Qualification And Curriculum Authority Free Essay

Abstract

As students are increasingly forecasting on competences, there is growing interesting among academicians to determine the computing skills of the students. Information technology is evolving from the mere computer to a network of computers and currently to U-Commerce.  It is becoming necessary for academicians to determine the computing skills of school going children so that it will be necessary to come up with a curriculum that will cater for students in the schools and ensure our society is not left behind of the fast moving world. Computing skills will act as parameter to determine the type of curriculum that will be adopted to ensure there is proper education.

Introduction

There is connection between students computing skills and the use of computers in sour schools. In the modern world businesses have evolved around computers and most successful business is hiring literate individuals to learn their affairs.  Therefore, our children to be modern they need to have computing skills.

The research paper undertakes to find out the  best method of testing the students computing skills and recommending strategy that will be used by qualifications and authority in testing the students skills.   This is a crucial research question for the qualification and curriculum authority, students, and teachers as well as academicians it is important because most of the research that has been carried out has been of important to students computing skills.

Statement of the Problem

I chose to work on this question because it directly affects the type of curriculum that will be implemented by qualification and curriculum authority, the students’ performance and future ambitions and targets.  If a student has computing skills it becomes easier for him to attain good goals in a life time. Computing skills assists students in the world today to ensure that they are able to move with the world.

There is a relationship between students computing skills and students school performance as well as the ability the student to compete in the job market after completing her his studies..  When a student is taking computer studies at tender age he learn new things, new concepts, gets challenges, encounters obstacles, learns how to solve his own problems, learns to be independent and all this challenges will enable the competence  level of a student to improve.  Though these challenges a student will be competent and learn more on his own.

Criteria for selecting method of testing computing skills

Several criteria have been proposed for selecting of computer testing skills, however the quantity and measurements proposed differs significantly many academicians have enumerated, cost, reliability, quality, time of delivery flexibility as per factors for selection for the method to be used while others have emphasized on compatibility cost flexibility, and time consuming as determinants for selecting for the method for selecting of a computing skill method.

Other have identified several criteria to be used in determining the best method for computing they have listed the method that will be used as experimental correlation survey and questionnaire as the best method that will engaged in determining the student ability to have technical know how of the computer. However, value should be given first priority in determining the method that will be used.

The selection of a method to be used based in a criteria which meets the qualification and curriculum authority as well as acceptable by all education stake holders is complex because of conflicting nature of criteria and contrasting performance of different students on this criteria. Different methodologies will be adopt[ted to address the complexity of the training and research method. Meaning that a multitude of criteria will be adopted.

The traditional measure of criteria development has been mired with the following shortcomings;

  • Too much focus on time factors.
  • Luck of balance approach towards testing of computing skills.
  • Luck of a liniment with qualification and curriculum authority ethics.
  • Luck of process based approach in a cross-sectional framework.
  • System thinking perspective.
  • More oriented towards optimization rather than the channel of optimizing.
  • Luck of students and trainers orientation.

Based on the account factors it may be inferred that since the nature of existing criteria and conducting of research methods have been developed or theoretical purposes, the current standard may not permit them to succeed in the education sector today. The competence of the method applied is different to core method that will succeed in this research. The method of testing computing skills should provide a multidimensional tool to identify and facilitate the understanding of the processes aligned to the students computing skills.

Objectives of the Research

The answers to this question will enhance my professional knowledge and competence in many ways.  As a professional I will assign students homework meeting computer, literacy, that are challenging to enable them to learn to be creative, hardworking, independent and know how to solve problems on there own.

The answers to this question also will assist me as a professional by motivating me to ensure that students perform their computing skills.   I will be regularly counterchecking whether the students have performed their computing homework properly, perfectly and to the required standards.  If students have not done their computing skills  homework I will assign to them the same assignments.  Before a student is being assigned computing homework he should have completed the first work as required?

The research objective perused in this paper

  • is to identify computing testing method for the introduction of compulsory  computer education  in schools.
  • To identify currently computer literate students and how they acquired their knowledge.
  • To identify and develop the most appropriate curriculum for implementation in schools
  •  To develop the most appropriate evaluation framework taking into account the whole school curriculum.

Research questions

  • How do develop a curriculum fit for 14 year old children schools taking computing skills?
  • How do you address computing skills of children in secondary school considering reliability, responsiveness, flexibility, cost and acceptance?

