Quality Improvement Proposal Sample Assignment

The delivery of health services to patients occurs within a complex environment defined by interactions between a variety of different elements, including policies, procedures, technology, doctors, resources, and the illness process itself. When these complicated components combine, unexpected and negative results such as drug mistakes might occur. Faults in a healthcare setting result from human error, defined as the failure of a series of physical and mental processes to be accomplished efficiently and adequately. As a result, it’s worth mentioning that everything related to healthcare is intricate. Consider the complexity of organizations, patient requirements, the complexity of healthcare technology, and the complexity of patient reactions to therapeutic treatments. Notably, there are several problems and possibilities to enhance the safety and quality of healthcare.

There is enough evidence that implementing a medical safety standard in any business is difficult (Ulrich and Kear, 2014). The health organization and institution must enhance or replace current systems. Modification and adjustment of the systems will need the cooperation of the folks who will be receiving the services (Karra et al., 2017). Medical staff modifications in health care organizations will permit a decrease in medical mistakes. Changes and modifications must be made to deliver exceptional healthcare services and achieve good outcomes. The initiative proposes to enhance communication between the different health agencies and people responsible for providing health services. The initiative proposes to provide competent service for prescribing, distributing, and administering medications. This is all to help eliminate medical mistakes and improve health care services (Raban and Westbrook, 2014).

The significance of this suggestion is to go into depth into the reasons for medical mistakes made by medical practitioners, particularly nurses, and to analyze methods for preventing pharmaceutical errors (Kim and Bates, 2013, p.590). The initiative will assist in identifying risk factors for medical mistakes over time. The data for this report will be derived from the general jurisdiction’s examination of fatalities and mental illnesses and territorial medical mistakes mortality evaluations (Roughead et al., 2016).

Aim of this proposal

This quality improvement project’s objective is to enhance the department of medicine and healthcare. This initiative is more established in its objective of defining and recommending strategies for reducing medical mistakes in society (Raban and Westbrook, 2014, p.414). Additionally, this will help minimize the effects of medical blunders—medications aid in the relief of symptoms, enhancing life quality, and treating illnesses. However, drugs are associated with pharmacological and human error incidents that have a detrimental influence on human life (Roughead et al., 2016). The project will be guided by input from various stakeholders in a variety of health care facilities. This will contribute to the enhancement of the medical system and the quality of service provided to patients (Ulrich and Kear, 2014).

The project’s strategies are projected to reduce the rate of mortality and complications caused by pharmaceutical errors. Appropriate training of the health care workforce will facilitate the delivery of advice to patients. Patient records will be maintained, which will facilitate the medical group’s rapid response in the case of a crisis. With meticulous record-keeping, there is little likelihood of making pharmaceutical errors. The proposal includes a process for increasing the medical staff in clinics (Graban and Toussaint, 2018). This will guarantee that patients get enough follow-up. This implies that medicine administered onwards is not combined since there are sufficient people to cope with prescription allotment and management. Instruction to the community helps them to gain knowledge about the drugs prescribed.

What research evidence exists to support your proposed change?

Like any other nation, Australia has its share of medical blunders and unfavorable outcomes (Roughead et al., 2013). The majority of medication mistakes are caused by professional practice, health goods, processes, and systems (Jee and Kim, 2013, p.123). Health organizations must devise a method to ensure safe prescription, dispensing, proper administration, and medication management. Successful drug prescriptions, administration, and dispensing include a variety of professionals from several departments (Tariq, 2018). The patient is the focal point of drug management. Medication management provides a framework for identifying possible problems and providing remedies (Tariq, 2018). It has been shown that nearly 70% of drip medicine administrations include clinical mistakes (Burroughs et al., 2007).

Medical blunders are becoming a growing problem in Australia (Roughead et al., 2013). There have been around 469 documented medical occurrences, most of which are caused by medical mistakes. This outcome is linked to a failure to read or a misunderstanding of patient documents, prescriptions, or the presence of imprecise or incomplete directions (Keers et al., 2013, p.1050). Error rates in administration vary between 15% and 20%. This rate is determined by the ward stock system (Keers et al., 2013, p.1050). This is the location of the ward’s massive supply for several patients. Between 5% and 8% of mistakes occur during administration when hospital pharmacists accurately measure and distribute the appropriate amounts for individual patients (Ulrich and Kear, 2014).

Prescription-related medical mistakes occur as a consequence of incorrect data being transferred from one medication record to the next (Keers et al., 2013, p.1063). 0.6 percent of mistakes occur due to missed doses, 1% as a result of incorrect prescriptions, and 0.5 percent as a result of confusing guidelines for medication administration (Jee and Kim, 2013, p.124). Around 70%–75% of medical mistakes occur as a result of allergies in Australia (Keers et al., 2013, p.1062). A medical mistake is a problem that primarily affects hospitalized patients. Changes must be made to the healthcare system. Numerous attempts have been made to reduce the case-to-population ratio (Jee and Kim, 2013, p.127). The system’s gains have not been maintained, and attempts to create further changes to preserve the change have not been evaluated (Ulrich and Kear, 2014, p447). Due to a lack of review and maintenance, the ideal condition of healthcare, particularly in the administrative sector, has remained unachieved.

