Racism And White Privilege And Benefits Sample College Essay


Racism and white privilege are topics discussed on different platforms when confronting issues of social inequality. Racism is commonly viewed as the discrimination practices that people from the minority racial groups undergo. On the other hand, white privilege is the benefits that a white individual obtains from others in the society due to their skin colour (Kendall, 2012). The two terminologies are used to mean almost the same thing as they describe inequality that originates from ones identity. On numerous occasions, white privilege is not mentioned when dealing with racial discrimination issues.

Topics such as police brutality, work place discrimination, and denial of certain rights are most prominent when discussing racial discrimination. The topic is commonly addressed by the people of colour (Kendall, 2012). The white society rarely contribute to the discussion as they often feel as if these issues do not affect them directly. They ought not to realise that they are privileged while others are discriminated.

According to Seaton and Tyson (2019), white privilege does not mean that whites are rewarded without working hard. Rather it is providing them with the rights that their fellow racial communities are deprived of. Hobbs (2018), notes that such privileges include ownership of property, quality healthcare, quality education, representation in leadership among others. Although the rights are entitled for every citizen of a country not every citizen is offered the chance to enjoy them.

Without doubt, white privilege is a silent form of racial discrimination. The two social constructs interact in such a way that when one is a gain the other is a loss. The gain, white privileges, more evident when the loss, racial discrimination, takes place. The privileged party pays little attention to the discriminated because they are not directly affected. However, for a revolution in the topic of social inequality, it is crucial that the privileged party, the white community, takes part in condemning racial discrimination.

White privilege should be added to the discussion of social inequalities and racial discrimination as a way of achieving societal change. It is one of the historical social injustices suffered by the minority races. For full review of the social inequality, the white community should be committed to help their fellow citizens from other races in the endeavour.

How Racism is Defined by the Society

On numerous occasions, racism has been used to refer to the social prejudice of the people due to their identity. The term is common when a race, mostly people of colour, faces social injustices from another, usually the whites. When topic is discussed, it raises controversial emotions of oppression and guilt among people of various backgrounds in society. However, racial discrimination could be a result of an individual or a group of individuals having less power in society for a prolonged period.

Police brutality is one of the topics that define racial discrimination in the current society. People of colour, the black and Hispanic communities, are more likely to suffer police brutality than the whites. According to statistics from credible sources, a black man is more likely to be arrested than a white man when found committing a similar crime in different instances (Kendall, 2012). Also, the black person may be denied the right to a fair judgement. On occasion the black man is presented in a court trial, they have higher chances of being imprisoned or penalised than a white man. However, white privilege is not discussed when a white man is not arrested for a similar crime in the first place.

One of the recently addressed issues of police brutality as a form of racial discrimination is in the case of Mr. George Floyd. The victim was reported to the Minneapolis police officers by a convenience store owner who accused him of buying cigarettes using a counterfeit bill of $20 (Fine, 2021). However, seventeen minutes after the arrival of the police officers, Mr George Floyd was laying down unconscious and lifeless. The police officers harassed him during the arrest where they laid him on the ground; one officer placed his knee on the suspect’s neck while another was pinning him to the ground. The police officers did not ease the force even after the man was unconscious (Fine, 2021).

The murder of Mr. George Floyd was charged as first degree murder and manslaughter. Fine (2021) states that the four officers involved in the case were fired and sentenced to various punishments. In this case, racial discrimination was evident when the victim was exposed to police brutality. The issue did not take the direction of white privilege that was evident when the police officers who committed the crime did not receive maximum penalty for voluntary manslaughter which is 40 years imprisonment. The officer in-charge, Derek Chauvin, was sentenced to 22 and a half years imprisonment for the murder.

Additionally, provision of separate processes for different racial groups is a pronounced form of racial discrimination. Historically, various structures and processes were implicated towards the immigrants due to their racial identity. Policies such as the Jim Crow’s laws were introduced to segregate the people of colour from the whites. They were also deprived of some crucial rights such as the right to vote and public participation. The discussion about historical social injustices faced by people of colour is inevitable when evaluating racial discrimination. Although most of the policies that eliminate segregation by race have been enforced in the current society, there are several instances of the practice evident that define discrimination.