Scope of the study

The scoop of the study follows literature review of computing skills and testing methods currently available and being utilized by other educational systems to achieve testing research. The researcher manages the entire gamut of processes from initial stage of identifying the problem to final stage of report writing and providing a predetermined and predefined method of computing testing. The capabilities required by the researcher in this research in managing the entire project and providing real time for information sharing, decision synchronization and research optimization to all stake holders.

What are necessary attribute required by a researcher to manage the dynamics of computer skills testing based on the requirements by stake holder as outlined by qualification and curriculum authority.  The Qualification and Curriculum authority hereinafter may be referred as the end users of the results while parents’ students and teachers may be referred as suppliers of the necessary information. This study focuses on only developing testing method necessary to capture monitor, ascertain are to improve computer train in secondary, which has been calibrated to deliver computer knowledge to student and to use this method as a criteria to evaluate the competence of computer trainers in schools.

However, this study assumes that other factors like family background financial, stability of the family place of birth, computer experience, race, have no impact on the students’ ability to be tested. This framework may be used subject to meeting computing skills be the researcher other standards and procedure left unmentioned.

The proposed study will be used as a supplementary framework to focus entirely on the competence of the research and a method of testing computing skills. The objects of the study will include;

  • Experimental
  • Correlation
  • Survey
  • Grounded theory
  •  Ethnography
  •  Narrative
  • Mixed method
  • Action research.

This study will be based on a process based on experiment using practical’s as a platform to develop method which will be used as evaluation criteria for the research and researcher in this research question and future researchers

The benefits accrue form the computing testing method is well defined by qualification and curriculum authority. They have carried out trial test to 1750 secondary schools and it was abandoned ground on reliability to give a good measure. The computing test method will focus on integration on other method.

Methodology

Intensive study will be used as a primary tool to give insight for this research. This is explanatory and exploratory and research where a simple case study will not be suitable. An empirical enquiry which will investigate wholesome the contest of he problem without boundary will be in sue. The research will follow laid down theories will help to build framework for computing testing. Research methodology will take the following structure.

Data collection tools and methods

The relevant data to be used in this research will be collected in two ways namely:-

  • By use of questionnaires
  • Through Interviews.

Questionnaires

The data that will be used in this report will be collected through questionnaires.  Questionnaire involves asking various questions from the students, parents, teachers concern the question topic. This will be used to obtain important information about the relationship between students engaging in fitness homework on student’s fitness level.  This research will employ two categories of questionnaires.

The first category of questionnaires will be structured or close ended.  Here I will offer a list of all possible alternatives from which respondent best describes the situation.  They will be in form of multiple choices. A question will be asked and below it will be a list of all possible alternatives will be provided.  The advantage of using questionnaires is that most people do not want to think hard, the answers are there and the respondent cannot be intimidated.

Unstructured or open ended types of questionnaires will also be employed to make this research a success.  These types of questions will give the respondent freedom of response and permit an individual to respond in his or her own words.  Through this type of questionnaires we will be able to get more information about relationship between students engaging in fitness homework on student’s fitness level, different from or in more detailed way than what we have. These questionnaires will be researcher administered.  The researcher goes with the questionnaires himself and administers the questions by himself.

The data to be used in this research will also be collected through interviews.  An interview is an oral administration of questionnaire or interview schedule.  It will involve a face to face encounter schedule.  It will also involve a face to face encounter. This interview schedules will be in two forms, structured and structured questions or semi structural questions. Responses during interviews could be recorded either by note-taking or tape recording.This research paper performs various tasks and processes ranging from literature review, literature survey, developing a method for analysis of collected information to the formal representation of the same. Few of the processes can be concurrently followed and some may warrant the completion of the previous tasks. A broad framework is conceptualized in the form of a Gantt chart to describe the activities, schedule and timeframe of the processes of this research program.

Statistical Analysis

The data has been analyzed using SSP version 15.0 for personal Computers there was a testing of data for normality using statistical tests, quantitative and qualitative variables. They were not paired in terms of details but differences in means standard deviation has been subjected to confidence level. Operations research has been used

The study of Operations Research prescribes a specific managerial cause of action. It tells a manager how to behave and it outlines specific solutions to specific problems.

As an approach, management science, Operations Research refers to the attitude with which management scientists view, analyze and solve management problems. The essence of this approach is, first problems must be expressed in quantity and second, that symbolic modes of expression and reasoning one to be preferred. To the extent possible, problems are examined with a systems orientation and in practice.

Management develops uses of scientific models that project the consequences of alternative causes of action. That incorporates the elements of chance, rise and uncertainty in order to help managers make rational decisions and choose optional policies.