According to research, numerous deaths have been reported in Australia’s homes and hospitals. The number of deaths caused by medical mistakes continues to rise (Roughead et al., 2016). With the execution of the project’s initiatives, it is anticipated that the incidence of medication-related fatalities and complications will decrease. Education of health staff enables the delivery of teaching to patients to be more easily accomplished. Patient records will be maintained, enabling the medical team to respond more quickly in the event of an emergency. There is no possibility of drug mistakes with proper record keeping. The project’s objective is to boost hospital staffing levels (Graban and Toussaint, 2018). This will guarantee that patients are appropriately followed up. This will ensure that medication is not jumbled in the wards since there will be sufficient staff to manage drug distribution and administration. Education provides the population with the information necessary to ask pertinent questions regarding the medications prescribed.

Identification and involvement of stakeholders

The government’s and non-governmental organizations’ involvement will be increased. This is critical to the project’s success since it strengthens the project’s objectives. They will be contacted individually to help in the project’s execution. Additionally, they will aid with finance and recruiting efforts (Burwell, 2015, p.897). The project’s adoption would be facilitated by including both public and commercial sector players. All stakeholders will convene meetings and seminars to reinforce and implement any improvements, remove impediments, and stay current on any new methods for a more effective and improved health care system with few to no medical mistakes (Grol et al., 2013). There will be the launch of a standard project emphasizing the need for more precise ways of recording and storing patient health information history (Roughead et al., 2016). Having thorough and precise information on a patient enables the pharmaceutical prescription process to be improved (Ulrich and Kear, 2014, p.448).

What specific QI methods or tools will you utilize?

Always place a premium on patient outcomes in healthcare. The outcomes should demonstrate a dedication to the patient’s quality and safety. This should take precedence over all other considerations. Patient quality may be maintained while avoiding staff distress and stress. Utilizing SIEPs and flowcharts, the quality improvement plan was developed (Wong, 2013). By using these methods, quality improvement has developed a strategy for reporting all drug mistakes, automating the transmission of information through the computer and electronic systems, and changing the hospital’s culture around emergency wait times.

This healthcare institution can rectify this situation regarding lab test findings. This is accomplished by providing stronger criterion designations, such as a deadline for reporting the findings and notifying the ordering physician when the results are available utilizing the process mapping tool. This simplifies the procedure and ensures the hospital’s safety. In terms of wait times, this should imply a shift in the culture of the emergency room. In the institution, waiting times must be prioritized. This indicates that the hospital’s policy must be adjusted to address the factors contributing to longer wait times.

Additionally, the hospital must be ready to spend time and money on solutions that would expedite care delivery, such as an automated scheduling system similar to the lab difficulties. Automated medicine administration is a standard practice in most hospitals and should be introduced at Thunder Hospital. The quality assurance team intends to use checklists to monitor care. Checklists and lists may assist in rapidly resolving any minor difficulties that may occur. (Johnson and Sollecito, 2018). One of the quality improvement team’s objectives is to save the hospital money and seek funding from organizations that will assist in implementing and funding quality improvement.

What measures will determine if the change(s) made during your proposal would make an improvement?

It is evident that the health industry is under pressure to modernize, enhance, and automate its procedures for monitoring medication-related difficulties to reduce medical mistakes (Roughead et al., 2016). This enables the evaluation of each individual’s medical history. The range and efficacy of indicators used to determine the causes of medical mistakes should be expanded (Keers et al., 2013, p.1066). The most effective method of improving the medical system and avoiding medical mistakes is for all practitioners at a health center to work together (Kim and Bates, 2013, p.592). This improves their ability to communicate. Additionally, this will keep all members engaged in the sector and informed of new developments.

Medical mistakes may be reduced by improving the service given by medical practitioners (Kim and Bates, 2013, p.592). The project’s objective is to provide pharmacists with the necessary expertise to administer medications properly. This enables workers to deliver the medications without accidentally mixing up the amounts (Ulrich and Kear, 2014, p.452). Order supplies should be cross-checked to verify they are being followed and that proper documentation of orders placed is kept.

Explain the process to generate an improvement.

Additionally, this study on quality improvement will provide recommendations on how to decrease medical mistakes in Australia. It will provide a comprehensive report on the procedures involved in changing or improving the health sector (Raban and Westbrook, 2014, p.418). It will educate and teach the public and medical community about the value of effective communication and the significance of knowing the patient’s medical history. It will also advocate for more funding for improved order tracking, employing appropriate personnel, and conducting seminars and educational tests to allow practitioners to brush up on their expertise and refresh their recollections (Kim and Bates, 2013, p.597).

Representatives of the initiative will be located in a variety of healthcare settings. This will allow the systems to get baseline information (Grol et al., 2013). This initiative aims to improve stock management by enabling accurate record keeping. A mechanism will be established to guarantee that the records are correctly maintained. A budget will be established to allow for the recruitment of more health professionals. There will be an increased need for health care practitioners and pharmacists (Kim and Bates, 2013, p.598). This would guarantee that healthcare providers are adequately staffed and deliver high-quality treatment. The trainers will guarantee that the community receives proper knowledge on prescriptions and the need of providing accurate information on medical records. Facilitation of seminars and tests offered by non-health sectors (Burwell, 2015, p.897). This will guarantee improved and enhanced education (Burwell, 2015, p.897). A funding allocation will be made to allow the addition of nurses and personnel and promote community educational forums (Kim and Bates, 2013, p.598).

