Racism In Othello Sample College Essay

Racism is a major theme in most plays, with Blacks being treated as inferior while, on the other hand, the Whites are portrayed as superior. However, the major goal of artistic works is to represent the issues in society. Thus the major goal of bringing racism into play is due to its impact on society, as shown in Shakespeare’s Othello. Although Othello shares the same religious practices and values as the other fighters, he is black and everyone refers to him as the ‘moor’ instead of calling him by his name. Despite the name being demeaning, it is disrespectful he is their leader and deserves respect and proper recognition. In Othello, Shakespeare brings the theme of racism best through Iago, who often criticizes Othello for being Black.

Iago presents Blacks as devilish while addressing Brabantio due to Othello’s intimate relationship with Desdemona. Iago says, “Even now, now, very now, an old black ram is tupping your white ewe. Arise, arise! Awake the snorting citizens with the bell, or else the devil will make a grandsire of you (Shakespeare 1.1.97-101)” Historically, especially in the sixteenth century, the devil was being presented as a Black while righteousness or godliness as White which is manifested well in this play. Iago here wants to show that Blacks are different from whites and are linked with devilish actions, and thus, Othello’s intentions for Desdemona are not good. Despite being a Christian, Iago calls Othello a devil to depict the evil in him. Since everyone believes that he is evil, Brabantio accuses him of wooing Desdemona through the use of witchcraft due to the information he gets from Iago.

Furthermore, Iago discourages inter-racial marriages regarding the intention of Desdemona to marry Othello. Iago says, “Foh! One may smell in such a will most rank, Foul disproportion thoughts unnatural— But pardon me” (Shakespeare 3.3.268-278). Iago perceives that it is unnatural for a white woman to marry a Black man. Historically, interracial marriages between whites and Blacks or other inferior races were discouraged because it was believed that they would give birth to children of lower status.

Another instance of racism occurs when Iago uses animal symbolism in his tirades against Othello. The utterances emanate from the notion that blacks are inhuman and cannot behave appropriately. During this episode, Brabantio opposes Iago’s accusations of Desdemona eloping in the middle of the night. Iago describes Othello’s house as Grange, a derogatory term for a farmhouse and claims that if Desdemona keeps sleeping around with Othello, she will give birth to children that neigh (Shakespeare 1.1.120-125). Comparing Desdemona’s children with horses shows Iago’s hatred against the blacks because he views them as meaningless creatures.

Brabantio also insists that Othello enchanted Desdemona with charms, leading to her falling in love with him. He observes that the woman “Run from her guardage to the sooty bosom of such a thing as thou—to fear, not to delight! Judge me the world, if ’tis not gross in sense That thou hast practiced on her with foul charms” (Shakespeare 1.2. 90-94). Describing Othello’s bosom as sooty is disrespectful and a way of saying that he is dark and unlovable. Since Othello is the only black-skinned person in the play, he is exposed to high levels of discrimination and prejudice. The characters also connect the issue of race with sexual norms and marriage. In the past, individuals viewed interracial marriages as a violation of the set social rules

In conclusion, Iago brings out the theme of racism significantly well, specifically in addressing Othello and his relationship with Desdemona. Individually, he dictates almost everything about what others should do, including Othello, Desdemona, and her father. On the other hand, Othello lacks confidence and is not proud of his origin. The ultimate act of killing Desdemona confirms the racist stereotype that black people are violent and should be feared. However, Iago’s character generally represented how the Whites perceived Blacks and the issue of inter-racial marriages.

Works Cited

Shakespeare, William. “Othello:[1622].” Oxford Text Archive Core Collection (1991).

Ramifications Between Russia And Ukraine Sample College Essay


It’s the subject of my paper, and it’s one that I think will stimulate the curiosity of everyone who reads it. Conflict involving Russia and Ukraine that turns into war. Even though the conflict between the two nations has been going on for over seven years, it is the consequence of several disagreements over Ukraine’s east and the availability of various resources. On the other hand, the Ukrainian crisis is the most important development throughout this war. As a result of the fighting, several service members were killed, and residents were forced to evacuate their homes. The crisis has affected individuals being unable to work due to the high expenses of food, clothes, and other essentials. Many soldiers were killed in the battle, and many were forced to flee their homes because of the violence. Because of the economic crisis, the cost of everything from food to clothing has gone up. Many people can’t afford the necessities due to rising prices and low-wage work.