There are two decision models:

  • Descriptive model
  • Normative model

In the domain of descriptive model, the focus of study is how people behave and make decisions not on how they ought to behave. The purpose is to describe the process by which managers in full go about making decisions.

Normative decision models which are the main focus of economies and statistics deal with how decisions should be made. These models prescribe for the manager the most courses of action.

Most managers would rather live with a problem they can not solve than use a solution they can not understand because they have fear of uncertainties and risk for instance if they make a large order quantities for inventory, the no of orders would go down thus ordering costs will go down, because you are not processing. The order, relatively, carrying, storage, holding cost will go up. One needs larger warehouses, insurances will be required

Probability is the quantification of uncertainty. Uncertainty may also be expressed as ‘likelihood’, ‘chance’ or ‘risk’. Probability can only take values ranging from 0, i.e. impossibility, to 1, i.e. certainty. The probability of managers living with a problem they can’t solve than using the solution they don’t understand is 0.

It is under risk, involves alternative action whose payoffs depend on the random states of nature. The difference between making a decision under uncertainty is that in the case of uncertainty, the probability distribution associated with the state is either unknown or can not be determined. This lack of information has led to development of the following criteria for analyzing decision problem:

  • Laplace
  • Minimax
  • Savage
  • Hurwicz

They differ on the degree of conservatism the decision makes exhibits in the face of uncertainty.

The  model involves decision making under certainty.  optimal solution must not incur any positive opportunity cost. To determine whether any positive opportunity cost is associated with the given program, by testing the empty cells [cells represent roots not used in a given program] of the transportation matrix for the presence or absence of opportunity cost. Absence of positive opportunity cost in all empty cells will indicate that an optimal solution has been obtained. If on the other hand a single empty cell has positive opportunity cost then the given program is not optimal program.

The empty cell 02d1 must be included in anew and improved program. The opportunity cost of the empty cell 02D1 is +.we must obtain a new basic feasible solution by designing the new improved program in which cell 02D1 will be included.]

We can make the Improvement by shifting one unit from cell 02d2 to cell 02D1. this means that we are left with 599 units in cell 02D2.this change has not violated the capacity constraints of either row 1 or row 2.this affects the requirement constraints of column 1 and 2 because we have1 unit in 02D1, 900 units in 01d1, 599 units in 02D2, and 100 units in 02D2. Hence column 1 has 901 units (one more unit than the requirement constraint), and column 2hads 699 units (one less unit than the requirement of column  this Situation can be remedied by shifting one unit from cell 01D1 to cell 01D2 a change that will satisfy the raw and column requirement.

If one unit shift to cell 02D1 a change in the program affected by one unit  to cell 02d1 established earlier reduces the shipping costs by 1 pound. As we gain the advantage each time a unit is shifted to cell 02D1 we must shift to cell 02D1 as many units as possible. as the closed loop(+and- signs connected by arrows) shows that we cannot shift more than 600 unit to 02D1 for allocation of more than 600 units to 021 would certainly violate the capacity constraint of row O2.

A better basic feasible solution for the optimal allocation of the opportunity cost of cell 02D2 which Is now the only empty cell will give affirmative answer since the opportunity cost of sale 02D2 is not +.this is verified by shifting one unit to cell 02D2 and noting that the net cost consequence of such a shift is +1 pound (+2-2+2-1) the opportunity cost being negative of the corresponding net cost change, is therefore a negative This method is employed to determine the opportunity cost the empty cell consisted ion

  1. Drawing a closed loop that passed through the empty cell and adjacent occupied cells with proper plus and minus signs at the corners of the loop.
  2. Shifting one unit of the empty cells(accomplished by the addition of one unit to all those cells in which fell a plus sign of the closed loop by the subtraction of 1 unit from all cells in which fell a minus sign)
  3. Determining the net cost change associated with shifting one unit to the empty cell.
  4. Taking the negative of the cost change in (3) to find the opportunity cost of the empty cell. In a problem of larger dimensions, the opportunity cost of all empty cells must be determined by this procedure. This emphasizes that separate closed loop must be established for every empty cell (in the stepping stone method) before the opportunity cost method of the empty cells can be determined.

After ascertaining that the opportunity cost of the empty cell was positive, we changed the initial program by filling the empty cell02D1 as much as possible in view of the rim requirements. This revision program is guided by the plus and minus signs of the closed loop. The smallest numbers in the cells in which the minus signs appeared (600)

Gave the total numb of units to be shifted to the empty cells/the shifting was accomplished by adding this number (600) to all the cells that contain the plus signs of the loop and subtracting it from al the cells that contain the minus signs of the loop. These changes gave us our feasible basic solutions.

