Rape, Its Dynamics, Factors, And Prevention Essay Example

Defining rape

Rape is one of the most critical offences that have occurred throughout the history of crime. Currently, myriad definitions are provided in an attempt to explain what rape is. However, among the widely accepted definitions is the one by the Federal Bureau of Investigations. According to the agency, rape occurs when penetration of another person, irrespective of the extent, of body openings, takes place using an object or body organs such as fingers or oral penetration using a sexual organ in absence of the victim’s assent (FBI, 2013).

The dynamics of rape

Bondurant (2001) reported that several types of rape take place in the modern day world. These include vaginal, anal, and oral rapes. In any given year in the US, approximately 393,800 people experience an event that fits within the definition of rape as given by the FBI. Out of this population, 92,700 are men while the rest are women meaning that females are more vulnerable (FBI, 2013). According to Furby, Fischhoff, and Morgan (2004), between 17% and 24% of American women and 3% of the men population experience a rape incidence at least once during their lifetime. However, college men and women are mostly affected. In a survey conducted by Tjaden and Thoennes (2000), it was reported that 20% of females and 15% of male students in higher education facilities are sexually assaulted while at school.

Tjaden and Thoennes (2000) also sought to determine who the perpetrators of rape are. They found out that most rapes, especially where adults are targeted, are carried out by someone well known to the victims. Among the frequent perpetrators, there are partners, husbands, and dates.

The FBI (2013) contributed to the topic on the dynamics of rape by profiling the risk factors for rape. One of the risk factors is the female gender. According to the agency, 87% of the rape survivors are often women (FBI, 2013). The second factor is young age. It was reported in the survey that at least 54% of rapes occur on victims below the age of eighteen years, with 22% taking place before the victims reach 12 years (FBI, 2013).

A further risk factor is ethnic minority or race. It was noted that Alaskan Native and American Indian women are at high risk of being raped (Bondurant, 2001). However, at 19% and 18% respectively, African American and Caucasian females are also at a considerable risk of becoming rape victims (Bondurant, 2001). Prior rape or sexual assault is also a risk factor. As Tjaden and Thoennes (2000) claimed, females who have been raped or sexually abused prior to reaching the majority age are twice likely to be raped when they attain adulthood.

Social Cultural factors

A set of cultural and social factors that contribute significantly to the rape incidence exists. One of these is overall objectification of women. In most cultures, the intellectual and personal capacities of women are often disregarded. Additionally, their role and worth is reduced to that of an object for satisfying sexual needs. Sexual objectification also occurs in media in which women are depicted as submissive. Such a factor is likely to accelerate the potential for increased rape incidence.

Pornography is also a social factor that contributes towards the occurrence of rape offences. The social issue has come into being due to technological advent such as the Internet. Viewing of pornography exposes the watcher to unhealthy sexual behaviors and ideas about relationship. According to Bondurant (2001), access to violent pornographic materials leads to a person developing attitudes that are supportive of sexual coercion. In addition, such exposure increases the chance of the viewer perpetrating sexual assault.

Personal/psychological factors

According to Groth (2001), anger is a potential cause of rape. The scholar explained further stating that some men tend to assault women sexually as a way of expressing their inbuilt anger (Groth, 2001). Moreover, Groth (2001) claimed that rape is indeed a pseudo-sexual event. As such, it represents a sexual behavioral tendency centered more on control, hostility, dominance and status as opposed to sexual satisfaction, or sexual pleasure. Indeed, it is due to anger that most rape perpetrators use unnecessary amounts of force.

Preventing rape

As an offence, rape can be prevented with the appropriate measures. However, given that there are various forms of rapes, it requires different preventive strategies. Furby, Fischhoff and Morgan (2004) addressed the case of date rape. The scholar indicated that a date involves parties taking drinks, whether alcoholic or not (Furby, Fischhoff & Morgan, 2004). Where one party is motivated to perpetrate rape, he/she is likely to put drugs such as GHB into the other’s drink. As a result, the victim’s ability to control him/herself is eroded such that even if rape occurs, one cannot call for help. Therefore, it is highly advisable that close handling of one’s drink is adhered. Aside from this, a person should not leave his/her drink unattended. Rather, one should leave it under a trusted watchful eye.

Acquaintance also exists as a commonly reported form of sexual assault. To prevent its occurrence, one of the core steps is to ensure honesty. A person should communicate about what he/she wants honestly, respectfully and with an assertion. Besides, a person ought to trust his/her instincts. As such, one should be increasingly aware of situations and moment when he or she does not feel in charge or relaxed. Additionally, a person should make decisions by his/her own. For instance, a person should decide in advance that in case of any suggestive interaction, the friendship should be cut off before it leads into unwanted situations such as rape.

References

Bondurant, B. (2001). University Women’s Acknowledgment of Rape Individual, Situational, and Social Factors. Violence Against Women, 7(3), 294-314.