Racial discrimination also occurs from a biased belief that society places on people belonging to a particular race. An example of a social bias that could lead to discrimination is that black people are more likely to be noisy than whites. Such a belief could lead to a black person being denied an opportunity, for instance, a job position in preference of a white. On such an instance, white privilege is not addressed rather, racial discrimination is condemned.

When addressing the issue of racial discrimination, the society recalls the social injustices faced by the minority racial groups. Such injustices include but not limited to police brutality, segregation, unfair judicial processes, and unfavourable government polices among others (Bauman, 2020).. White privilege is rarely presented in the discussion as it is perceived as a separate social construct. Although it does not affect a minority group when a right is provided to a white, it exerts a feeling of discrimination when the same right is denied to them. Thus, white privilege gives birth to racial discrimination.

White Privilege is a Silent Form of Racial Discrimination

The term white privilege is a construct that tends to portray a white person as having an easier life than a person from other races. Some of the factors that lead to this construct include having a higher number of representatives in political and elective positions, domination most of the processes and structures in the country, access to resources, education, job opportunities among others. Bell et al. (2016) argue that the white privilege construct could rise from having simple commodities such as hair and skin care products of the whites placed on a more convenient shelf than a black person’s products in a supermarket. These factors may seem normal for an ordinary citizen in their country but they are the rights that the minority races are deprived from during racial discrimination.

In a country or particular society, citizens may face similar challenges despite of their identity. Such challenges may include unemployment, economic crises, unfavourable business environments, and government policies among others. In a socially unequal setting, the difference occurs in the ease of addressing such challenges for citizens belonging to diverse racial groups. It would be easier for a white person to navigate through the challenges since the processes and structures in the United States are dominated mostly by the white community.

In other words, Kendall (2012) takes an example of a public policy that affects the white community, their views are consider with ease as they are well represented in government positions. This case may not be addressed as racial discrimination because it is not, rather, it is white privilege. However, if the minority groups have an issue affecting them, their views would hardly be consider because they are underrepresented in government and in that context discrimination becomes evident.

White privilege is an in-built advantage that should be defined separately from one’s achievement or level of income. The white privilege construct does not mean that the government takes food to the whites while still in their houses. The whites are neither rewarded for work they have not done nor offered employment without proper training. However, although they work hard to achieve their goals, white privilege is portrayed through the in-built advantage that arises from their colour (Bauman, 2020).

The road to their success may be much easier than that for an individual from a minority race as they have systems to support them through the process. Such systems can be defined as the basic rights of citizenship such as security, quality health care, quality education, and legal systems (Bell et al., 2016). A person of colour needs to work extra hard to achieve the same level of success as a white person, thus discrimination.

Moreover, white privilege can be a biased belief same as racial discrimination due to the long term possession of power by the whites. For instance, in a scenario where an African-American man is harassed by the police, the public would view the act as a racial discrimination act. However, if the same harassment was imposed on a white man found committing the same crime, the act would not be judge as racial discrimination.

If the scenario changed where by the young black man was rewarded or recognized for a good deed, the public would perceive it as the right thing to do. While, if a white young man was rewarded from his black men peers, it would be perceived as white privilege (Nyborg, 2019). Hence, racial discrimination or white privilege could be a social contract based on biased prejudice because the white has occupied the position of power for a long time.

How Racial Discrimination and White Privilege Intersect

White privilege and racism are two aspects that root from one phenomena which is difference in racial identity. However, they have distinct meanings and cover different experiences. Racism stands out mainly because it is a severe form of discrimination over an individual’s skin color (Nyborg, 2019). White privileges come in on the focus of the benefits and advantages of the White Americans over other races and gender (Kendall, 2012). The common ground between the two aspects is that they both entail discrimination and oppress others.

When one is discriminated against, the right they are denied is provided to another for their identity, the feeling of inequality is derived. The right is perceived as a privilege where it could be merely a normal phenomenon to the privileged party (Bauman, 2020). Racial discrimination gives rise to white privileged society. The whites do not have to receive extremely special treatment for the feeling that they are privileged to occur. Rather it is the deprivation of a right from a minority group which is provided to the white that raises the feeling of discrimination and white privilege.