Background of information

Due to the lesser size of Ukraine’s armed forces than Russia’s, the country’s parliament passed legislation requiring all men between the ages of 18 and 45 who are in otherwise excellent health to enlist. However, their homeland will not be taken from them despite their efforts since Ukrainians are well-known as strong patriots who put faith in the people rather than politicians. They will die for their country, but they will not give it up. A substantial impact on Russia’s decision to use force could not be ascribed to the Russian propaganda war in Crimea due to the lack of a clearly defined component. Information operations and their impact on Russian-speaking Crimeans are part of Russia’s internal attempt to sway public opinion and ensure acquiescence. Both the information war and the operation benefited greatly in Crimea from the Ukrainian leadership’s numerous blunders and a widespread sense of public anxiety following Yanukovych’s collapse. Russia preyed on these emotions, fostering fear of right-wing violence in the populace. Because of this, Rajang Menon (political scientist) supports the scenario in his book “The Unwinding of the Post–Cold War Order.”

The Russian conflict in Ukraine has wreaked havoc on the country’s people, infrastructure, and economy. There have been an estimated 3,000 civilian deaths and injuries and the displacement of more than 6,000,000 people, with a further 400,000 being displaced inside their own country and a further 4,000,000 fleeing to other nations (Cini & Borragán, 2022). According to the administration, economic losses in Ukraine are estimated at $570 billion and growing. Preliminary talks are taking place in Turkey, but there seems to be little hope of a speedy cessation of hostilities between Russia and Turkey. A nuclear-armed country and a P5 member of the UN Security Council have ignited a war in Europe’s heartland, and the geographical repercussions of that conflict are becoming increasingly obvious.

Economic turbulence

This crisis will have a global influence on the economy as long as it is contained in Ukraine. Russia and Ukraine account for less than 2% of world commerce and GDP, and less than 1% of global FDI has been invested in Russia and Russia alone(Mulligan, 2018). Wheat, corn, sunflower, fertilizer, gasoline, and metals, all of which have suffered price hikes since the war started, are vital commodities for both countries. If global prices for wheat, food, gasoline, and metal rise by a modest 10 percent this year, we estimate that the war’s negative effect on low- and middle-income states would be at least $18 billion (Raga and Pettinotti, forthcoming). An estimated $29 billion will be spent by oil-importing countries in East Asia and the Pacific. South Asia is anticipated to spend an additional $15 billion. Middle Eastern and North African countries will benefit from rising oil export prices and those in Sub-Saharan Africa.

However, the economic vulnerability of 118 low- and middle-income countries (L&MICs) to the war’s effects could be mitigated by looking at 27 different indicators. These included bilateral trade and investment indicators, migration, and indirect openness to the war’s implications (such as commodity market exports, trade and investment openness, and resilience). Belarus, Lebanon, Kyrgyzstan, Armenia, and Uzbekistan are the five most susceptible countries by these standards. Nations that are geographically and historically close to Russia (Belarus), as well as those that rely on commodity imports, money transfers, and tourist industry (Jordan, the Maldives, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, and Jamaica), are the most at risk of being adversely affected by Russian and Ukrainian economic activity(Johnston,2014). Other countries, however, may suffer from global consequences due to their reliance on these sources.

In terms of wheat and maize exports, Ukraine and Russia are among the world’s topmost exporters. Sunflower oil is an additional major export from Ukraine. There is a good chance that Ukrainian harvests in 2022 will be much lower than expected because of the invasion and closure of Ukraine’s Black Sea ports. Additionally, because of the fighting, ships are reluctant to go through the Black Sea because of the high danger of being damaged or lost at sea. As a result, there are questions regarding Russia’s ability to export its crops. Russia and Ukraine are the foremost producers of urea fertilizer, whereas Belarus is a major potash producer. Both would be very difficult to ship overseas in the same vein as agricultural products. We’re witnessing big price increases on the global markets for grains and fertilizer (mid-March 2022). Since they peaked in September of that year, worldwide rates for corn, soybeans, and wheat have increased by 75% to 89%. In line with this increase, the price of urea fertilizer has also climbed. Prices of potash and oil have increased by 50% subsequently September of this year. For example, Egypt, Sudan, Lebanon, and Yemen import furthermost of their wheat from Russia and Ukraine, even though many individuals in low- and lower-middle-income countries don’t eat much wheat. Thirty-nine percent of African LDCs’ wheat imports came from Ukraine and Russia in 2018–2020. Either food costs go up, or the government subsidies become more expensive, as in Sudan and Egypt.

