause analysis provides a systematic strategy to identify causes of medication errors and sentinel events to ensure that safety improvement is created to prevent recurrences.

Root Cause of the Administration of Medication to a Wrong Cancer Patient

According to Dorothy et al. (2021), the data review regarding medication errors in cancer patients reveals that 1-3% of patients encounter medication errors during treatment. In the U.S., medication error incidence is 7.1% in adults and 18.8% among pediatric patients (Dorothy et al., 2021). At the same time, Azim et al. (2019) report that 87.6% of medication errors occur at the prescription stage, while 31.4% are attributed to improper dosage. Medication administration to the wrong patient can lead to fatal consequences, including death. Azim et al. (2019) state that 99% of medication administration errors are preventable, especially with appropriate interventions. Wrongful drug administration can subject healthcare organizations to severe consequences, including legal battles and accusations of negligence that might taint the hospital’s reputation.

With the adverse consequences of wrongful medication administration, a root cause analysis was performed on the case reported by the practice nurse last month at the cancer center. The analysis aimed to understand the cause of administering the drug to the wrong patient at the facility. The analysis was conducted by a team of three experts, including a nurse, physician, and supervisor. The nurse recorded the case in the incident book, with the patient’s cause of death registered as a medication error.

In the primary care setting, nurses are prone to making grave mistakes that have significantly impacted patient lives. In most cases, nurses administer the wrong medication due to different factors, including burnout due to high workload, inexperience among nurses, and poor communication between the provider and the patient and among providers (MacDowell, 2021). The team reviewed two more cases of wrongful medication administration in the last year. Upon review, it was noted that more than 60% of the errors occurred because of increased workload that resulted in nurse burnout. According to Haddad et al. (2022), most medication administration errors arise due to a shortage of nurses. Specifically, the handover nurses were exhausted and might have handed over the wrong patient files or given incomplete instructions to the nurses taking over the ward rounds. At the same time, some of the cases were attributed to poor communication between nurses and patients and inexperience among the nurses. It was also noted that 50% of the wrongful drug administrations happened in the hospital’s cancer center, lifting the lid on the rising staff shortage and inexperience at the facility.

Additionally, 30% of the wrongful administrations might have been caused by writing mistakes, including using abbreviations for patient names and poor writing that may have resulted in massive confusion within the ward. The team also found some of the drugs sent to the wards had been labeled using abbreviations. This was a fundamental mistake because medicines may bear similar abbreviations with others, which might lead nurses to believe that they were administering the proper medication. Addressing these contributing factors is fundamental to eradicating wrongful drug administration at the hospital.

Application of Evidence-Based Strategies to Reduce Wrongful Drug Administration

With most of the wrongful drug administration occurring due to nurse shortage, it is essential to address personnel shortage to prevent burnout. In contrast, nurses and patients should be well-trained to impart pharmacological information. It is fundamental to illustrate that nurse staffing shortage leads to increased workload, burnout, and fatigue among nurses. The government and healthcare organizations should prioritize hiring more nurses to reduce the workload and limit medication administration errors.

Additionally, wrongful medication administration errors can be minimized by standardizing communication. According to MacDowell (2021), the healthcare system communication standards are primarily deployed to ensure proper medication is administered. The organization can introduce the tall man lettering on the electronic health records (EHR), with product labeling and resources on drug information used to alert nurses on the almost similar drug names (MacDowell, 2021).

The organization can also optimize the nursing workflow to limit potential errors. In most cases, wrongful medication can be attributed to distractors during the handover and administration process. It is fundamental to reduce interruptions when administering drugs and build a concrete safety check, which includes confirmation of patient and drug details before administering (MacDowell, 2021). It is significant to acknowledge the impact of technology in improving efficiency and accuracy in handling medication and administering the right drugs to the correct patients.

Improvement Plan

The improvement plan encompasses advancing nurse effectiveness and adjusting the organization’s technology, especially the HER. The first part entails enhancing the effectiveness and collaboration among nurses via improved and open communication, regular training, and establishing common team goals. Common healthcare goals and objectives include limiting waste, enhancing patient care, ensuring patient safety, and reducing response times. With mutual goals, nurses would be more focused on limiting common errors. Further, open communication and effective listening skills are also fundamental in eradicating medication administration errors. Nurses need to provide individual feedback, suggestions, and questions that can help improve care delivery. Nurses must also actively listen to patients to understand their needs and concerns to help them minimize errors. At the same time, Buljac-Samardzic et al. (2020) contend that regular training is required to improve the skills of nurses, especially communication and behavioral skills. Handover rules must also be implemented to curtail such occurrences in the future.

The second component of the plan involves improving the organization’s technology system to ensure seamless workflow. Reducing wrong medication administration requires a comprehensive and seamless HER system (MacDowell, 2021). For example, the organization should introduce the barcode medication administration (BCMA) technology to lower errors by deploying the barcode labeling of the medications, patients, and medical records for electronically connecting the correct medication dose to the right patient at the appropriate time (MacDowell, 2021). Research about non-timing medication errors within a system having barcoding technology revealed that the technology reduced medication errors by 41% and possible adverse drug event reduction by 51% (MacDowell, 2021). Thus, improving the facility’s technology system should be an appropriate strategy to lower medication errors.

Organizational Resources

Identifying and leveraging the present organizational resources is essential to implement the improvement plan successfully. The first component of the plan would involve using the expertise and skills of the existing, experienced staff to set goals and advance open communication among nurses and patients. However, training will require the organization to avail funds for hiring external quality improvement experts to provide specialized staff training. Again, the second part would involve using the expertise of the current IT team to improve the HER system. At the same time, barcoding will need the organization to outsource the technology, which will require sufficient funds. It is essential to note that leveraging existing resources will make it seamless for the organization to implement the improvement plan.

Conclusion

Wrongful medication administration has become a standard error in the healthcare system. The root cause analysis revealed that most wrongful medication administration mistakes occurred due to nurse burnout, poor communication, and writing errors like abbreviations of drugs and patient names. Addressing the staffing problem, improving collaboration, and enhancing the existing technology can help reduce such errors.

References

Azim, M., Khan, A., Khan, T. M., & Kamran, M. (2019). A cross-sectional study: medication safety among cancer in-patients in tertiary care hospitals in KPK, Pakistan. BMC Health Services Research19, 1-12. https://bmchealthservres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12913-019-4420-7

Buljac-Samardzic, M., Doekhie, K. D., & van Wijngaarden, J. D. (2020). Interventions to improve team effectiveness within health care: a systematic review of the past decade. Human resources for health18(1), 1-42. https://human-resources-health.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12960-019-0411-3

Dorothy, A., Yadesa, T. M., & Atukunda, E. (2021). Prevalence of medication errors and the associated factors: a prospective observational study among cancer patients at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital. Cancer Management and Research, 3739-3748. 10.2147/CMAR.S307001

Groot, W. (2021). Root cause analysis–what do we know? Journal of Accountancy and Business Economics95(1/2), 87-93. 10.5117/mab.95.60778

Haddad, L. M., Annamaraju, P., & Toney-Butler, T. J. (2022). Nursing shortage. In StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK493175/

MacDowell, P. (2021). Medication administration errors. Department of Health and Human Services. https://psnet.ahrq.gov/primer/medication-administration-errors#:~:text=Wrongdosemissingdosesand,precautionsintheoutpatientclinic.