Race And Ethnicity Social Movement And Change Free Essay

Race and Ethnicity

Trayvon Martin was a seventeen-year-old black teenager. On the evening of February 26, 2012, Trayvon left her home on foot to buy a snack from a nearby convenience store. As he was returning, George Zimmerman, a white Hispanic male and the community’s neighborhood watch program coordinator, noticed him.

In light of a recent rash of break-ins, Zimmerman called the police to report a person acting suspiciously, which he had done on many other occasions. According to Zimmerman, Martin attacked him, and in the ensuing scuffle Martin was shot and killed (CNN Library 2014).

A public outcry followed Martin’s death. There were allegations of racial profiling—the use by law enforcement of race alone to determine whether to stop and detain someone.

Racial, Ethnic, and Minority Groups

  • Race: This concept has changed across cultures and eras as it has become less connected with ancestral and familial ties and more concerned with superficial physical characteristics.
  • Ethnicity: Like race, the term ethnicity is difficult to describe and its meaning has changed over time.
  • Minority Groups: According to Louis Wirth, minority group is any group of people who, because of their physical or cultural characteristics, regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination.

Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination

  • Stereotypes: These are oversimplified generalizations about groups of people and can be based on race, ethnicity, age, gender, sexual orientation. They may be positive but are often negative.
  • Prejudice and Racism: Prejudice means the beliefs, thoughts, feelings, and attitudes someone holds about a group. A prejudice is not based on experience; instead, it is a prejudgment originating outside actual experience (Landor et al. 2013).
  • Discrimination: Discrimination based on race or ethnicity can take many forms, from unfair housing practices to biased hiring systems.

Theories of Race and Ethnicity

The key issues of race and ethnicity include three major sociological perspectives: functionalism, conflict theory, and symbolic interactionism.

  • Functionalism: This concept, of course, is problematic since the key issues of how racism and discrimination contribute positively to society can not be answered.
  • Conflict Theory: A conflict theory perspective of U.S. history would examine the numerous past and current struggles between the white ruling class and racial and ethnic minorities, noting specific conflicts that had arisen when the dominant group perceived a threat from the minority group.
  • Interactionism: These interactions contribute to an abstract picture of the subordinate group that allows the dominant group to support its view of the subordinate group and thus maintains the status quo.

Intergroup Relationships

  • Genocide: is the deliberate annihilation of a targeted (usually subordinate) group, is the most toxic intergroup relationship.
  • Expulsion: refers to a subordinate group being forced, by a dominant group, to leave a certain area or country.
  • Segregation: refers to the physical separation of two groups, particularly in residence, but also in workplace and social functions. Pluralism: it is represented by the ideal of the United States as a “salad bowl”: a great mixture of different cultures where each culture retains its own identity and yet adds to the flavor of the whole.
  • Assimilation: it describes the process by which a minority individual or group gives up its own identity by taking on the characteristics of the dominant culture.
  • Amalgamation: it creates the classic “melting pot” analogy; unlike the “salad bowl,” in which each culture retains its individuality, the “melting pot” ideal sees the combination of cultures that results in a new culture entirely.

Race and Ethnicity in the United States

  • Native Americans: Currently, about 2.9 million people identify themselves as Native American alone, while an additional 2.3 million identify them as Native American mixed with another ethnic group (Norris, Vines, and Hoeffel 2012).
  • African Americans: Many people with dark skin may have their more recent roots in Europe or the Caribbean, seeing themselves as Dominican American or Dutch American.
  • Asian Americans: Asian Americans represent a great diversity of cultures and backgrounds. The experience of a Japanese American whose family has been in the United States for three generations will be drastically different from a Latin American who has only been in the United States for a few years.
  • Hispanic Americans: The segment of the U.S. population that self identifies as Hispanic in 2013 was recently estimated at 17.1 percent of the total 44 percent reported as Cuban, and 9 percent reported as Puerto Rican.
  • Arab Americans: Both Hispanic Americans or Asian Americans are so designated because of their counties of origin.
  • White Ethnic Americans: According to the U.S. Census Bureau of 2014, 77.7 percent of U.S. adults currently identify themselves as white alone.

Racial Tensions in the United States

The death of Michael Brown in Ferguson, MO, on August 9, 2014 illustrates racial tensions in the United States as well as the overlap between prejudice, discrimination, and institutional racism.

On that day, Brown, a young unarmed black man, was killed by a white police officer named Darren Wilson. During the incident, Wilson directed Brown and his friend to walk on the sidewalk instead of in the street. While eyewitness accounts vary, they agree that an altercation occurred between Wilson and Brown.

Three autopsies independently confirmed that Brown was shot six times. The shooting focused attention on a number of race-related tensions in the United States.


CNN Library. (2014). “Trayvon Martin Shooting Fast Facts.” CNN US. N.p.

Landor, Antoinette M., Leslie Gordon Simons, Ronald L. Simons, Gene H. Brody, Chalandra M. Bryant, Frederick X. Gibbons, Ellen M. Granberg, and Janet N. Melby. 2013. “Exploring the impact of skin tone on family dynamics and race related outcomes.” Journal of Family Psychology. 27 (5): 817-826.