Finally, the only tested empty cell 02D2of the second program found that the opportunity cost was not positive hence coming to a conclusion that an optimal solution to our problem has been obtained.

To start the production of two models on time, the delivery of sub assembly s must coincide with the occurrence of the dashed m1 and m2 arrows. This information is shown by the dashed arrows in the s-chart where the resulting s-demand is 2 units per unit of m1 or m2.using a lead time of 1 month, the dashed arrows on the s-chart give the production schedules for s.from these two schedules, the combined demand for s corresponding to m1 and m2 can the be determined as shown at the bottom. The resulting variable demand for s is typical of the situation where dynamic economic order quantity occurs.

References

  1. Creswell, J.W. (1994). Research Design: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, CA.
  2. Georgiou I (2006); Thinking through Systems Thinking; Routledge
  3. Kathari, C .R. (2003) – Research Methodology Methods and Techniques- Wish Prakashan, New Delhi.
  4. Lewis M. A and Slack N. (2003); Operations management: Critical Perspectives on Business and Management; Routledge
  5.  Mason, J. (1996). Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
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Anencephaly: Causes, Symptoms And Diagnosis

Anencephaly

            Few things, other than maternal hemorrhage during delivery, can change the usually expectant, joyous tone of a birthing room faster than a birth of a baby with a physical development disorder. Physicians or nurse- midwives, who are used to saying “perfect boy” or “beautiful girl” and holding up the infant for the parent’s first glance, are suddenly without words. The nurse is in the same predicament. Words of congratulations hang unsaid in the air. When a child is born with an apparent physical developmental defect, health care professional play a major role in supporting and educating the parents, helping them to move forward from this point. Some disorders are easily repaired; others require surgery but the prognosis is good; some disorders however represent serious, even life- threatening problems for the infant, and long- term, financially draining responsibilities for the parents.

            Because the neural tube forms in utero first as a flat plate and then molds to form the brain and spinal cord, it is susceptible to malformation. The term spina bifida is most often used as a collective term for all spinal cord disorders, but there are well- defined degrees of spina bifida movement, and not all neural tube disorders involve the spinal cord (Smeltzer & Bare, 2004).

            Anencephaly is the absence of the cerebral hemispheres. It occurs when the upper end of the neural tube fails to close in early intrauterine life. It is revealed by an elevated level of AFP (alpha- fetoprotein) in maternal serum or on amniocentesis and confirmed by sonogram (Smeltzer & Bare, 2004).

            Infants with anencephaly may have difficulty in labor because the underdeveloped head does not engage the cervix well. Many such infants present in a breech position. On visual inspection at birth, the disorder is obvious. Children cannot survive with this disorder because they have no cerebral function. Because the respiratory and cardiac centers are located in the intact medulla, however, they may survive for a number of days after birth (Kozier et. al, 2002).

            When the condition is discovered prenatally, parents are offered the option of abortion. An ethical problem has arisen in a number of instances when parents, aware that the child cannot survive, elect to carry the infant to term so the organs can be used for transplant.

            The incidence of neural tube disorders has fallen dramatically in recent years, from 3/1,000 to 0.6/1,000. Such disorders may occur as a polygenic inheritance pattern, but poor nutrition, especially a diet deficient in folic acid, appears to be a major contributing factor. The risk of bearing a second child with a neural tube defect once one child is born with such a defect increases to as much as 1 in 20. Also, women who have had one child with a spinal cord defect are advised to have a maternal serum assay or amniocentesis of alpha- fetoprotein levels to determine if such a defect is present in second pregnancy (Pillitteri, 2003).

References:

Kozier B., Erb G., Blais K., and Wilkinson J. M. (2002).Fundamentals of nursing: Concepts process and practice (5th Ed.). Singapore: Pearson Ed. Asia Pte. Ltd.

Smeltzer, Suzanne, and Brenda G. Bare. (2004).Medical- Surgical Nursing. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Pillitteri, Adele. (2003). Maternal and Child Health Nursing. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

The History Of Anesthetics

            Anesthesia, a condition in which the sense of touch and ability to feel pain are impaired or lost in part or all of the body. It may be accompanied by loss of consciousness. Anesthesia may result from disease or injury. However, the term usually refers to medical anesthesia brought about to deaden or eliminate pain caused by injury or disease, or during a surgical operation or childbirth. In surgery, anesthesia is also helpful because it relaxes the muscles.

