Purchasing Control: Term Definition Free Essay

Introduction

Wine & Dine Café specialize in wines all around the world and healthy meals. The company started on June 2000 and has grown to employ more than two hundred internal employees now. Currently, we operate in over 100 countries worldwide with the branches we begun launching in 2003 after major expansion and profit realization. The senior management for all is located here in Canada, which is the main and the largest branch with over 5000 seat capacity for normal customers, 1000 for middle-class and about 500 for special guests. Our most recent top priority plans includes expansion to the countries we have not covered, as well as ensuring improved corporate social responsibility and customer service.

The company orders products and services from outside sometimes from various outlets and the main duty of the Purchasing Agent will be to facilitate and coordinate this process within and without the organization. This is an almost daily business which is a 24 hour operation throughout the week but you will be working in shifts of eight hours with other staff in your capacity, mostly during the day from 7 am to 15 pm. The most common types of products you will be dealing with will involve normal food like sandwiches, soups, salads and desserts that pair well with wines, drinks like wine, fresh milk and associated products. Most of them are sourced from England but a good number within the country.

I wish to welcome you to this organization where we will cooperate for the wellbeing of organization. Our organization also values employees and thus provides good remuneration and benefits.

Commodity products specifications

  • Chickens
  • Date processed: not more ore than 10 days processing prior to reception
  • Class: broiler/fryers, 9 C.F.R. Part 381, 3.8 kg
  • Origin: only reared within the country of origin (USA)
  • Body temperature: normal
  • The related products include wing meat (portions of the wing), Dark meat (use 41% in all mixtures), and white meat (50%).
  • Sampling: sample forty pieces of meat for sampling after reception

Other products

  • Salads: local types
  • Soups: chicken soup, local tastes
  • Desserts: butterscotch sauce, local tastes.
  • Sandwiches: Honey mastered chicken type made within the specified region-Canada and the USA.
  • Wines: Riesling / Chardonnay / Cabernet-Sauvignon / Merlot

Purchasing and ordering

The formal procedures utilized in our company is through Request for Proposal (RFP) and Invitation for Sealed Bid (IFP) unless for small amounts. You shall proceed as follows for formal procedures;

  • Describe all items, develop instructions for providing the services and then advertise in a newspaper or website through the information support staff. Instructions and response documents are emailed to potential bidders
  • Analyze and tabulate responses, and submit to staff for recommendation and award of contract

For small purchases, describe products, then instructions, obtain price quotes for at least four suppliers in the local set up, prepare the price quote documentation sheet and show the awarded supplier and time set for the price. Submit for approval to caterer after that.

Where it is necessary to make quick purchases so as to avoid interruption of operations or services, you will be required to develop a non-competitive negotiation to establish contract and price. Keep a record of the log of these purchases containing name of item, amount in dollars, vendor and emergency reason for purposes of review by the caterer.

Purchase procedures

  • The site needing products shall request through the senior chef who is responsible for evaluation and reevaluation of menu requirements, the food service clerk will then place orders placed based on price, the evaluator will receive the products and review brands and number of cases
  • You will be required to receive food specifications from the service director who will have approved brand and quality and substitutions
  • The purchasing office shall proceed after receiving price requested earlier

Receiving

The commodities must not complete 30 days before processing and reception. The following is the procedure for receiving commodities for those products spending considerable length of time;

  • Check the container against the name of the products and the manufacturer, check carefully for any damages and missing orders
  • Check all the products for quality and quantity per every product and verify them against the orders
  • Prepare the claims for damaged, rotten or other defective products where necessary in a list, verify and validate claims
  • Communicate the complains with the issuer or the supplier through the information department
  • Lobby for claim and forward the claims to the assistant manager
  • Answer any claims from the supplier and forward to assistant manager

Shipment should be accepted after being fully satisfied of the requirements

For urgent orders

  • Receive the products and check for quality for all the products
  • Forward claims and solve them directly with the supplier
  • Record and forward the claims as per the product number, quantity, and quality
  • Record stock levels for every product and file it appropriately

Storage

All materials for storage should be handled carefully not to damage physical appearance, color or the quality content. The storage area must meet temperatures levels specified by the manufacturer for various products. The technical department must be made aware of any variations for necessary adjustments

  • Check the products brought in for the specified weight and size, grade, density, drained weight, weight rage and record the variation. All the variations should be forwarded to the assistant manager and you need to report back to the purchasing office
  • Prepare the test samples for quality testing as follows before storage;

    Meat: 60% of all the meat products should be prepared

    All the other products should be checked to make sure they bear the original manufacturers name and mark of quality.