Several things will need to be altered or amended to implement this approach to reduce medical mistakes. Ascertain that the health sector’s administration is transparent and trustworthy to operate the center. The project’s objective is to guarantee that the health care industry receives sufficient funding to operate (Jee and Kim, 2013, p.125). The initiative will familiarize itself with non-health organizations and sectors that contribute to the smooth operation of health centers. They will be summoned for a conference to establish a common understanding of how to enhance their service delivery (Burwell, 2015, p.899). It will be necessary to ensure that non-health sectors get enough funding and are managed effectively.

Effective management ensures that work is completed to a high standard. The monies will increase staffing levels and improve the quality, safety, and accessibility of records (Ulrich and Kear, 2014, p.454). With increased education from medical professionals, managers and patients would understand their responsibility in minimizing medical mistake incidents.

Analysis plan

Resuming this project after a few months will assure the efficacy of the work accomplished and brought to light throughout the course of the project. There will be roadblocks and impediments throughout the investigation (Grol et al., 2013). The majority of health care facilities lack sufficient workers to care for patients adequately. The successful completion of his project will demonstrate that the healthcare industry has altered and improved its system, focusing more specifically on reducing medical mistakes (Jee and Kim, 2013, p.126). Training is provided to medical personnel and the general public to facilitate information transmission. The input provided will allow for the collection of more data on the project’s impact. A health organization’s medicine system must be assessed regularly. This enables the identification of necessary system adjustments to guarantee its continued relevance (Ulrich and Kear, 2014, p.456).

What implementation strategies could you consider to sustain your change(s) in the longer term?

To carry out this plan’s goal of reducing medical errors, several changes and balances must be made. Ascertain that the administration of health areas is legible and trustworthy in carrying out their activities and operations. The project’s objective is to guarantee that the health division receives sufficient assets to operate its programs. The research will get a better understanding of non-health organizations and sectors that support the operation of health centers. They will be gathered together for a session in which they will attempt to obtain one pattern concession about how they may better their administration’s delivery (Burwell, 2015, p.899). There will be an emphasis on ensuring that non-health divisions get enough funding and have an effective and persuasive administration.

A functional administration will assure the completion of high-quality tasks. The assets will consider increased staffing and enhanced record-keeping methods that are of high quality, secure, and easily accessible (Weller et al., 2014, p.150). With increased medical staff education, executives and patients will understand their role in reducing medical error incidents.

Plans for sharing learning from your project (Dissemination)

To summarize, the project’s goal is to create health centers and clinicians that are effective, efficient, patient-centred, competent, and successful. The most often utilized means of therapy, medications, should not be causing more damage. Inadequate drug management may result in serious health consequences, including death. A healthcare organization’s inefficient medical system will result in many drug mistakes. Adapting this high-quality initiative is a necessary first step toward transforming the health system. The neighborhood will benefit from more educational opportunities and increased access to health professionals. Health organizations should have a medical management system that advocates for safe prescription writing, distribution, advanced management, and any other aspect of pharmaceutical handling. The medical management system will guarantee that patients get medication that is safe. Successful execution of this project across sectors will result in a decrease in the number of health problems caused by medical mistakes.

Conclusion

Medication management is a complicated procedure that involves a variety of tasks. Nurses are critical to the successful administration of drugs. Notably, patient safety should be prioritized since it is the foundation for providing high-quality treatment. Therefore, nurses in nursing homes should adhere to medication regulations and adopt any technical and process-related measures that decrease or avoid medication mistakes. This may effectively reduce undesirable incidents in nursing homes.

References

Burwell, S.M., 2015. Setting value-based payment goals—HHS efforts to improve US health care. N Engl J Med372(10), pp.897-899.

Graban, M. and Toussaint, J., 2018. Lean hospitals: improving quality, patient safety, and employee engagement. Productivity Press.

Grol, R., Wensing, M., Eccles, M. and Davis, D. eds., 2013. Improving patient care: the implementation of change in health care. John Wiley & Sons.

Jee, K. and Kim, G.H., 2013. Potentiality of big data in the medical sector: focus on how to reshape the healthcare system. Healthcare informatics research19(2), pp.79-85.

Keers, R.N., Williams, S.D., Cooke, J. and Ashcroft, D.M., 2013. Causes of medication administration errors in hospitals: a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative evidence. Drug safety36(11), pp.1045-1067.

Kim, J. and Bates, D.W., 2013. Medication administration errors by nurses: adherence to guidelines. Journal of clinical nursing22(3-4), pp.590-598.

Raban, M.Z. and Westbrook, J.I., 2014. Are interventions to reduce interruptions and errors during medication administration effective?: a systematic review. BMJ quality & safety23(5), pp.414-421.

Roughead, E.E., Semple, S.J. and Rosenfeld, E., 2016. The extent of medication errors and adverse drug reactions throughout the patient journey in acute care in Australia. International journal of evidence-based healthcare14(3-4), pp.113-122.