Energy jolts

Russia is a major supplier of crude oil and petroleum products across the globe (15 percent of world crude oil exports by 2020). Approximately 10% of the time. Due to the conflict’s effect on world supply, global prices will rise (Brent crude prices spiked by 56 percent between 3 January and 7 March and remain significantly higher than before the invasion). Rising crude prices are welcome news for many of Africa’s oil-exporting nations. Although the impact of commodities prices and supply chain disruptions on Asia’s GDP is difficult to predict, the harm has been minimized in many ways (Enders & Remig, 2015). ASEAN is to engage with Russia via China, which has been accumulating goods and agricultural supplies since September. Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov is on his way to India, where he will meet with Indian counterpart Narendra Modi to discuss the revival of the Soviet-era rupee trade settlement accord.

As the second biggest gas producer globally, Russia supplies over a third of Europe’s total gas consumption. However, since certain European countries (especially those in the Balkans and Germany) rely heavily on Russian gas, Russia’s central position in Europe’s energy ecosystem has a major impact on how Europe reacts to its operations in Ukraine. The short-term push to restart coal-fired power plants in certain countries, such as Germany, may affect their emissions goals. European investments in energy efficiency and renewable energy may rise as nations reduce their dependency on Russian oil and gas in the long term. This might speed up the decarburization process. New oil and gas permits have strengthened energy security and made formerly unprofitable wells commercially viable. If President Biden’s clean infrastructure legislation fails, this might happen in the United States.

Shocks to the geopolitical system

European postwar order, defined via multilateral institutions like the EU and NATO and reinforced by the US might is directly threatened by Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. It will be interesting to watch whether the Russian threat weakens or strengthens these systems. As for China’s long-term relationship with the West and Russia, it’s unclear. By stockpiling oil and other resources as a reserve buffer, China is preparing for a moment of global upheaval while preserving favorable relations with Russia (Mulligan, 2018). . With Beijing’s support, the negative effects of the war have lessened for LMICs. In many Asian and African countries, heavily dependent on Chinese investment and commodities consumption, debt has hampered their growth and development. Because of China’s response to the crisis, countries outside of Europe may face more challenging geo-economic moments in the future.

A lot of ground has already been covered. Once again, Europe’s refugee policy is in the limelight, presenting serious practical and moral considerations about nations’ commitments under the Refugee Convention. As a reminder of our shared humanity, acts of support for refugees fleeing violence in Ukraine are appreciated, but they also shine a harsh light on the actions of certain countries when it comes to other migrants. Also possible is that organized crime and human trafficking organizations will have an opportunity to develop their actions in the country and use it as an alternate rustling route into Europe because of the conflict’s unpredictability. Criminality and bribery have always been key issues in Ukraine, and they featured prominently during the Orange Revolution of 2004–2005. There have been reports of Russian intermediaries being transferred from the South Caucasus toward Ukraine, which might increase the “frozen” hostilities in the area. Recent ceasefire breaches involving Azerbaijan and Armenia over the contentious Nagorno-Karabakh section have stoked tensions between the two countries.

Global ramifications, and the breakdown of Western relations with Russia, have lower visibility. Europe is hosting the conflict, but the geopolitics of the conflict will likely affect not just the European environment but also long-established arrays of contacts concerning the Global North and South in future months. While much has been spoken about concerning the “information war” between Ukraine and Russia, Russia has focused its efforts on the BRICS, Africa, and Asia rather than the internet populated by the West (Johnston, 2014). In light of the Cold War’s record of Soviet aid to African countries, the lack of censure of Russia’s activities in African countries is also worth mentioning. Even if the United Nations Security Council and other post-World War II institutions like the International Criminal Court (ICC) survive, a rising division among the P5 nations will restrict their capacity to operate as effectively as they did in their post-Cold War heyday.

Once again, the US has revealed its intent to use the dollar-dominated monetary system for geopolitical benefit by denying Russia access to central bank reserves and SDRs. To challenge the dominance of the US currency in the world economy, Beijing may boost attempts to develop alternative systems using the crypto sector. G20 finance is projected to become more acrimonious in general, with ramifications for other major agenda items, including developing a unified strategy for debt relief and the ascending of maintainable finance.As the United States and Europe concentrate their emphasis and funds on the crisis in Ukraine, other philanthropic and development problems are being put aside. US Congress rejected efforts to increase financial assistance and reallocate SDRs to battle Covid-19 while passing $13.6 billion in the military and charitable aid to Ukraine. Meanwhile, European countries are increasing their military budgets as they cope with the influx of Ukrainians. Both are completing the global vaccination program and dealing with Afghanistan’s growing calamity have missed the political radar.

