Reactivities Of Alkyl Halides In Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions Homework Essay Sample

The experiment aimed to compare the reactivities of different alkyl halides using two reagents: sodium iodide in acetone and silver nitrate in ethanol. The reaction equations for these reactions are as follows: 1. RX + NAI → RI + NAX (X=Cl or Br) with acetone present. 2. RX + AgNO3 + EtOH → ROEt + AgX + HNO3.

Three substrates were utilized in this experiment: primary, secondary, and tertiary compounds. Specifically, 1-bromobutane, 2-bromobutane, and 2-bromo-2-methylpropane respectively were used as the substrates. These substrates underwent reactions with the nucleophiles sodium iodide in acetone solvent and silver nitrate in ethanol solvent.

The reactivities of substrates with reagents and the structures of the products can be predicted based on lab analysis and the reaction mechanism. There are two basic kinds of reactions in the substitution mechanism: SN1 and SN2. Both reactions have similarities and differences. SN1 is more favorable for tertiary carbon compounds, followed by secondary carbon compounds. In contrast, SN2 is less likely to occur in primary carbon compounds, which is the opposite for SN1 mechanism.

Comparing nucleophilic substitution mechanisms, it is important to note that nucleophilicity strength plays a crucial role in SN2 reactions but not in SN1 reactions. Sodium iodide demonstrates strong nucleophilicity, while silver nitrate exhibits weak nucleophilicity.

When reacting with the substrate 1-bromobutane, sodium iodide results in a fast reaction, indicating an SN2 mechanism. However, silver nitrate leads to a slow or non-existent reaction, suggesting either an SN1 or SN2 mechanism. For 2-bromobutane, both sodium iodide and silver nitrate cause a slow reaction, supporting possible involvement of both SN2 and/or SN1 mechanisms. The reaction for 2-bromo-2-methylpropane is not fast, indicating an SN1 mechanism.

In summary, sodium iodide displays strong nucleophilicity and favors primary carbon compounds. Its reaction is slow for secondary carbon compounds unless heat is applied. Tertiary carbon compounds do not undergo any reaction, implying an exclusive reliance on the SN2 mechanism. On the other hand, silver nitrate exhibits weak nucleophilicity and prefers tertiary carbon compounds. It reacts slowly with secondary carbon compounds but can proceed with heat application if needed.

Ship Titanic: Informative Speech

First, I will discuss all about the titanic itself. Second, I will talk about the ship sinking. Third and finally, I will discuss a bit about the movie made in its honor.


The Titanic was the largest existing ship at its time and the biggest movable object built yet. Geoff Tablas reported, in his 1 997 book The Titanic. The extraordinary story of the “unsinkable” ship, the Titanic was 882 feet long and weighed 46,000 tons. Titanic held around 2345 passengers and 860 crew-members.

The Titanic was furnished with only the finest items to make the upper class eel as though they Were in an even finer hotel than those that were on land. The first class dining room was the largest on any ship and could seat up to 500 passengers. Titanic was believed to be the safest ship at sea. The bottom was designed with 16 watertight compartments paired with automatic water tight doors. If water would enter the doors would automatically shut, with these safety features and other the Titanic was deemed unsinkable.

The beginning of the Titanic’s first trip out to sea went off without a hitch. Tablas stated that the ship departed from Question in Ireland at 1 pm on April 10th , 1912, heading for New York. The Weather seemed perfect for sailing and the Titanic looked destined for success. Suddenly blue skies turned to gray when the unsinkable Titanic struck an iceberg. April 14th, 1912 is when they began to sink. The iceberg was hard to see fully at a distance because most of the ice was submerged under the dark blue water and it punctured the side of the ship.

Distress signals were sent out yet never received because there were no rounding ships. As the ship was sinking people were in disbelief and as a few were rescued most had no place to go. There were only about 20 life boats providing only enough for about half of the people on board (2200). Fist on the life boats were woman and children, then first class, and finally lower class. On Monday the ship broke in half then submerged completely, about 1 ,522 lives were lost . Titanic the movie was a fictional spin on this historic story, by James Cameron.

Marsh said in _James Cameron ‘s Titanic from 1997, Cameron was determined to bring the event of Titanic to life. He conducted 6 months of research to produce the most realistic and detailed timeline of his story to match the real event. Overall Cameron spent more time down on the ship than the actual passengers even had the chance to, he made 12 trips lasting from 10-12 hours. The movie was a masterpiece, extreme success and now a classic. Titanic the movie was nominated for a record 8 Golden Globe Awards only a few weeks after its release, it won four, not to mention its numerous other awards. It made approximately 1. Billion dollars world-wide, and was also the #1 movie of all time and even now is still up there.


Summary Today I have discussed:

  • The Titanic itself.
  • The ship sinking.
  • The remarkable movie created in its memory.

In conclusion, The loss of lives on the Titanic was astonishing, it is something in our history that should always be remembered, whether through similar stories or through classic motion pictures.

Faith,love,time And Dr. Lazaro

In Canaan, he met this girl named Cecilia “Cube/’ whom he started to love. 4. ) Cortes and Corporal Carrion, his fellow army went to the market for some provisions. In there, they met Japanese soldiers who want a girl in exchange for money but instead of giving them the girl, they planned to ambush those Japanese. 5. ) Cortes tried to keep calm on what he is hearing from fellow army men but later he shoot the four men because he can no longer stand the treatment of those army in him and they are traitors on their own country. After what Cortes has done, he did not felt sorry, but he said that he will surrender to the Japanese. . ) Next day, when Cortes and some army men are departing to go to the Japanese to surrender Cortes, some Japanese airplanes attacked the boat and Corporal Carrion died but Cortes survived. 7. ) Some fishermen going to the fish corral found Cortes on the beach. Mario also a soldier bring him into their house. In there he helped the family in plowing the field, when suddenly he heard an airplane and has a letter from the Japanese headquarters. 8. ) Early in the morning about two weeks after Maria’s return the countryside was awakened by the warning that the Saps hiding and firing n the direction of their headquarters.

They are so many killed civilians including the uncle of Mario, lay Costing. 9. ) Because of the mountain operation of the Japanese, Captain Olivarez organized small groups and planned to ambush the Japanese. And some civilians moved to the Japanese area because they are afraid that the guerrillas can no longer protect them. They convinced Cortes to join the group but Mr.. Cortes refused to. 10. ) There is a public meeting or gathering in the plaza when some planes of the Japanese spurted machines fire. Around the plaza there were bodies and parts of bodies and some are in critical notation.

A deacon from Protestant Church request Mr.. Cortes to conduct the service because the pastor were not free. Evidences Importance of the Event It is where the story or narration of Cortes began and in this event they are praying first before going to war. Because Cortes is remembering those days when he is still in Canaan, he did not know on how he managed to socialize and accommodate on the people of Canaan. It is where he relates his part ministry in the present. Cortes promised Cell that they would come there again after the war. He convinced himself that it was real, being with her there.

They make revenged to the Japanese who insulted them and because they prohibited the emergency money in the market and also wants a girl. Even though he shoots the Filipino armies who are Pro-Japanese, he is not feeling sorry because he knew that they are traitors. Cortes did the right thing, it is to surrender. Because of these instances, Cortes managed to escape together with some army and Lieutenant Santos. It is good to know that Cortes survived but some parts of the Philippines have surrendered because the strength of the American there is lacking.

Because of wrong thought, the people in the mountain are outnumbered and there is lost for everybody.

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