Roughead, L., Semple, S. and Rosenfeld, E., 2013. Literature review: medication safety in Australia. Sydney: Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care.

Ulrich, B. and Kear, T., 2014. Patient safety and patient safety culture: Foundations of excellent health care delivery. Nephrology Nursing Journal41(5), pp.447-456.

Weller, J., Boyd, M. and Cumin, D., 2014. Teams, tribes and patient safety: overcoming barriers to effective teamwork in healthcare. Postgraduate medical journal90(1061), pp.149-154.

Wong, M. (2013). 5 Benefits of Adopting Patient Safety Checklists | Physician-Patient Alliance for Health & Safety. Retrieved May 23, 2020, from http://ppahs.org/2013/03/5- benefits-of-adopting-patient-safety-checklists/

Johnson, J.K. and Sollecito, W.A., 2018. McLaughlin & Kaluzny’s continuous quality improvement in health care. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Tariq, R.A., Vashisht, R., Sinha, A. and Scherbak, Y., 2018. Medication dispensing errors and prevention.

Karra, M., Fink, G. and Canning, D., 2017. Facility distance and child mortality: a multi-country study of health facility access, service utilization, and child health outcomes. International journal of epidemiology46(3), pp.817-826.

Racial Discrimination In The Criminal Justice System Free Essay

Abstract

Most individuals believe that racial or ethnic discrimination is illegal and undermines the concept of equality. A lengthy history of racial discrimination against African Americans can be traced back to enslavement and continues today in the form of legislation and court judgements that uphold the practice. According to studies, there is racial prejudice in the judicial system. The authors uses census data and sampling for the research to come to conclusion. Research have isolated and evaluated several decision-making stages within the criminal justice system, including arrest, bail, conviction, and sentence, to determine whether there is racial prejudice. Racial prejudice in the criminal justice system is still prevalent. Despite the fact that the majority of studies reveals that there is no systemic racial discrimination.

Introduction

Positive discrimination or ethnicity, and per the population of individuals, is immoral and breaches the concept of equality. Those who are equal should be treated as such, and race should have no bearing on how they are treated. It is only acceptable to treat someone differently when there is a factual difference that justifies it. It’s impossible to know what “equality” means in a certain context unless it’s used. Equitable access to public office, chances for growth in the job and equal treatment under the law are seen as examples of equality by politicians.

The word “race” is used to describe a collection of genetically distinct individuals who have a common ancestor (American Anthropological Association 1997: 2). As a result of this assumption, the concept of race and the belief that individuals “belong” to a certain race goes back to the 19th century. Societal usage of race as a sociological concept despite its lack of biological relevance persists. Slavery solidified the notion of race in American society by reinforcing the idea that certain races were better than others (Banks and Eberhard 1998: 58). “Jim Crow” legislation (e.g., a person’s categorization as white or black) enacted after the Civil War show how important racism has been in defining one’s legal rights and obligations in the United States.

Historical context

Slaves were treated as property of their owners from the beginning of slavery in the early 1700s until 1865, with the belief that they were inherently inferior and unequal individuals. To compensate for the loss of many of their basic freedoms, they were enslaved. Due to the laws already in force, they were also subjected to severe treatment. Slavery was abolished and equal protection under the law was established for all people during the American Civil War. Despite the fact that numerous states established Jim Crow laws, which successfully perpetuated forms of racial segregation in the legal, social, and economic spheres, prejudice remained after the war. To keep segregated races apart, the notion of “equality under the law” was used, and African Americans also weren’t allowed to vote or negotiate deals.

While Jim Crow laws were still being enforced by the courts and the police, African Americans were at risk of violent assaults and practices like lynching. Between the 1880s and the early 1900s, over 3,000 African Americans were lynched. There was little accountability for the perpetrators of these murders. Since the start of the twentieth century, African Americans have had legal safeguards. The Supreme Court deemed “separate but equal” unlawful in Brown v. Board of Education in 1954, which had been preceded by additional civil rights initiatives in the mid-twentieth century.

As a result, today’s black American community is diverse and includes people of all ethnic origins. People from Jamaica, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Somalia, and other African and West Indies countries, each of whom has a distinct culture that differs from that of African Americans, are among those who have immigrated to the United States. Nonetheless, discriminatory views against persons of various skin tones continue to be voiced, despite this variety.

It is more usual for black people to become victims of violent crime than it is for other ethnic groups. The risks of being murdered are more than seven times larger for black people than for white people, and they are nearly twice as likely as white people to be robbed, raped, or otherwise harmed (Egharevba, 2016). For the year 2004 census, black people were responsible for 46.2% of all homicides, 53% of all robberies, 32.9 percent of all rapes, and 33.2 percent of all assaults. Despite the fact that black individuals make up less than 13% of the population, the Bureau of Justice reports that 45 percent of state and federal inmates were black in 2002, and much more than 40% in 2004. Despite accounting for just 0.9 percent of the total population of the United States in the 2000 census, American Indians accounted for 3 percent of all incarcerated individuals and over 16 percent of all violent criminals in 2001.