  • Forward all the complains to the assistant manager and make sure the supplier is also aware of the defect products
  • Meat should be stored in a refrigerators
  • Forward claims and solve them directly with the supplier
  • Record and forward the claims as per the product number, quantity, and quality
  • Record stock levels for every product and file it appropriately

Inventory Control and Issuing

There should be an assessment for inventory turnovers every week for each product.

  • Lock all storage areas when unattended. The receiver is responsible for all the inventory discrepancies
  • Authorized written requisition is required before any amount of food product leaves the store. For very urgent cases, it is allowed that the requisitions be made over the phone or other quicker procedure, but there must be proper documentation for all cases against the destination and the receiver. Verification must be provided for that the product is required by the destination
  • The quantity required is what shall be issued at any given time
  • There will be unannounced inventory checks regularly in a month, and any discrepancies recorded, examined and reported for further steps
  • A reconciliation statement for the store room physical inventory on a dollar basis should be prepared and recorded to feature the following (Buchanan, 2002);

  1. Opening inventory
  2. Plus
  3. Total food available
  4. Less: Issues from the storeroom
  5. Total value of food that should on hand
  6. Closing inventory: Physical
  7. Overage.

Inventories should be taken again when overage or storage is more than 2% of the total value of food that should be on hand. In addition, the transactions should be reviewed, security investigated, and accuracy of receiving and issuing reviewed.

A perpetual inventory control over the high-cost and /or high volume meat items need be maintained-number of pieces, portions, and pounds

References

Buchanan Robert. “Receiving, Storage, Issuing, Inventory: Evaluating Food Service Establishments…Key Check Points HE-205”. Web.

First Choice: A Purchasing Manual for School Food Service, 2nd Ed. NFSM. Web.

THHGGA06B. Receive and store stock. Web.

Effect Of The Housing Policy On The Financial Crises

Introduction

Housing as an issue has plagued communities in the United States of America (United States or US) for many years. It has been a rich source of societal conflict. A lot of policy decisions have been formulated over the years with the intention of solving this problem. The United States financial crisis has been linked by a number of authors to the housing policy of the United States. This financial crisis affected the global economy and has thus become the target of numerous analysis and speculation. This essay will attempt to answer the question of whether the financial crisis was caused by the housing policies and guidelines that sought to regulate home ownership in the United States. It is generally understood that policy formulations and policy decisions are meant to serve the public interest. Some however allege that they are the results of factors such as power struggles between opposing political and social factions. The housing policies that are seen to have caused the financial crisis have been face with calls for more regulation by some. Other groups and persons have called for deregulation and less government intervention. (Jones, 165)

Body

United States housing policy differs from one region to another and is influenced by both historical and contemporary factors. In the recent past there have been attempts to devolve housing policy to community based organizations. This move has aimed to increase public participation in the formulation of housing policy as well as limit the amount of housing resources that flow due to political patronage. There has been a desire to involve the communities in the making of these decisions. This has been done with the goal of reducing avenues for friction in future. Increased public participation has also led to the continual introduction of policies that seek to provide affordable housing for low income households. Some sides advocate for more government regulation while others argue for less government intervention. Those who ask for less regulation argue that market forces should play themselves out. They compare government intervention to communism hence rekindling old national sentiments. Despite numerous measures that have been taken throughout the US, the housing problem has continued to exist and has expanded to include both low and middle income households. One effect of mediation with communities has been the introduction of “Inclusionary Zoning (IZ)”. (Jones, 185) This law basically requires housing authorities to make provisions for low income housing whenever they develop housing units. This policy has caused a degree of change. Its effect is however negated in some communities wherever those low income housing units are located near residential sections that are generally considered to be of low economic value. The argument for IZ was that low income households were being removed from residential areas that enjoyed a variety of social services. These services included access to amenities such as libraries, schools, hospitals and playgrounds. Such amenities were seen as aiding in the improvement of the quality of life. Protests by low income communities such as African-Americans led to the formation of avenues where people could talk of their ills and reason out a convenient way to address them. (Foldvary, 58) Housing was found to be a major concern of the public because of several reasons. An important reason for this was the fact that the largest portion of the income of persons in the US was singly devoted to housing needs. On average, a quarter of derived income is spent on household needs such as rent, mortgage fees or the cost of purchase of a home. It is thus apparent that an ease in the burden of acquiring adequate housing will improve the affordability of other basic and secondary needs. There were other effects of housing that caused this degree of interest in it. Home owners were found to be more politically active than those who did not own homes. They also had better standards of living due to easy access to important facilities. The community based non-profits that now have the power to implement housing policy have faced a number of problems in their operations. They have been accused of ceding to the whims of more powerful organizations and groupings. These organizations have largely been responsible for stricter control of housing in low income areas. The many authorities and policies formed were however unable to stop the unwarranted appreciation of property prices that ultimately led to the burst of the housing bubble. (Foldvary, 145)