People from the white community feel the possession of some power over other racial groups. This is a fact that is merely admitted publicly. The power may arise from they believe that they are better humans than other racial groups which is implicated in them by the available systems and structures. On the other hand, minority racial groups admire and perceive whites as their superior (Bauman, 2020). They tend to imitate their culture and lifestyle to gain a feeling of superiority while trading their cultures. The feeling of superiority by the whites could be defined as a white privilege while the inferiority by the minority as racial discrimination.


Conclusively, racism as a social phenomenon tends to intersect with white privilege as a social construct with little recognition of such interaction. Racism refers to the discrimination of an individual or community based on their race or ethnic group. This is due to the belief that one race is supreme to the other. On the other hand, white privilege refers to the advantages inherent to a white person in this case because their race is supreme, leading to racial injustice and inequality. The two aspects tend to clash in understanding the communities and thus leading to instances of social inequalities. In today’s society, racism and white privilege have a significant influence on the identity of the citizens, thus affecting social relations and the race to domination.

When addressing issues of social inequality, racism and white privilege are topics addressed on different platforms. Racial discrimination is only perceived as the social injustices suffered by the people of colour which is separate from white privilege. Topics such as police brutality, work place discrimination, and denial of certain rights are most prominent when discussing racial discrimination.

White privilege is a construct that tends to portray a white person as having an easier life than a person from other races. Whites are supposedly privilege due to the provision of preferential treatment from other racial societies. The treatment does not have to be rewarding them without working hard. Rather it is providing them with the rights that their fellow racial communities are deprived from. Although faced with similar challenges such as unemployment, economic crises, unfavourable business environments, and government policies among others, the whites navigate their way out easier than other racial groups. The ease arises from provision of support systems that are unavailable to others.

Without doubt, white privilege is a silent form of racial discrimination since racial discrimination gives rise to white privileged society. The common ground between the two aspects is that they both entail discrimination and favism of one group from the others. When one is discriminated against, the right they are denied is provided to another for their identity, the feeling of inequality is derived. White privilege is more pronounced when the loss (racial discrimination) takes place.

For societal change, the silent beneficiaries of the system has to pay more attention to the pain points of the victims. Broadly, the white community should join hands with the minority groups to demand for equal systems and treatments. Often, the privileged will claim that they experience the same things as less privileged people. However, the oppressors should acknowledge the gap that is present in a society to fill it to achieve justice. Still, individual steps to promote equality in school, workspaces, or even in the general public are critical in effort to draw a group and the whole community to acquire social equality.


Bauman, Z. (2020). Modernity, racism, extermination. In Theories of Race and Racism (pp. 277-293). Routledge. Web.

Bell, L. A., Funk, M. S., Joshi, K. Y., & Valdivia, M. (2016). Racism and white privilege. Teaching for diversity and social justice, 133-183. Web.

Fine, M. (2021). George Floyd (October 14, 1973–May 25, 2020): Make Future Public Health Better Than the Past.

Hobbs, J. (2018). White privilege in health care: Following recognition with action. Web.

Kendall, F. (2012). Understanding white privilege. Web.

Nyborg, H. (2019). Race as social construct. Psych, 1(1), 139-165. Web.

Seaton, E. K., & Tyson, K. (2019). The intersection of race and gender among Black American adolescents. Child Development, 90(1), 62-70. Web.

Attempt As Criminal Law Concept


The concept of attempt refers to an incomplete or inchoate crime where an individual initially was intended to commit a crime and undertook specific actions to complete it but ultimately failed to commit a full offense due to some accidental causes. Inchoate crimes cover “attempts, solicitation, and conspiracies” (Schmalleger and Hall, 2017, p. 94). However, for a person to be accused of an attempt, his actions should be comprised of more than just planning of a crime. In other words, it is necessary to undertake some actions that would lead to the completion of an offense. Such actions are called substantial steps. The punishment for an attempt is less severe in comparison with a full offense because less harm was done to a victim. The current essay is dedicated to the discussion of several cases, including the cases of Tennessee v. Reeves, the United States v. Gladish, the United States v. Thomas, and the State of Florida v. George Zimmerman.

Tennessee v. Reeves

The case of Tennessee v. Reeves refers to the situation of two twelve-year-old girls, Molly Coffman and Tracie Reeves, who wanted to kill their teacher, Janice Geiger, with rat poison and then still her car. Their plan was derailed by the third student, Dean Foutch, who knew about the plan and refused to help them. What is more, he informed the teacher of the girls intentions. Molly Coffman brought poison to school but failed to stir it in the teacher’s coffee. After the investigation, the Tennessee Supreme Court ruled their actions to be attempted second-degree murder.