Does the Criminal Justice System Discriminatory base on Race?

According to the study’s conclusions, racial discrimination exists in the criminal justice system. According to the Christopher Commission, an independent inquiry of the Los Angeles Police Department, officers used excessive force, which was worsened by racism and prejudice. 7000 Los Angeles police officers were chosen at random and asked whether they believed their colleagues had a prejudice towards people of color. More than a quarter of those questioned said this bias may lead to excessive use of force.

The panel also listened to LAPD radio broadcasts and found disturbing and regular racial remarks, usually made while discussing automobile chases or assaults on suspects that were being made (Baker & Baker, 1994). The Los Angeles Superior Court brought this case after witness testimony revealed that LAPD officers had verbally assaulted people of color, taken into custody African Americans and Latinos who only vaguely matched descriptions of subject matters, and used obtrusive and dehumanizing strategies against minority groups in minority neighborhoods. Racism was also evident in the acts of racial minority cops. These officers were bullied and were exposed to racist insults on the radio broadcasts of their department.

“In the tribunals of New York State, there seem to be two justice institutions at work; one for whites, and a completely different one for minorities and the poor,” a panel of judges, lawyers, and academics determined in 1991. Racial prejudice, according to the conference, is to responsible for inequality and inequities in therapy (Baker & Baker, 1994). Racist graffiti was sprayed on the courtroom walls, and court employees were hostile to persons of color. Minority trials may run as little as a few minutes, showing a factory-style judicial system and the frequent feature of black defendants outside of New York City getting their jurisdiction to hear by an all-white jury.

A variety of studies have been conducted to determine if the US judicial system is subject to racial discrimination (Egharevba, 2016). The most powerful decision factors in the American criminal justice system were examined in this study. Despite the presence of racial prejudice within the criminal justice system, William Wilbanks (1987) and Joan Petersilia (1983) contend that racial discrimination is not systemic in the criminal justice system (Blumstein 1993; DiIulio 1996; Russell-Brown 1998; Tony 1995). Research, on the other hand, suggests that racial bias may exist at many phases of the program’s judgment process (Wilbanks 1987).

According to Petersilia (1983), racial inequities in the criminal system have evolved as a consequence of policies being implemented without a thorough examination of their impact on minority populations. While the case processing system was supposed to treat all offenders the same, she observed that some criminals were handled differently. The following are two key areas where we discovered considerable racial disparities: Minority groups were more likely to be incarcerated to prison rather than imprisonment after being convicted of a crime, while being more likely to be incarcerated in the first place (Baker & Baker, 1994). To see whether there is racial discrimination in the judicial system, researchers separated and examined different decision-making phases, involving apprehension, bail, conviction, and punishment. In the next sections, these decision-making aspects will be discussed.

a) Random sampling on Interactions between the police and the public and arrests by the police

Research examining how police officers utilize their authority to oppress minorities, regardless of their race, has been a major focus of policing studies. Observing how white police officers handle black and non-black persons is one approach to examine this issue (R. Brown and Frank 2006: 104). In Cincinnati, where whites made up roughly 65 percent of the population and blacks made up 35 percent, researchers examined 614 contacts between police and suspects between 1997 and 1998 and found that 104 individuals were detainedApproximately 18% of white officer-suspect confrontations resulted in an arrest, whereas only 15% of black lieutenant interactions resulted in an arrest. When it came to stopping black people, cops were far more likely to do so. Disrespect for the police increases a person’s risk of arrest, according to the researchers. For example, arrests were more likely to be made when a black police officer interacted with a white suspect.

b) Bail

Prosecutors and judges may decide whether offenders should be freed on bail based on risk to the community and likelihood of escape (University of Toronto. Centre of Criminology, 1995). To assess the accused’s likelihood of fleeing, the court considers his or her occupation, marital status, and period of residency in the region.

Race should not play a role in bail applications when the danger to the community and prior court appearances are taken into account. Race, on the other hand, has a significant impact on bail judgments. Defendants with a low educational level and affluence were less likely to receive bonded and so more going to occur onerous bail conditions, that according Albonetti and colleagues (1989). They also indicated that when it came to bond applications, blacks were held to higher standards than whites. Bail was set at a higher amount for whites than for blacks, notwithstanding the crime’s seriousness and its consequences. White people are treated better on bail, even when the statistics shows that they are handled differently. It is important to note that bail applications will not be based on race, and minorities are likely to be seen as less trustworthy and more aggressive than whites. Despite other variables, a higher rate of bail denial.

c) Conviction and Sentencing

According to Petersilia and Witbank’s, there is no evidence of racial discrimination at the time of criminal conviction (Petersilia 1983; Witbank’s 1987), and Robert Sampson and Janet Lauritsen (1997) agree that there is no evidence of racial prejudice in the aggregate. On the other hand, Sentencing research has piqued the curiosity of those investigating racial inequities. According to a survey of multiple studies conducted by the National Academy of Sciences, the direct impact of race on punishment was nearly abolished when prior criminal records were taken into consideration (Hagan and Bumiller 1983). There were racial disparities in the duration and severity of previous criminal records as a consequence of the overwhelming population of blacks in the judicial system. However, concerns have been raised about the possibility that additional characteristics that disfavor minorities, such as Race, might interact with sentencing decisions, affecting sentence decisions based on Race.