Norris, Tina, Paula L. Vines, and Elizabeth M. Hoeffel. 2012. “The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2010.” U.S. Census Bureau. Web.

The Valley Forge Battle In American History

The Valley Forge battle, as described in the NCO 1700, was a turning point in American history. Despite the challenging circumstances, Valley Forge is occasionally said to as the origin of the American military since the worn-out soldiers emerged with renewed energy and self-assurance as a skilled fighting power. The combat army in Valley Forge faced several difficulties even though Washington’s leadership helped to create an organized and unified force. The soldiers’ morale and professionalism would reach an all-time low due to the logistical challenges, which included unsuitable winter clothes and a food deficit. Poor supply-acquiring practices and diseases and sickness are the critical problems analyzed in this paper.

Valley Forge housed the Continental Army’s winter headquarters from 1777 to 1778 under the leadership of General George Washington. The damaged and defeated Continental Army proceeded northward through the snow-covered terrain in pursuit of a campsite during the winter of 1700 (Chandler, 2022). To keep watch over the city, General Washington picked Valley Forge, situated a few kilometers from Philadelphia. Based on a survey of the campgrounds, troops were residing in cramped, damp conditions without a conventional tent layout or sanitary procedures. Whenever an animal died, its flesh was taken out, and the carcass was left to decay where it lay. Furthermore, soldiers relieved themselves wherever they pleased, and sickness and disease decimated the Army.

Persistent acquisition concerns result in long-term challenges that significantly impact a group’s day-to-day operations. The mechanism through which Washington and his troops procured necessities like food and clothing was inadequate. Some of the men were without shoes, which caused severe damage to their feet (Starr, 2018). Additionally, there was a shortage of winter clothing and blankets, leading to the listing of nearly 4,000 soldiers as incapable of service (Chandler, 2022). By the conclusion of the winter, many Soldiers had died from illnesses and ailments. Poor hygiene in the encampment facilitated the spread of infections that caused the soldiers to defect. Therefore, the Army became weaker as a result of the disease-related deaths of soldiers and desertions.

It would have been very admirable at that time if General Washington had asked the American citizens and Congress for assistance in understanding the predicament of his soldiers. While asking for assistance is not a show of vulnerability, it does indicate that the leader cannot solely drive the decision-making cycle. Exceptional leaders also possess the mental toughness to face challenges head-on and overcome obstacles (Chandler, 2022). It would have been easier to organize and manage personnel, supplies, and various resources for the Revolutionary soldiers to deal with the issues they encountered at Valley Forge if they had hired a competent leader in maintenance functions. These proposed solutions would help General Washington control the challenges his troops underwent in the valley.

After implementing the suggested remedy, the Army would engage the public and Congress in many ways. The troops would strive to establish and preserve moral relationships with the people of America through the relationship-building strategy. Furthermore, these connections would have many positive effects and help the soldiers accomplish their professional objectives. General Washington would therefore find it easy to require steady supplies from the public. The strategies of legitimate requests and collaboration with Congress would greatly benefit Washington’s troops. This intervention would enable Congress to supply the Army with essential commodities such as foodstuffs and medicine to control the outbreak of sickness and diseases. Moreover, it is through Congress that the soldiers could earn better wages to sustain their families survival.


Chandler, J. (2022). The continental army and ‘military Europe’: Professionalism and restraint in the American war of independence. War in History, 29(2), 323-340.

Starr, K. (2018). Continental achievement: Roman Catholics in the United States. San Francisco, Ignatius Press.

Discussion: Supply Chain Management And Pandemic

It goes without saying that I was aware of supply chain management before reading the provided articles. In addition, I was familiar with major supply chain challenges, including time-sensitive pickup and delivery, keeping related costs down, sourcing reliable and consistent carrier capacity, and keeping up with technological progress and consumers demand. At the same time, I was highly pleased with the information found in the articles. First of all, “What is supply chain management?” (n.d.) informs about the key principles and aspects of supply chain management in a comprehensive and structured manner. In other words, due to this article, it is possible to gain knowledge or review already known facts.

At the same time, the second article may be regarded as more informative. Although I was aware of the devastating impact of COVID-19 on the global supply chain, Ellyatt (2021) provides a more in-depth insight into this problem. At the same time, I have always thought that after the invention of vaccines, the economic situation will begin to improve. However, according to the author, the supply chain crisis will be even more severe (Ellyatt, 2021). The examples provided in the article made me reflect on other companies affected by the pandemic. I thought about McDonald’s where I had been working a long time ago which has experienced the consequences of the coronavirus as well. In general, the whole supply chain may be disrupted if even one of its components is damaged. In the case of McDonald’s, the corporation has faced shortages of products, especially meat (Gross, 2020). These shortages were determined by meat processing plants’ temporary closure when their employees were infected. These issues made the international business community look for more efficient solutions to minimize their impact in the future.


Ellyatt, H. (2021). Supply chain chaos is already hitting global growth. And it’s about to get worse. CNBC. Web.

Gross, M. (2020). McDonald’s exec: The Covid-19 meat shortages taught us all an important lesson. CNN Business. Web.

What is supply chain management? (n.d.). IBM. Web.

error: Content is protected !!