FBI. (2013). Frequently Asked Questions about the Change in the UCR Definition of Rape. 

Furby, L., Fischhoff, B., & Morgan, M. (2004). Preventing rape: How people perceive the options for assault prevention. The victimology research handbook, 12(3), 227-259.

Groth, N. (2001). Men Who Rape: Psychodynamics of rape. New York, NY: Plenum Press.

Tjaden, P., & Thoennes, N. (2000). Prevalence and consequences of male-to-female and female-to-male intimate partner violence as measured by the National Violence against Women Survey. Violence against women, 6(2), 142-161.

Trans Fat And Sugar Containing Products’ Effects

Abstract

This study is concerned with the problem of the negative influence of trans fatty acids and sugar-containing foods (sweetened beverages in particular) on the health of consumers, and with possible regulations (bans, additional taxes) that might be recommended to reduce the adverse impact of these products. A qualitative analysis of scholarly literature was performed. The study found out that the products in question do negatively affect people’s health, and that it should be useful to ban trans fats and introduce additional taxes on sugar-containing foods. Further studies of concrete tax policies related to sugar-containing foods and their replacements are recommended.

Introduction

Topic

Our study addresses the effect of consumption of trans fats, or trans fatty acids, as well as of sugar-containing products, sodas in particular, on health outcomes, and the possible policies which might affect the consumption of these products.

Background

According to the popular beliefs, sugar-containing products, as well as trans fats, have a negative effect on people’s health. It is also known that taxing may be used as a means of price regulation (Anderson, 2011).

Problems

Do sugar-containing products and trans fatty acids adversely affect the heath? Should trans fats be banned? Should there be additional taxes on sugar-containing products, sodas in particular, in order to reduce their consumption?

Research hypotheses

Sugar-containing products, sodas in particular, negatively influence the people’s health. 2. Trans fatty acids have an adverse impact on people’s health. 3. Sugar-containing products, sodas in particular, should be additionally taxed to reduce the amounts of their consumption. 4. Trans fats should be banned in schools, restaurants, and perhaps even on greater levels (cities, countries).

Methods

Our study is a qualitative meta-analysis based on a revision of scholarly articles. In order to gather the data, an online search was conducted. Seven scholarly articles were chosen and scrutinized to obtain the information necessary for the study. We also looked for information in other online sources using a Google search; one such article was used.

Data collection and analysis

Having conducted the online search, we were able to find a number of studies related to the outcomes of trans fatty acids consumption. According to the analyzed research, there exist various negative outcomes related to trans fats consumption. For instance, Ganguly & Pierce (2012) state that the consumption of industrial trans fatty acids is often associated with the increased risks of cardiovascular disease, including atherosclerosis. Even though ruminant trans fatty acids might have a cardioprotective effect, it is stated that the adverse effect of trans fatty acids is verified by much greater amount of scientific evidence (Ganguly & Pierce, 2012, p. 1093).

Further, Golomb, Evans, White, & Dimsdale (2012) argue that the consumption of dietary trans fatty acids is strongly associated with higher levels of aggression in adults; at the same time, there is a possibility that these substances might lead to an increased risk of depression. Another study shows that the consumption of even small amounts of dietary trans fatty acids (1 gram) had a significant correlation to the functioning of memory (worse word recall) in young adults (age <45), although the older generation (age >45) was not affected (Golomb & Bui, 2015). In any case, this means that these substances have an adverse effect on cognitive functions of the brain (Golomb & Bui 2015).

As for the effect of sugar-containing products, sodas in particular, we also analyzed a number of articles discussing the problem. For instance, Lustig, Schmidt, & Brindis (2012) argue that a higher level of sugar consumption is strongly associated with a greater risk of chronic non-communicable diseases. Further, Escobar, Veerman, Tollman, Bertram, & Hofman (2013) state that a major level of sugar-sweetened drinks consumption causes additional weight gain, which leads to a larger risk of non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, heart diseases, and a number of types of cancers. Sturm, Powell, Chriqui, & Chaloupka (2010) also argue that higher levels of sugar-sweetened sodas result in weight gain.

According to the cited articles on sugar-containing products, it might be effective to introduce additional taxes on soft beverages and other sugar-containing products to reduce the amounts of their consumption. For instance, Sturm et al. (2010) claim that, while low taxes on soda do not affect the overall amounts of sweetened beverages consumption, they may reduce the availability of sodas to children who are already at risk (in particular, those who are already overweight – many of them are African Americans or live in low-income families). Lustig et al. (2012) also state that various methods of regulation (not only taxing but also limiting sales during school hours or introducing age limits) should be effective in limiting harmful drinks consumption. Escobar et al. (2013) show that, according to the evidence, taxing sodas leads to lower obesity rates. Finally, Bíró (2015) has found out that additional taxes on unhealthy foods in general were able to cause better dietary preferences among the Hungarian population.