Neither the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) nor the whole World Bank Group faces a danger to long-term financial stability or credit ratings as a result of the crisis’ impact on MDB finances. Loan write-offs would reduce the EBRD and World Bank’s lending capacity, increasing loan loss reserving and market-to-market equity investment losses. Even though it has underwritten its entire loan portfolio and stopped making new loans to Russia, the BRICS-backed New Development Bank may be hurt by its vulnerability to Russia as a shareholder and borrower. At least in the medium term, the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, which is headed by China and has a far more diverse loan portfolio, will be substantially less impacted. Chinese development funding to war-torn LMICs is by now helping to fill the gap left by Western-backed groups. As a result, many people in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) believe that the West showed little concern for their plight throughout the pandemic.

Humanitarian disasters, threats to food and energy security, and questions regarding global security architecture have all resulted from Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. As a consequence of the worldwide culture we live in, these difficulties will not be limited to Ukraine but will confront challenges all around the globe. Both short- and long-term remedies must be discovered to prevent these repercussions from becoming catastrophes atop catastrophes. The Russian invasion of Ukraine was a watershed moment in global security, the global economy, and our global energy infrastructure. While we live in a worldwide society, it is impossible to confine a battle like this to a single location. We can’t confine radiation within one nation’s geographical borders, and we can’t protect one country from supply chain instability. With its severe charitable crisis, cyber-attacks, monetary woes, misinformation and publicity efforts, geopolitical pressures over energy supplies, and the fear of nuclear war, this kind of hybrid conflict will have far-reaching consequences.

Impact on humanity

A total of far more than eleven million individuals have been displaced by the crisis in Ukraine, with 5.3 million migrating to other nations and 6.5 million remaining in their own country as a result. 2/3 of Ukrainian children have been impacted and must now leave their homes, according to the UN agency for children.

Jobs are more important to Ukrainians than subsidies.

Ever since the start of the conflict, half of all Ukrainians have lost their occupations. Simply 2% of those who applied were able to find work on a short-term basis (Cini & Borragán, 2022). This condition necessitates an investment in re-education and skill development. If the situation improves, many of those who have gone to safer locales will return. Meanwhile, they might be the driving force behind Ukraine’s economic system after the war if they invested in their expertise and built a better corporate culture.

A worldwide food shortage

In addition to producing 50 percent of the world’s sunflower apply oil, Ukraine produces 10 percent of the world’s scrap and 13 percent of the world’s maize, which is enough to feed 400 million people. The Russian assault will thwart up to 30% of Ukraine’s agricultural lands from being planted or produced this year (Cini & Borragán, 2022). Since the Black Sea ports have been blocked, the embargo disrupted Ukrainian supply lines and the restricted ability to enter the Western border. Due to municipal blockades and a deficiency of seeds and fertilizer, farmers are scrambling to keep planting. If they don’t start planting crops now, the autumn will be a disaster. The financial markets have already reacted to the current circumstances. The cost of wheat has increased by roughly 25% in the past year. This will lead to a shortage of food, impacting populations all around the globe.

As a consequence of the current situation, Ukraine faces a food shortage in many towns, notably Mariupol, with few possibilities for bringing in fresh supplies. The invasion of Ukraine has sparked a broader economic war, which has contributed to the current food shortages. The crisis will harm Ukraine, but it will also have a huge effect on other Eastern European countries as prices increase and shortages grow. Because of these reasons, small farmers need quick support to satisfy the country’s domestic food needs this season. Maintaining sustainable agricultural methods is essential for the long term.

Problems with energy

This Russian invasion of Ukraine has the potential to expedite the global transition toward green energy, but it will have a significant effect in the short term on energy prices and market systems. Emergency measures have been put in place worldwide because of an oil and gas crisis. WE, UK, and CA all imposed a ban on Russian oil and natural gas imports at the same time. By 2024, the EU hopes to be less reliant on Russian gas and oil. Large commercial energy companies like Shell and BP find it more difficult to continue in Russia. The price of gas and oil has risen due to the market’s reaction (Enders & Remig, 2015). Safety and efficiency will play a major part in state policy for energy businesses in light of the conflict in Ukraine and the publication of the IPCC’s greatest recent climate assessment. As a consequence of this shift in thinking, renewable energy investments will be an important part of power security and political stability. A green revolution would be driven even further by the fast advancement of technology.