            An anesthetic is a substance used to produce anesthesia. It may also brought about by hypothermia, or lowering of body temperature.

            Attempts to deaden pain have been made since early times. For centuries, alcohol, opium, mandrake, hemp, and henbane were given orally or by inhalation during surgery and in childbirth. The Indians of Peru chewed the leaves of the coca plant from which cocaine is derived and used their saliva to reduce local pain during surgery ( Allender 25-29).

            General Anesthetics came into use in the 1840’s. In 1845 Horace Wells, a Connecticut dentist demonstrated the effects of nitrous oxide. About the same time William T. G. Morton, a Massachusetts dentist, began using ether; his methods were publicly demonstrated in 1946. Dr. Crawford W. Long of Georgia had used ether in a tumor operation in 1842 and later in other operations, but he

did not publish his results until 1849. Sir James Young Simpson of Edinburgh, Scotland, introduced chloroform in obstetrics and surgery in 1847.

            Cocaine which was the first local anesthetic to be widely used was extracted from the coca plant in the middle 1800’s. In 1994, Carl Koller, an Austrian physician, introduced cocaine as a local anesthetic in eye surgery. In the same year William S. Halsted, a Maryland Surgeon, successfully used cocaine by injecting it into the nerve trunks.

            Anesthesia was used already during the classical age. For a surgical procedure at that time, Dioscorides and opium and mandragora. In the 10th century, a wine was used as an anesthesia while performing and assisting giving birth. It was prepared by a priest who was a Zoroastrian. In china, they used anesthesia techniques by using acupuncture. Using ice in freezing tissues which can have a transient effect on the axons, for them to stop or alter the emotional response to pain and this is also true in doing hyperventilation (Wagman 58).

            Herbs were used long before; Opium and Cannabis were one of them. These maybe taken, or will be thrown in fire and its smoke will be breathe by the person who is to be sedated. Ether or alcohol was also used because they say it is a vasodilator. Mandrake, or the hyoscamine; which was also used then was commonly prepared in Medieval Europe. While in Japan, Hanaoka Seishu used Chinese herbs when he performed an operation for breast cancer. He combined the herbs as know- how. What Seishu used was Tsusensan, from the Datura metel and Aconitum.

            On October 16, 1846, Morton did an operation using ether. The Listerian Techniques developed during the 19th century and it was used as the means for having a surgery. Then in the 1820’s, Henry Hill discovered the usage of Carbon Dioxide. The properties of Carbon Dioxide that triggered its usage as an anesthesia was due to Humphry Davy. But the use of this gas is very limited for it is a laughing gas only. This was still used for tooth extraction by Wells. Horace. But then he realized he made a great error for the patient undergone a terrible pain (Claypool 33).Then another tooth extraction done on January 1942 used a different family of ether which is the diethyl ether. Dr. Long was the first to used anesthetics during an operation which is the excision of a cyst on March 1842. Dr. William Morton then showed to the society the usage of diethyl ether as an anesthesia by performing an excision of a tumor in the neck of the patient. After this event, Dr.’s Liston, Syme, Dieffenbach, Pirogoff had the chance of performing operation using ether (Brunner, Suddarith 78).

            Many complaints are raised in the usage of ether, they say ether causes nausea and vomiting, it also has combustible properties. Some countries replaced the use of ether with chloroform. James Young Simpson, who discovered it in 1831 found out that chloroform, was very efficient as an anesthetic. Many countries then were influenced by the usage of chloroform. Bu then again, issues rose that chloroform is not safe when being administered not like the ether. These reason lead to many deaths because of using chloroform as an anesthetic agent (Claypool 47).

            There are two main kinds of anesthesia. 1.) General and 2.) Local. It is customary to combine two or more anesthetics to lessen risks and to make the procedure more comfortable for the patient ( Brunner, Suddarith 65). Several kinds of general anesthetics may be administered at different stages during an operation, or a general and a local anesthetic may be used. Choice of anesthetic and method of administrating it depend on the purpose for which the anesthetic is to be used, and on the patient’s physical condition.

Reference:

Brunner, K., Suddarith, L. Medical- Surgical Nursing.  J. G. Ferguson Publishing Company, 1993.

Wagman, R. J. The New Complete Medical & Health Encyclopedia.  Little, Brown, 1985.

Allender, J. A., & Spradley, B. W. Community health nursing: Concepts and practice (5th Ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2000.

Claypool, Jane. Anesthesia and Surgery. Watts, 1988.