Discussion

As our study shows, trans fats consumption leads to numerous health problems. Taking this fact into account, it is clear that a ban on trans fats usage, in school districts and in restaurants in particular, should lead to better health outcomes. School districts and restaurants should be the primary targets for such a ban, for children rarely approach health problems with due attention, and the customers of restaurants will not always try to find out the amounts of trans fats in the meals they buy. In fact, the numerous problems that are caused by trans fatty acids should be a good enough reason to prohibit the usage of these substances on a much greater level – not only in cities, but perhaps in whole countries.

Regarding additional taxes on sodas and sugar-containing products, it has been shown that such taxes lower the amount of consumption of these products, at least among the at-risk population. Therefore, such taxing is highly probable to result in better health outcomes. However, it should be pointed out that the primary targets of these taxes, at-risk children, often come from low-income families (Sturm et al., 2010); therefore, introducing such taxes is likely to deprive these children of foods they like much and exacerbate the negative feelings caused by their social status. Therefore, it would be better to introduce not only additional taxes on sugar-containing products but also subsidies on foods that might substitute the harmful products, but do not lead to such adverse health outcomes (for instance, fruit juices). Besides, cheaper replacement products (e.g. juices) are likely to result in an even greater reduction in sugar-containing products consumption (e.g. sodas). It is also stated that it might be effective to tie the taxes to the amount of sugar which the product contains (Parry, 2015).

Conclusion

Our research shows that both trans fatty acids and sugar-containing products such as sodas lead to highly negative health outcomes. According to the evidence, even low additional taxes on sweetened beverages reduce the amounts of their consumption in at-risk population; higher taxes are recommended, along with subsidies on healthy foods. The study, therefore, has confirmed all our research hypotheses. A further research on the amount of tax on sugar-containing products and the amount of subsidy on their healthy replacements might be required.

References

Anderson, J. E. (2011). Public policymaking: An introduction (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Bíró, A. (2015). Did the junk food tax make the Hungarians eat healthier? Food Policy, 54, 107-115. doi:10.1016/j.foodpol.2015.05.003

Escobar, M. A. C., Veerman, J. C., Tollman, S. M., Bertram, M. Y., & Hofman, K. J. (2013). Evidence that a tax on sugar sweetened beverages reduces the obesity rate: a meta-analysis. BMC Public Health, 13, 1072.

Ganguly, R., & Pierce, G. N. (2012). Trans fat involvement in cardiovascular disease. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 56(7), 1090-1096. Web.

Golomb, B. A., & Bui, A. K. (2015). A fat to forget: Trans fat consumption and memory. PLoS One, 10(6).

Golomb, B. A., Evans, M. A., White, H. L., & Dimsdale, J. E. (2012). Trans fat consumption and aggression. PLoS One, 7(3).

Lustig, R. H., Schmidt, L. A., & Brindis, C. D. (2012). The toxic truth about sugar. Nature, 482(7383), 27-29.

Parry, L. (2015). Tax on fizzy drinks ‘does help tackle obesity.’ But taxing ingredients like sugar ‘would have an even bigger impact’.

Sturm, R., Powell, L. M., Chriqui, J. F., & Chaloupka, F. J. (2010). Soda taxes, soft drink consumption, and children’s body mass index. Health Affairs, 29(5), 1052-1058.

Community Interventions For Public Health

Introduction

Research studies should withstand criticism. The paucity of research information is evident on the impact of clinicians on dietary intake and physical activity improvement, and tobacco use reduction using community intervention methods. Anthony et al. (2016) conducted a study titled “Community Interventions for Health Can Support Clinicians in Advising Patients to Reduce Tobacco Use, Improve Dietary Intake, and Increase Physical Activity.” This research paper critiques the study that was published in the Journal of Clinical Nursing.

Study Problem, Purpose, Hypotheses, and Variables

The study’s purpose and problem are clearly stipulated. From the thorough review of the literature, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) account for most of the global deaths and are more present in both low and middle-income economies (Lozano et al., 2012). Clinicians and their patients can modify the risks of these diseases. The reviewed sources are recent, pertinent to the study, and provided relevant and concise information. Anthony et al. (2016) found that few studies had evaluated the impact of clinicians on the reduction of these risks. Their purpose was to address this problem by carrying out a study to increase the use of interventions to reduce the modifiable risks in low and middle-income countries.

The hypotheses of this study are stated and explained in detail. Anthony and the colleagues hypothesized that community interventions increase clinician preparedness to advise patients on tobacco use cessation, and improvement in dietary intake and physical activity. Independent variables comprise of community interventions like individual and group counseling, self-help materials, and medications (Anthony et al., 2016). The dependent variables are dietary intake, physical activity, and smoking cessation, all of which have a direct relationship with the independent relationship. Therefore, the study explicitly stated and defined both the dependent and independent variables, including their relationship.