Security architecture throughout the world

Human rights, democracy, and the world order have all been raised due to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. Regardless of the outcome, this might be a turning point in the global security system (Johnston, 2014). After World War II, the current security architecture was put in place. A worldwide economic impact is possible here. According to UBS, investors are increasingly concerned about the effect of the Ukraine crisis, the likely disruption of commodities shipments, and the strengthening of global sanctions against Russia.


The war’s toll on the human race is clear and disturbing. International and national economies are still struggling from the pandemic’s consequences, but fighting has added an unpleasant shock. There is a wide range of ways the Ukraine issue had affected nations throughout the world, unlike March 2020, when countries were presented with a single adversary and shared policy tools to defeat it. This will affect economic and political cooperation systems, influencing the Western union, the West’s connections with Russia and China, and the link between these power centers and those in the Global South.


Cini, M., & Borragán, N. P. S. (Eds.). (2022). European Union politics. Oxford university press.

Enders, J. C., & Remig, M. (Eds.). (2015). Theories of sustainable development (Vol. 52). London: Routledge.

Johnston, M. (2014). Corruption, contention and reform: the power of deep democratization. Cambridge University Press.

Mulligan, M. (2018). Introduction to Sustainability. Taylor & Francis.

The Causes Of Adolescent Pregnancy And The Different Ways To Prevent Teenage Pregnancies Essay Example For College

Specific individuals and societies admit that women should not become pregnant or have children when they are still teenagers. The main argument on this side of the matter is that most young people have not reached the level of profound development they are expected to take on the responsibilities that decent parents should have. Another dissenting opinion is that young people usually lack financial security and freedom, and raising children is expensive. Curiously, social researchers show that if young people have more unstable family relationships and come from low-income foundations, they are less likely to become pregnant in their teenage. This essay intends to explore the causes of adolescent pregnancy and the different ways parents can implement to secure their children from teenage pregnancies.

Imagine waking up to school every day and emphasizing that your child has to worry about where he goes to school. Many young people are now pregnant before they become graduates. You might think it is okay, but it is not (Mann et al., 2020). Teens are not prepared for children. Being a teenage mom is a matter of money, and in some cases, there are not many choices to make during pregnancy (Agüero 2021). Pregnancy in children has a significant impact on the economy and their lifestyle. Engaging in sexual relationships should be seriously considered before giving birth, or in any case, preparing for the consequences.

Several circumstances influence pregnancy and childbirth in young adults. Young women often feel compelled to marry and have children early in life. Around 39% of young women in developing nations marry before they turn 18 and between 12 and 15. In many places, young women choose to become pregnant because of limited education and business opportunities (Kost & Maddow-Zimet 2016). Parent-child relationships are often emphasized in social layers, and marriage or the birth of a union and a child is an excellent option with limited options (Frederiksen et al., 2018). Young people who may need to avoid pregnancy cannot do so due to information gaps and misunderstandings about where and how to use preventive techniques. Teens are unaware of contraceptive information, approaches to bans, and preventive orders based on age, marital status, and the propensity of health care workers (Cook 2021). In addition, young people may lack the job or independence to ensure the accurate and reliable application of preventive strategies.

It is hard to know that you are pregnant as a pregnant teenager, so you need to avoid alcohol or medications or be careful. Drugs and alcohol are terrible for you, so it is best to assume you avoid them all (Mann et al., 2020). Alcohol can cause low birth weight or growth retardation. Taking medications can make your baby dependent on their medicines during pregnancy or lead to brain damage or delivery failure (Bennett et al., 2020). Many things can be scary for kids, but these are the two main ones, and you can see what they can do with them.

According to the general pattern in the United States, youth pregnancy rates are significantly lower than they were 50 years ago in the 1950s. However, this measurement may be because women usually gain experience, get married, and wait until they become pregnant from the desire for children to practice their profession (McClellan et al., 2018). This example seems legitimate; as the door to women’s career potential today is far more remarkable than in 1950. But, even in the United States, you can see different examples of teenage pregnancies depending on the terrain. A typical example is that the more south you go, the more pregnant your child will be. Overall, southern states such as California, Texas, Georgia, and Florida have more teenage mothers per capita than northern states like Montana, Minnesota, and Vermont.