This case raises debates whether their actions illustrate a substantial step. As it was stated by Schmalleger and Hall (2017), an action is a substantial step when it is “strongly corroborative of the actor’s criminal purpose” (p. 95). From one point of view, it seems that the girls were not engaged in enough activity to constitute an attempt offense because they did not stir poison in Geiger’s drink. According to the definition provided above, the fact that they merely discussed the murder is not enough to charge them. From another point of view, one of the girls brought poison to school. Considering the fact that she discussed her will to kill the teacher with her friends, the act of bringing poison to school strongly correlated with her intention to commit a crime.

The opinion of the court corresponds with the second viewpoint. More precisely, the judge deemed that since they possessed rat poison, they had materials to commit the full offense. From my perspective, it seems that there was enough evidence that the girls had taken a substantial step toward the commission of a targeted offense because the implementation of the plan did not end up merely with the phone conversation. They came to school and brought poison with them. What is more, if they were not found guilty of an attempt, they might complete their plan in the future.

The court established the Model Penal Code (MPC) test in Tennessee to determine if a substantial step has been taken. Under the MPC, an act is a substantial step if an actor has a purpose of committing a crime and a substantial step was undertaken (Schmalleger and Hall, 2017). In the case of Tennessee v. Reeves, the actions of Molly Coffman and Tracie Reeves correspond to both criteria. Undoubtedly, the court modifies the legislative enactment of the attempt statute by using standard law rules of construction. However, the new code is attempted at the prevention of crimes.

The United States v. Gladish

A 35-year-old man joined an online chat and persuaded his interlocutor, who he thought was a 14-year-old girl, to have sex with him. Besides, they agreed to spend some time together out of the girl’s home. In reality, the girl was an undercover federal law enforcement agent. Federal prosecutors charged the man with an attempt to engage an underaged person in criminal sexual activity. Nonetheless, in the United States v. Gladish 536 F.3d 646 (7th Cir. 2008), in contrast to the case of Tennessee v. Reeves, the three-judge panel of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit found that the defendant was not guilty of a criminal attempt because he did not undertake substantial steps. The concept of criminal conspiracy implies that if people agreed to commit a crime, then the probability that the crime will be committed in reality increases (Sacharoff, 2016). In the United States v. Gladish, the defendant and his purported interlocutor of 14 years old agreed to have sex.

One could argue that it was enough to discuss this issue to charge Gladish because he clearly stated his attempts and solicited a teenager. Nonetheless, as it is written in the notes of Judge Richard A. Posner, the defendant could not be accused of an attempt of a full offense because he only talked about sex with this girl and never tried to go beyond the chat. More precisely, during the process of communication with his correspondent, he did not mention that he would travel to northern Indiana to meet her, “did not invite her to meet him, and did not know for sure that she was a minor” (Wall, Blanco, & Lambros, 2017, p. 18). Hence, the three-judge panel of the U.S. Court of Appeals concluded that his dialogue with the fake-14-year-old-girl is not a sufficient reason to punish him for the attempt to commit a crime. In other words, there were no material justifications for his criminal intentions. From this, it could be inferred that if he bought tickets on a bus to the hometown of a girl or booked a hotel room, the decision of the court would have been different.

The United States v. Thomas

Self-defense could not be regarded as an attempt to commit a crime. However, an individual should prove that his actions indeed were caused by the necessity to defend himself from unavoidable death. It is interesting to notice that self-defense has never been expressly recognized by the Supreme Court as a constitutional right of citizens (Miller, 2017). The four components of self-defense are “imminence of the threat, necessity, proportionality, and reasonableness” (Fields, 2020, p. 9). One of the cases on the issue of self-defense is the one of the United States v. Thomas, 34 F.3d 44 (2nd Cir. 1994). In this law case, the drug seller, Lawrence, was charged with the death of Wallie Howard, the police officer. The defendants, Lawrence and Stewart, asserted that the murder came as a result of self-defense. Nonetheless, the court refused this claim even though Lawrence fired at Howard only after Howard fired at Lawrence’s partner, Stewart. From this perspective, it is an error to refuse to accept Lawrence’s claim on self-defense.