Research on sentencing in the late 1970s and 1980s focused on racial discrimination by looking at the perspective of the victim rather than the criminal. They took new crimes like drug manufacturing into account while compiling their data. In comparison to their white colleagues, lower-ranking black drug traffickers have been shown to be handled more leniently. Because they are believed to be causing even more suffering on the already beleaguered non-white community, main black drug traffickers are more brutally punished, according to Ruth Peterson and John Hagan (1984). Overall, the research conducted during this time period seems to show certain instances of prejudice, particularly in specific places.

Three-strike law included in the determinable punishment. Following a series of statistical tests, researchers found that the racial disparity in sentence length was not due to any underlying bias (Klein, Petersilia, and Turner 1990). It’s also been suggested that prosecutorial discretion is skewed. A variety of attempts have been made to determine the appropriate limits of prosecutorial authority when imposing punishments. In Los Angeles County, black and Hispanic persons were found to be considerably more likely than white people to be convicted. (Spohn, Gruhl, and Welch 1987). According to the Supreme Court, “arbitrary criteria like race, religion, or other categories” should not be used to prosecute (Walker et al. 2000: 140).

d) Imprisonment Disparities

At the end of 2009, there were 1,613,740 persons jailed in the US, divided between state and federal prisons. According to Minton (2011), 12.8 million people were jailed in the 12 months ending June 30, 2010. In mid-2010, the average daily prison population was 748,728 (down from 767,434), with a 242 daily incarceration rate (a decline from 767,434 in 2009). According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, 44.3 percent of all inmates were white as of June 30, 2010.

Compared to white non-Hispanic men (487 per 100,000), the rate of black convicts serving terms of more than one year in state or federal prisons was 3,119 per 100,000, six times greater than that of Hispanic males (1,193 per 100,000). (West et al. 2010: 9). There were 1,987 white females, 1,356 Hispanic females, and a total of 703 black females imprisoned during the period. More men than women ended up in jail at 949 for every 100,000 people. According to a Pew study released in February 2008, one out of every 100 Americans is currently incarcerated, and this number is much higher for some racial and ethnic groupings. According to the paper, for instance,

Stratum Rate per 100000 males Rate per 100000 female
whites 487 50
blacks 3119 142
Hispanic 1193 74

e) Death Penalty Disparities

Researchers observed that a person’s race effects the prosecutor’s choice to pursue capital sentence and how it is carried out. In the case of the death sentence, it would seem that race has a significant influence on prosecutors’ and jurors’ readiness to pursue the sentence, as well as the inclination of victims’ family to embrace the penalty.

Offenders convicted of killing white victims, whether black or white, have the greatest danger of the death penalty, whereas those guilty of killing black victims, whether black or white, face the lowest. According to a study of all death-eligible killings committed in a California county from 1977 to 1986, evidence of prejudice against black perpetrators is mirrored by evidence of discrimination against Hispanic victims.

Inmates under sentence of death, by Race

Race  Males sentenced Females sentenced Prisoners executed
Total 3483 66 52
white 1738 42 24
Hispanic 346 4
Black 1302 15 21
Hispanic 10 0
Other races 73 3 0

Conclusion

Racism is still prevalent in the law enforcement system in the United States. Although experts feel that prejudice happens at certain times in the decision-making process, research reveals that there is no systemic racial discrimination. Discrimination based on race and ethnicity is said to be common in both the system and outside of it, according to some. Most individuals thus think that acts of discrimination are committed on a regular basis, and that these actions may be motivated by deeply held cultural and social prejudices towards persons of different races. It is possible for these complicated and subtle manifestations to exist, making it difficult to capture them using traditional research approaches. Public perceptions of the criminal justice system’s operations are strongly linked to instances of discrimination in the workplace, and this is an issue that has to be addressed. What matters is that minority believe the system is unjust because it discriminates against them, regardless of the outcomes of research studies to the contrary. As a result, people in positions of power in the system must act ethically and strive to eliminate any evidence of institutional racism from their judgement call processes.

References

Baker, D., & Baker, D. N. (1994). Reading racism and the criminal justice system. Canadian Scholars Press.

Egharevba, S. (2016). Police brutality, racial profiling, and discrimination in the criminal justice system. IGI Global.

Hylton, J. H. (2001). 9. The justice system and Canada’s Aboriginal peoples: The persistence of racial discrimination. Crimes of Colour, 139-156. https://doi.org/10.3138/9781442602502-010

Justice on trial: Racial disparities in the American criminal justice system. (2000). DIANE Publishing.

McCarter, S. A. (2018). Racial disparities in the criminal justice system. Encyclopedia of Social Work. https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780199975839.013.1289

Million, J. D. (2003). Undefined. Greenwood Publishing Group.

University of Toronto. Centre of Criminology. (1995). Racism in the criminal justice system: A bibliography.

Wilbanks, W. (1987). The myth of a racist criminal justice system. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.