However, many societies around the world encourage young people to marry and have children. On this side of the discussion, young women need to be solid and have the energy they expect to raise their children. As women grow older, adolescents increasingly see birth deserts, so children born to adolescent mothers have organic benefits. Given that culture marries teens early, that’s an additional benefit (Baxter et al., 2021). Pregnancy is considered socially acceptable for a teenager who gets pregnant without hitchhiking. Thus, these societies believe that young people are more physically dynamic and less embarrassed.

Even though many teenage pregnancies are declining, happiness is a primary concern for high school pregnancies. Early lousy luck can cause problems later. Teenagers should be fully observed if medical problems are a concern. Adolescents can be honest and honest about health issues such as nausea, chest pain, and physical changes. Early treatment of pregnancy can relieve disappointment and tension. These drastic measures should not be experienced by young people early in life who are not ready to deal with such situations (Panting et al., 2019). Regardless of the well-being of teenagers, children are also at risk of causing weakness and confusion. It is unreasonable for a child to encounter difficulties in further developing his development (Cahyaningtyasa et al., 2020). Another precaution is to get your child pregnant prematurely. Unborn children are more likely to become pregnant if born in high school. The adolescent body does not have enough experience to cope with the upbringing and upbringing of children.

By 18, one in three young women will become pregnant about once. Teens need to play safely and find ways to prevent pregnancy and even future pregnancies. Otherwise, the teenager will face the consequences of having a child early in her life. Creating unwanted situations for boys and children is an essential issue for teenagers to consider (Bhan 2019). Teenage pregnancy can depress and anxiety a teenager’s life and make a child thoughtful. The child may also become pregnant prematurely and have developmental problems (Smith et al., 2018). Many issues, such as children’s relationships with fathers, financial difficulties, and productive time use, are challenging to deal with as a teenager, and teenagers do not have to deal with such complexity (Paton et al., 2020). Young people should also be directed to school and training so that those involved can go on a lifelong path. If young people can go to school and graduate from school, they can start their careers and later take on children and families.

Early adolescent pregnancy has a substantial impact on the health of teenage mothers and their children. Pregnancy and labor complications are the top causes of death among young women aged 15 to 19, with low- and middle-income nations accounting for most maternal mortality among women aged 15 to 49 (Hadley 2018). Eclampsia, endometritis, and underlying disease are more common in young moms aged 10 to 19 than in women aged 2024 (Moyer-Gusé and al., 2019). In addition, approximately 3.9 million unsafe fetuses are removed from young women aged 15-19 each year, contributing to maternal mortality, moody, and ongoing medical problems. Preterm birth can increase the risk for babies and young mothers (Henshaw & Feivelson 2000). Children born to mothers under the age of 20 are at increased risk of premature babies, low birth weight, and extreme neonatal environments. In certain situations, rapidly recurring pregnancies pose a problem for young mothers as they pose another risk to the well-being of both the mother and the child.

Social impacts on unmarried pregnant adolescents may include shame, dismissal, or malicious intent at the hands of accomplices, parents, and companions. Young women who become pregnant before 18 inevitably face malicious intent in marriages and partnerships 16. Teenage pregnancies and childbirth often drive young women out of school (Henshaw & Feivelson 2000). Birth can jeopardize the future education of a young woman and open up her job potential. Pregnancy in a young adult can also significantly impact a young woman, her family, and the network (Gselamu et al., 2019). Unmarried pregnant adolescents can face shame, dismissal from parents and attendants, and vicious danger. Young women who become pregnant before 18 must also encounter marriage and atrocities within the organization.

In conclusion, teenage pregnancies continue to be an essential factor in maternal and infant mortality. Pregnancy and childbirth-related turmoil is the primary cause of death for young women who have matured aged 15-19 years internationally. Pregnant girls and teens also face other health hazards and difficulties due to their more youthful bodies. Children born to young mothers also play more seriously. Pregnancy and childbirth are not arranged or obliged for some teenagers; in countries where early termination is denied or severely restricted, young people often rely on removing dangerous fetuses, endangering their well-being and life. Through intensive and creative efforts, NGOs have been at the forefront of efforts to prevent teenage pregnancies in many countries. Currently, the government promotes only a few worthwhile public projects, such as Ethiopia, Chile, and the United Kingdom, but they are still developing. These countries show what can be achieved by combining sound science with leadership strengths and patience.