Nevertheless, the situation was more complex. A person who provoked an attack, i.e., an aggressor, cannot later use deadly force to defend himself (Schmalleger and Hall, 2017). Lawrence and Stewart wanted to rob Wallie Howard, the undercover officer, who brought more than $40,000 in cash. Besides, they were armed with two guns and broke the wrist of Howard’s colleague, Gregory, in the fight. Therefore, the defendants themselves created the situation that threatened Howard and became unable to claim self-defense in the shooting.

The logic behind the statement of the U. S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit on a claim of self-defense is based on the idea that slayers are deprived of a right to explain their actions with self-defense. Only a guiltless person has a right to homicidal self-defense. I find this view a right one because a person who threatens a victim’s life should be ready that a victim will try to defend himself. Thus, an aggressor, who controls his actions, understands that his assault could ultimately put his right in danger. Finally, an aggressor has a choice not to kill his victim, whereas a victim cannot choose whether to put his own life in danger or not.

The state of Florida v. George Zimmerman

In 2021, George Zimmerman, community watch coordinator, was charged with the second-degree murder of Trayvon Martin. The State argued that Zimmerman killed a guiltless Martin, whereas Zimmerman’s attorney announced that the murder was a response to the injures caused by Martin. Ultimately, the State won the case. In contrast to the previously described case of the United States v. Thomas, the peculiarity of this case is that social unrest made the court change the verdict because, initially, Zimmerman was found not guilty. Since Zimmerman is Hispanic and Martin was Black, the public rebelled against the court’s first decision because people believed that it was biased. Another difference with the United States v. Thomas case is that to defend himself of the second-degree murder accusation, Zimmerman relied on the stand-your-ground law. This law permits a person to use deadly force to protect life and limbs “in public spaces with no duty to retreat” (Schmalleger and Hall, 2017, p. 137). Nonetheless, the jury changed the verdict and charged with Zimmerman the murder of Martin.

According to Florida’s stand-your-ground law, a criminal defendant must meet specific criteria to present a stand-your-ground defense successfully. The first element of the stand-your-ground law is that a defendant could use deadly force to prevent “imminent death or great bodily harm” or “imminent commission of a forcible felony” (The Florida Senate, 2018, para. 2). Secondly, the defendant could not be “engaged in a criminal activity and is in a place where he or she has a right to be” (The Florida Senate, 2018, para. 2). Thirdly, the defendant should believe that the only way to protect the life is to use deadly force. In other words, this point means that a person should have no other option but to stand his or her ground. Overall, the defendant’s fear of death should be reasonable and not exaggerated, and the defendant should objectively have no other ways to save his life but use deadly force.


Fields, S. (2020). The elusiveness of self-defense for the black transgender community. Nevada Law Journal, Forthcoming. Web.

Miller, D. A. (2017). Self-defense, defense of others, and the state. Law & Contemporary Problems, 80(85), 85-102.

Sacharoff, L. (2016). Conspiracy as Contract. UCDL Review, 50, 405-461.

Schmalleger, F. & Hall, D.E. (2017). Criminal law today (6th ed.). Pearson.

The Florida Senate. 2018 Florida Statutes. MyFloridaHouse.gov. Web.

Wall, J.B., Blanco, K.A., & Lambros, D. (2017). Richard Rutgerson, Petitioner v. United States of America. In the Supreme Court of the United States, 16(759), 1-19. Web.

Frankenstein As A Gothic Novel And An Example Of Romanticism

Mary Shelley is an iconic writer who lived from 1797 and died in 1851. The writer lived and wrote during the era of literature when romanticism bloomed and flourished. Shelley’s works can prove that she was significantly impacted by her times because she shows major elements of romantic writing. One romantic attribute of Shelley’s novels is how she sets her novels, choosing beautiful and exotic places. The artistic ending that Mary Shelley chooses to achieve in her particular novel, Frankenstein, is gothic and romantic conventions. Shelley does so through the plot, the characterization in the book, the setting, and the subject matter. In Frankenstein, Shelley uses literary elements that exude both a gothic and romantic factor in the characters in the story. In this paper, the discussion will be on how Mary Shelley has used her writing prowess to achieve the gothic and romantic effect unique and distinguishes the book from any other piece of art.