Methods

Design

This original community-based nonrandomized control study clearly explains that it utilized a non-experimental control design. The study comprised of the control and intervention groups that completed the surveys (Anthony et al., 2016). However, the full methodology of the Community Interventions for Health programs (CIH) was reported by Duffany et al. (2011). Therefore, the study does not clearly explain the full methodology but refers to another study for more information.

Study Sample and Participants

The study sample and the data collection process are clearly explained. The study was conducted in Kerala in India, Hangzhou city in China, and the Mexico City in settings including health centers, workplaces, schools, and the community (Anthony et al., 2016). Participants comprised of doctors, nurses, and many other allied health professionals. These participants were protected from harm when researchers followed appropriate ethical procedures, including the study approval from relevant institutional review boards in each of the three countries. The authors failed to explain the inclusion and exclusion criteria comprehensively. However, they assert that the specific sampling procedures were given in studies conducted by Anthony et al. (2015) and Dyson et al. (2015). Therefore, the article provides inadequate information on the study sample and the sampling procedure with more detail referred to in previous studies.

Study Reliability and Control of Extraneous Variables

The article conspicuously explains the study’s validity and reliability. The survey that was based on previously validated questionnaires was designed by a development team represented by the three study sites and external consultants (Anthony et al., 2016). Evaluation Coordination Center experts and those from the study sites adapted and translated the surveys. Anthony et al. (2015) further explain that researchers conducted field tests in 2008, between May and June, before making minor revisions. All these improved validity and reliability of the data collection tools. Variables were controlled through the use of control and intervention groups. The two groups were of the same size within the same industry, with participants between the age of 18 and 64 years of age (Anthony et al., 2015). The groups were also independent of each other with similar risks for NCDs during the baseline.

Data Analysis

The article comprehensively explains how data was analyzed. Logistic regression was used in determining the differences between the two groups and time periods, allowing for differences in the baseline of risk factors (Anthony et al., 2016). A difference in difference approach used was similar to that employed by Vanderos et al. (2013) in determining the impact of interventions. Covariates were gender, type of site, and the occupational group.

Results of the Study

The study results supported the research purpose, literature findings, and the study hypotheses. Clinicianns from the intervention group felt more prepared to provide diet and physical activity improvement, and smoking cessation advice than their colleagues in the control group (Anthony et al., 2016). Furthermore, they were less likely than their control group colleagues to take skinfold thickness, hip, height, and waist measurements but more likely to take blood pressure and test blood cholesterol. More resources were available to intervention group clinicians who used complementary medicine less and counseling more than their colleagues in the control group.

Study Implications and Limitations

The article has a section describing the limitations and research implications. The results were acquired from self-reported responses, which is associated with inaccuracies in data recording. The study findings implicate health professional practice in curbing NCDs by reducing the modifiable risks. Clinicians should use the recommended community intervention methods like the CIH program to improve dietary intake, physical activity, and reduce tobacco use in the community. As a result of the benefits of community interventions, I can personally use information from this article in practice.

References

Anthony, D., Dyson, P. A., Lv, J., Thankappan, K. R., Champgane, B., & Matthews, D. R. (2016). Community Interventions for Health can support clinicians in advising patients to reduce tobacco use, improve dietary intake and increase physical activity. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 25(21-22), 3167-3175.

Anthony, D., Dyson, P. A., Lv, J., Thankappan, K. R., Fernández, M. T., & Matthews, D. R. (2015). Reducing health risk factors in workplaces of low and middle‐income countries. Public Health Nursing, 32(5), 478-487.

Duffany, K. O. C., Finegood, D. T., Matthews, D., McKee, M., Narayan, K. V., Puska, P.,… & Yach, D. (2011). Community Interventions for Health (CIH): A novel approach to tackling the worldwide epidemic of chronic diseases. CVD Prevention and Control, 6(2), 47-56.

Dyson, P. A., Anthony, D., Fenton, B., Stevens, D. E., Champagne, B., Li, L. M.,… & the Community Interventions for Health (CIH) collaboration (2015). Successful up-scaled population interventions to reduce risk factors for non-communicable disease in adults: Results from the International Community Interventions for Health (CIH) Project in China, India, and Mexico. PloS One, 10(4), e0120941.

Lozano, R., Naghavi, M., Foreman, K., Lim, S., Shibuya, K., Aboyans, V.,… & AlMazroa, M. A. (2012). Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The Lancet, 380(9859), 2095-2128.

Vandoros, S., Hessel, P., Leone, T., & Avendano, M. (2013). Have health trends worsened in Greece as a result of the financial crisis? A quasi-experimental approach. The European Journal of Public Health, 23, 727–731.

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