Appendices 1

Number of Sentenced Prisoners IN USA, by Race, hispanic,Sex, and age , Dec, 2009
Male Female
Age Total White Black Hispanic Total White Black Hispanic
Total 949 482 3,117 1,134 66 51 132 73
18-19 526 242 1512 781 23 17 42 24
20-24 1874 886 5339 2365 109 86 186 124
25-29 2211 1001 6927 2686 149 115 287 164
30-34 2348 1204 7721 2481 188 155 361 178
35-39 2226 1220 7490 2305 206 164 426 189
40-44 1949 1121 6447 2054 172 131 360 171
45-49 1219 684 4063 1520 94 67 205 107
50-54 712 408 2345 1073 45 32 101 60
55-59 424 272 1291 732 22 18 42 29
60-64 251 180 701 490 11 9 22 22
65 or older 94 69 287 184 3 2 6 4

Racial Injustices In America Essay Sample For College

The history of racism may be traced in every sector of the United States, including education, business, the media, and everyday life (Cherry). The United States has a long history of racial and economic inequality. Generally speaking, these expressions refer to long-standing and pervasive racism that has been ingrained in the roots of American culture and continues to this day. A series of high-profile police killings, including that of George Floyd in Minnesota, sparked nationwide Black Lives Matter demonstrations, which have persisted as activists continue to call for significant change (Cherry). As many social workers are well aware, racial injustice can long-term impact an individual’s mental and physical health. More recently, the NASW has expressed its support for federal legislation that would implement police reform and address systemic racism in the criminal justice system (Cherry). This article examines the multiple ways racial injustice impacts the health, education, livelihoods, and lives of Black people in the United States. There will be a greater understanding of how the structural injustices of American society act against Black people. In addition, it offers a solution to the problem of racial inequity.

Where and why racism occurs

Racism may occur anywhere, at any time. According to studies, the most common places for racism are in one’s neighborhood, in public places like stores, and on the job. It may also happen on the bus, during a sports event, or even at a university. Racism may be seen in the media (Morales, Danielle, et al.). When certain ethnic groups are unfairly or negatively portrayed in the media, this may lead to racial bias. Many people see the absence of cultural variety in the media as just another manifestation of racism in our society. Internet racism is a major issue. Cyber-racism has hugely influenced the rise of racist beliefs, whether it is rude remarks on social media, provocative memes, or awful movies posted online. Racist statements may easily be transmitted anonymously by those who do so.

Racist views may arise for a variety of causes. People are influenced by the opinions of others in their environment. The formative years of one’s life profoundly influence one’s outlook (Morales, Danielle, et al.). It is not uncommon for people to adopt racist views after hearing them expressed by loved ones or friends. Something must be done to prevent it from lingering in a person’s mind for a lifetime. In addition, the company of others who have similar views to one’s own might influence one’s outlook. Spending time with those who share one’s hobbies, culture, and language is natural. It fosters a crucial feeling of community. Unfortunately, this may lead to divisions within groups, leading us to believe that our group is superior to others. Attorney Ben Crump is a racial justice activist who has spent his professional life fighting for the rights of people of color. Racism is a problem that impacts a wide range of concerns in the United States.

Racism is embedded in American culture.

The phrases “institutional racism” and “systemic racism” are often used interchangeably to characterize vast systems of racial oppression that exist in many organizations. Anti-Black racism, despite the appearance of new manifestations of discrimination or racism, remains essentially unaltered (Crump). For the most part, racism is firmly embedded in all facets of our society and directly impacts social, economic, and political disparities. A song by Billie Holiday in 1939 referred to the lynching of African Americans in the South as “weird fruit.” This “weird fruit” was planted long ago, according to systemic racism, and it continues to rot in our day. George Floyd’s death is a terrible illustration of this.

American Society Is Riddled with Discrimination

Some individuals believe that racism is largely a personal issue or that only humans are capable of committing acts of racism (Sánchez, Erica, et al.). For them, racist language like the “n-word” or overt manifestations of white supremacy like Charlottesville’s “Unite the Right” protest in 2017 are examples of racism. Racism, on the other hand, is a sneaky thing. Color affects almost every aspect of our lives. Less equity in a home translates to less total wealth for Black and Hispanic families, according to a 2020 Urban Institute analysis. Black and Hispanic homeowners, on the other hand, depend more largely on the equity in their homes to boost their net worth.”

Consider the findings of the 2019 Annual Homeless Assessment Report, which found that 40% of the homeless population was made up of people of color. However, just 13% of the US population was people of color. Because racism affects almost every element of American life, systemic racism can be found in everything from gentrification and black women dying in delivery in our hospitals up to the gentrification of our cities. The enormous imprisonment and monitoring of Black and Brown people are clearer than ever (Crump).

Discrimination against members of the Black LGBTQ Community in the United States

Systemic racism affects all Black people, but some oppressed groups, such as the poor and members of the LGBTQ community, are particularly badly hit. With racism, Black LGBTQ persons have to cope with homophobia, transphobia, sexism, and anti-queer discrimination and violence. Members of the LGBTQ community often reinforce white privilege. People of color who identify as homosexual or questioning their sexual orientation experience a variety of discrimination and harassment(Moore, Kristen R, et al.). Black LGBTQ teenagers are an especially susceptible population to discrimination.