Agüero, J. M. (2021). Misallocated Talent: Teen Pregnancy, Education and Job Sorting in Colombia. https://scioteca.caf.com/bitstream/handle/123456789/1727/MisallocatedTalent-TeenPregnancy-EducationadnJobSortinginColombia.pdf?sequence=1

Bhan, N. (2019). Preventing teenage pregnancy in India to end the cycle of undernutrition. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, 3(7), 439-440. https://www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lanchi/PIIS2352-4642(19)30111-7.pdf

Baxter, A. J., Dundas, R., Popham, F., & Craig, P. (2021). How effective was England’s teenage pregnancy strategy? A comparative analysis of high-income countries. Social Science & Medicine, 270, 113685. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277953621000174

Bennett, J., King, C. N., Joyner, C., James, W., & Matthews, K. C. (2020). The Lasting Effects of Teen Pregnancy Programs: Evidence from a Regional Collaborative. In Population Change and Public Policy (pp. 3-27). Springer, Cham.

Cahyaningtyasa, D. K., Astutib, A. W., & Hanic, U. (2020). Parents’ involvement and barriers to program interventions to reduce adolescent pregnancy. Journal of Health Technology Assessment in Midwifery ISSN, 2620, 5653. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/ec05/f334f4759cbf568f94198cabf160cd119c81.pdf

Cook, M. (2021). Examining contraceptive use and perceived side effects among teen girls in rural Missouri (Doctoral dissertation, University of Missouri–Columbia). https://mospace.umsystem.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10355/88047/CookMackenzie.pdf?sequence=1

Frederiksen, B. N., Rivera, M. I., Ahrens, K. A., Malcolm, N. M., Brittain, A. W., Rollison, J. M., & Moskosky, S. B. (2018). Clinic-based programs to prevent repeat teen pregnancy: A systematic review. American journal of preventive medicine, 55(5), 736-746.

Gselamu, L., Dagne, Y., Gebreyohannes, M., & Kelebe, A. (2019). Psychosocial effects of teenage pregnancy: Systematic analysis. Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, 8(5), 115-118. https://www.academia.edu/download/66962885/10.11648.j.pbs.20190805.12.pdf

Hadley, A. (2018). Teenage pregnancy: strategies for prevention. Obstetrics, Gynaecology & Reproductive Medicine, 28(4), 99-104. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdfdirect/10.1002/hec.4021

Henshaw, S. K., & Feivelson, D. J. (2000). Teenage abortion and pregnancy statistics by state, 1996. Family Planning Perspectives, 272-280. https://www.guttmacher.org/sites/default/files/article_files/3227200.pdf

Kost, K., & Maddow-Zimet, I. (2016). US teenage pregnancies, births and abortions, 2011: state trends by age, race, and ethnicity. https://www.guttmacher.org/report/us-teen-pregnancy-state-trends-2011

Mann, L., Bateson, D., & Black, K. I. (2020). Teenage pregnancy. Australian Journal of General Practice, 49(6), 310-316. https://www1.racgp.org.au/ajgp/2020/june/teenage-pregnancy

McClellan, K., Temples, H., & Miller, L. (2018). The latest in teen pregnancy prevention: long-acting reversible contraception. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 32(5), e91-e97.

Moyer-Gusé, E., Woods, K., Rader, K., & Luong, K. T. (2019). Talking about TV: Mother-daughter viewing and discussing an entertainment narrative about teen pregnancy. Health Communication.

Paton, D., Bullivant, S., & Soto, J. (2020). The impact of sex education mandates on teenage pregnancy: International evidence. Health economics, 29(7), 790-807. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdfdirect/10.1002/hec.4021

Panting, A. J., Abdullah, H., Roslan, S., & Ismail, I. A. (2019). Potential Social Risk Factors for Teenage Pregnancy in Sarawak. Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities, 27(1). https://myadolescenthealth.org/MyCCAdH/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/27-JSSH-2305-2017Published-25March2019.pdf

Smith, C., Strohschein, L., & Crosnoe, R. (2018). Family histories and teen pregnancy in the United States and Canada. Journal of Marriage and Family, 80(5), 1244-1258. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/am-pdf/10.1111/jomf.12512

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