The first element is the setting in Frankenstein. Shelley picks a romantic setting, and here the characterization of the monster and Victor Frankenstein is brought to life. As seen in many books of the romantic genre, Frankenstein uses unknown and obscure places. Switzerland’s scenic nature, the foreign country the play takes place, helps make the book romantic. Victor Frankenstein’s character shows the romance as he says, ‘The black sides of Jura, the bright summit of Mont Blanc… Dear Mountains! My beautiful lake! Your summits are clear; the sky and the lake are blue and placid. The description is used to show how the scenery is impeccably beautiful and picturesque and this curves the character of Victor as being romantic. The book continues to show how Victor loved to take refuge in perfect solitude and how he enjoyed nature. The reader sees Victor on the boat, in the lake the whole day, watching the clouds and listening to silence and waves that are rippling through. In the same breath, the reader is let in on the point where Victor is at in life because he seizes to enjoy nature because of how low he feels. The monster’s despondency is also shown through the set when he says, ‘the labors I endured were no longer to be alleviated by the bright sun or the gentle breezes of spring.’ Before the monster was shot when he had just been rescued, a child changed his perspective on life. The reader sees that the monster had a blimp of goodness and humanity in him before his feelings were hurt. Through the monster’s appreciation for nature first, his good side is seen, and then the lack of appreciation that the inhuman gothic aspect is illuminated.

It is the setting that dictates what the reader feels and how they see the character in question. The positive humanistic character of the monster is built through Shelley using nature to draw the reader. Suspense is built up through the dark, dreary, and gothic setting that the writer chooses. Victor describes the night of November as scary to make Halloween setting to see the crescendoing of the monster’s awakening. Again, when Victor is going back to Geneva, there are dark clouds, heavy rains, and a massive storm that sets the mood suitable for the horrific sighting of the monster by Victor. Shelley employs ‘the dark and stormy night’ gothic classic setting to set a horrific mood. How Shelley uses language to deploy both gothic and romantic situation makes for an unforgettable story. There being nothing more gothic than death, in Frankenstein, Shelley uses it as an intense element that is depicted all over the book. The mood is set by Victor’s mother’s death, which shows the gothic side of the story by creating a somber mood. The monster who kills both the wife and brother of Victor as an act of revenge shows the story’s gothic side. The theme of pain, which is a common feature in gothic stories, is shown in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein.

The gothic element of the story is shown through the pain of the main characters starting with the monster in pain throughout the book. It is mostly the part where he confronts Delacy, and then he runs out of the village due to pain. The pain of losing his loved ones that Victor experiences, and even when he loses his ability to enjoy nature because of pain, shows gothic elements. Shelley creates gloomy and dark areas to show gothic as the laboratory where Victor created the monster in. Gothic stories have mystery and suspense, and in Frankenstein, Walton traveling through an unfamiliar place gives the reader a feeling of mystery and wonder of what that feels like. The romantic aspects of the novel are shown through the power of the individual. Victor and Robert Walton have a unique romanticized standing in the novel because they are individuals with different passions. Walton has a passion for discovery, and he goes to the North Pole on his voyage, which is a type of romance. Victor, on the other hand, has the goal of creating a life that he has romanticized. The characters are also shown acting emotionally, erratically, and irrationally which shows their romantic aspect.

The magnification of their emotions by the writer is to show what they feel. The reader gets to see the human protectors rejecting the monster and how irrationally destructive he becomes to show that he cares and wants to be cared for and loved in return. Reason flees from Victor’s mind, and that is why he follows the monster to the North Pole, which was a bad idea and irrational, showing the book’s romantic aspect. In many gothic stories, the characters seem to have the power to navigate both the supernatural world and the mortal one. The characters seem to have the power to live like the undead, ordinary people, and also from the world beyond. Frankenstein shows this through the monster being able to somewhat communicate with Victor, the human creator. The reason for being wherever Victor is can only be explained as the monster having powers to bridge through the mortal and supernatural world. The speed with which the monster moves is superhuman, a gothic feature used by Mary Shelley to create a memorable story. The story is entertaining but still has some important lessons that a reader can draw from the reading. Mary Shelley wants to show the reader that human beings should never forget the sanctity of humanity. As much as science and technology are intriguing, they can go too far, which is not suitable for survival and healthy living.

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