United States housing policy provides for the federal government to create crucial policies that provide subsidies to housing consumers. Other policies concerning housing such as occupancy, the regulation of house building and service provision are determined by local governments. The financial crisis of 2007 to 2010 was triggered by a shortfall of liquidity in the United States financial system. The immediate effects were the collapse of large financial institutions, the bailout of large corporations and downturns in a number of stock markets located in diverse countries of the world. There have been attempts to trace the shortfall of liquidity to the bursting of the housing bubble. Property prices in the US had for years accelerated without any reasonable justification. The value of properties was pegged on air since there was no justification for the rapidly increasing home prices. (Warren & Tyagi, 114) Mortgages and loans were taken based on the valuation of these homes which had been massively overpriced. With time the market adjusted to allocate these households their appropriate value. Property prices thus dropped drastically. This is referred to as the ‘bubble burst’. As a result, home consumers found themselves to be servicing mortgages that were larger than the value of the homes they were purchasing. Refinancing also became difficult to acquire since the homes had originally been overpriced. It became hard for people to acquire financial services such as loans since their homes could not provide sufficient security due to their rapidly declining prices. This resulted in a large number of foreclosures. Many households filed for bankruptcy to shield themselves from further economic damage. Homes are one of society’s basic assets. They are used throughout the US as security for loans. When property prices started to drop there was an unprecedented shortage of liquidity since banks had given out large amounts of money with overvalued homes as security. This created a financial crisis for these institutions when they realized that their security was worth a huge percentage less of the value they had been assigned. (Warren & Tyagi, 114) Fannie Mae had been created after the Great Depression to provide liquidity for financial institutions that provided home ownership and home financing services. When the financial crisis struck it was allowed to fund homeowners and strengthen the home ownership market. It was given unrestricted access to resources and this elicited sharp criticism. The Treasury Department, under which Fanny Mae operates, was accused of exceeding its powers and assuming those reserved for the US Senate. IZ programs differ from state to state and region to region and are known to have an effect on property prices among other issues. Their structure has been seen to vary from one region to another. This has hampered attempts to measure the effectiveness of Inclusionary Zoning. IZ has however been found to be favorable among many communities due to its ability to adapt to local circumstances. The formulation of IZ includes dialogue with the surrounding communities through various forms of democratic representation. This allows for formulation of appropriate policies that ensure the needs of the surrounding communities are catered for.

These discussions allow for integrative debate where both sides of a question are pondered and the answers evaluated with sincerity. The goal is to ensure that the best possible decision is arrived at. Since home ownership is a major source of modern societal conflict, it is naturally assumed that the initiation of deliberative democracy at the grassroots will limit the room for conflict to emerge in future. Deliberative democracy looks at the possible consequences of actions and decisions before they are implemented. The result is thus as much a part of the process as the decision itself. (Putland, 57) It involves careful and constant analysis of the actual and likely impacts of the created policies.

The US government has for many years been trying to make affordable housing available to for its poorest citizens. This problem has however expanded to include both the working class and the middle class. The housing policy can be directly linked to the financial crisis since the decline in home prices subsequently led to a rise in liquidity. Industry was apparently unable to regulate house prices when they stated increasing without justification. Banks offered loans on overpriced homes without verifying the true value of the properties involved. The prices of homes were no longer controlled by the forces of demand and supply but by other unseen forces. The central government overlooked these market abnormalities. It was not until the bursting of the housing bubble that the central government truly started to respond to the bad market practices. By then, the effects would not be washed off easily. Late government efforts to avert the crisis did not achieve much immediately and their impact is yet to be established. A number of factors have ensured that the problem of housing not only resists disappearance but also expands to include social classes that were not subject to these problems. (Putland, 18)