According to recent research, in comparison to their white counterparts, LGBT Black and Latinx persons have a higher suicide attempt risk. It is apparent that the racial inequities that marginalize and repress Black communities further exacerbate the melancholy and anxiety of LGBT Black kids (Crump). Nigel and other young people like him deserve support in their fight against institutional racism and homophobia. Discrimination, housing imbalances, and healthcare disparities all play a role in the economic marginalization of Black LGBTQ individuals.

As a group, black transgender persons are particularly vulnerable to discrimination. According to the American Medical Association, violence against transgender individuals of color is rampant. In recent years, there has been an increase in violence against transgender individuals of color, especially transwomen. According to the Human Rights Campaign, at least 26 transgender or gender nonconforming persons were shot or murdered in 2019; 91% of these killings were Black women. Data on transgender and non-binary persons is incomplete or inaccurate. Therefore this statistic does not adequately represent the real number of people. Transgender people are just as important as other black people.

Unfair Treatment at Work

Racism is not a problem in the workplace. one cannot get away from systemic racism because it permeates every aspect of life, from family to coworkers (Crump). According to several studies, black candidates are less likely to receive an interview for a job in the first place. African-Americans may have to deal with microaggressions, stereotyping, bias, and hostile surroundings if they manage to get a job. It is common for them to be afraid to speak out or submit complaints because they fear backlash. In the workplace, racial power disparities leave Blacks at a severe disadvantage on various fronts (financial, social, and emotional). Compared to their white counterparts, Black workers earned 62% less in 2018.Due to their gendered and racist status, Black women are in a double bind: they lack the greatest power and riches(Moore, Kristen R, et al.). Black individuals put in more effort than white people, yet they get paid less.

Racial Discrimination and the Mental Health of African-Americans

Race relations, discrimination, and prejudice have what effect on Blacks? Racism, both institutional and interpersonal, unjustly burdens them in their daily activities. Because of social media and the 24-hour news cycle, people are continually exposed to stories of Black people being attacked and harmed (Moore, Kristen R, et al.).. Racism’s pervasiveness on mobile devices and television sets may be upsetting and distressing. Race and mental health are inextricably linked, and there is no doubt.”Racism is connected with several psychological effects, including despair, anxiety, and other significant, often crippling problems, including post-traumatic stress disorder and drug use disorders,” according to the American Psychological Association. Anxiety from racism may lead to various health problems, including cardiovascular disease (Crump). More than 20 percent of African Americans suffer from mental health disorders, according to the Anxiety and Depression Association of America. As a result of institutional racism and racial inequities in mental health care, African-Americans face additional emotional and psychological impacts from racism and discrimination and a lack of access to treatment resources, provider prejudice, and misdiagnosis (Moore, Kristen R, et al.). Some mental diseases are overdiagnosed in Black communities, whereas others are underdiagnosed.

Solutions to ending Racial Injustices

Around the globe, people’s lives and well-being are threatened by racial prejudice. Until racial inequities are addressed, poverty will not be eradicated (Sánchez et al.). The first goal suggested in this article is to promote racial justice every day to minimize inequality and guarantee that everyone has the chance to fulfill their full potential. There are several ways to encourage institutional and structural change, such as developing a list and looking at options. Educating oneself comes second on the list. World Trust’s Shakti Butler says that education is a crucial aspect of organizing for social justice and equitable movement-building (Sánchez et al.). Finally, political action is necessary. In order to alter police methods and address racial injustices, citizens must vote in both local and federal elections.

Conclusion

Numerous studies have examined how people of different races see racial relations, their personal experiences with discrimination, and how these issues are perceived differently by different races (Sánchez, Erica, et al.). Instead of focusing on influencing public opinion, however, most studies aim to get a better understanding of the “snapshot” of public opinion , where people stand right now and the factors that impact their views via study.

This high-level approach sheds light on how individuals conceptualize the situation. Rather than structural prejudice or legislation, relationship and personal encounters are seen as the root causes of discrimination. A lack of personal desire or a lack of effort might be blamed for the lack of equality. If we want to generate widespread support for policy change, we need to make the function of systems and structures more evident. Because problem discussions sometimes elicit rivalry between races, as if success is a zero-sum game and what one group gets is taken away from another, it is important to keep this in mind. Instead of eliminating race, we must discover ways to unite people around a single goal and shared destiny.

Works Cited

Cherry, Myisha. “Love, anger, and racial Injustice.” (2019).

Crump, Ben. “Racial Injustice In America | Civil Rights | Ben Crump.” Ben Crump, 2022, https://bencrump.com/blog/racial-injustice-in-america/.

Morales, Danielle et al. “Racial/ethnic disparities in household food insecurity during the COVID-19 pandemic: a nationally representative study.” Journal of racial and ethnic health disparities 8.5 (2021): 1300-1314.

Moore, Kristen R., et al. “Contested sites of health risks: Using wearable technologies to intervene in racial oppression.” Communication Design Quarterly Review 5.4 (2018): 52-60.

Sánchez, Erica, et al. “7 Ways You Can Take Action For Racial Justice Right Now”. Global Citizen, 2022, https://www.globalcitizen.org/en/content/how-to-support-racial-justice-black-americans/.