Larger and denser communities are usually more prone to the adoption of growth control policies, more frequent community involvement in land allocation, amend their land use regulations more often and have more public or affordable housing. The rate of population growth will also determine the nature of their growth control policies as well as the revenues from impact fees. A community’s economic status will determine its policies. High income regions have stricter development controls whereas low income areas will encourage the construction of public housing facilities. Local authorities have the ability to play a great role in the regulation of housing. They can create and implement effective and creative land use zoning and planning techniques. These can be adjusted to suit the prevailing economic conditions. County and state assemblies can provide a good opportunity for deliberative democracy whereby the residents will decide the housing policies that suit their community. Local governments are well-placed to respond to the community-based housing needs because of their ability to take part in community planning and to enacts land use controls such as zoning so that they can accomplish these community-based plans. Vibrant land use regulatory techniques can be used to promote affordable housing while sparing municipalities from direct expenses. (Jones, 16)

Conclusion

Due to the fact that government policy has over the years failed to solve the problem of inadequate affordable housing, one must be careful before implementing any decision concerning this crucial sector. Federal government is relatively ill-equipped to handle the varying national housing challenges. It also cannot adequately implement and effect zoning and such policies due to the local nature of these matters. Many communities have their own needs and it is better if they are left to implement them at the appropriate levels of government. (Warren & Tyagi, 114) Despite the many arguments against government regulation of housing it is obvious that the housing market can cause a lot of damage to the economy if it is left unmonitored. Regulation must be discreet and speculation must be discouraged. Federal government policy should seek to cover subsidies while in conjunction with citizens and state authorities. The federal government should only formulate general housing policy while leaving more specific aspects to localized governments. Housing is a public issue since it affects most other sectors of the economy. It is the government’s duty to ensure that all its citizens have adequate housing that is both affordable and accessible. Citizens with better access to housing will exhibit higher political participation. They are also more likely to spend on other important items as well as invest. This will have a great impact on the economy and will undoubtedly spur growth. (Putland, 194)

Works Cited

Jones, Pawson. Best value, cost-effectiveness and local housing policies. Policy Studies. (2009)

Putland, G.R. “From the subprime to the terrigenous: Recession begins at home”. New York: Land Values Research Group. (2009)

Foldvary, Fred E. The Depression of 2008, Berkeley: The Gutenberg Press. (2007)

Warren, Elizabeth & Tyagi, Amelia Warren. The Two-Income Trap: Why Middle Class Mothers and Fathers are Going Broke, New York: Basic Books. (2003)

Psychology: Professional And Personal Development

Introduction

It is generally believed that an individual or a professional is what he thinks. Whatever he is doing, whatever he feels, and whatever thing he wants to get out of life, will be determined by the quality of his thought process. If he thinks in an unrealistic manner, he is likely to encounter a lot of disappointments in his life. If he is a positive thinker, then the sky is his limit.

Critical thinking

For an individual to be effective in every aspect of his personal and professional life he must be able to think critically. As the clock ticks day by day the world is becoming increasingly more complex, and one of the best method of coping with this trend is by the ability of an individual to command his mind. Critical thinking or the ability to think effectively give a professional greater control in his personal and professional life, he is better positioned to deal with adversity, and more of his personal and professional dreams are transformed in to reality. The ability to think critically offers itself to anybody that is willing to do all that is required to acquire it. Life is basically lived through acting. Acting has to do with deciding. When the pattern through which you make your decisions is rational your are bound to live a life that is rational. According to Kelvin, (2003, pg.56). “There is no more important goal than that of developing your mind, as everything you do in your life is affected by your mind and how it operates”

Personal Development

Life is all about choices. Some of which focus on personal development, those that make this choices know their personalities and what they symbolize to the world. It has to do with taking a general assessment of your prevailing condition or situation, acknowledging that change needs to be made, and making the commitment to change. A lot of tools are available on individual development, some of which are attending seminars, Working under a boss that is effective and given to the support of his workers, getting proper education, and having trusted mentors that you can turn to when experience guidance is needed. The most valuable tip that an individual can apply is deciding to be the very best. Making a decision to assess your strengths and weakness, challenging yourself to improve and holding unto it.

Professional Development

People generally think that professional development is only for those in authority, but that shouldn’t be the case. It is more than a leadership class thing. It is very important for anybody that is willing to grow, and move up the co-operate ladder. It is also meant those that are willing to attack professional challenges whenever they show up.

Conclusion

Improvements or development in an individual’s personal life increases his commitment to the overall objectives of the organization; this is because the freedom of mind allows the individual to connect his development personally with the organizational goals. It is important that the skill gap is identified and the necessary measure taken to improve, this will help in building the personal and professional life of an individual.

Reference

Kelvin, H., 2003.The Human Mind.3th ed. Kumasi: Aman.

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