Reflection On Racism As A Social Injustice Essay Example

13th is a documentary directed by Ava DuVernay, which was produced in 2016. In the documentary, the major elements explored are justice, race, and mass killings in the US. The film starts with Barack Obama uttering that the US had 5% of the world’s population at the same time 25% of the prisoners globally come from the same country (DuVernay, 2016). From the film, it is clear that even after the civil war ended, black Americans have not yet been regarded as a substantial race. Influential people such as Angela Davis, Henry Louis, and Newt Gingrich are seen in the movie highlighting the need to stop treating African Americans unfairly in economic, social, and political matters.

On September 8th, 2020, Erina Moriarty posted about the hashtag ‘Scholar Strike’, which was a key move for the teaching professionals in institutions of higher learning to protest against racial imbalances in the US. On the following day, the Class Reform post communicated on the cancellation of classes where professors in the US used class time to protest against racial discrimination. Some of the professors did not teach and encouraged students to participate in the protest while other professors taught only about social injustice, racism, Blacks Lives Matter, and diversity.

During the interview with Ashley Bennet and Chelle, the issue of George Floyd is highlighted to showcase how African Americans are mistreated in the US. The hashtag ‘Say her name’ is used to bring women who are victims of racism in the US. Chelle says that she has been a victim of racism as been a woman of color in many white-centric environments. Bennet on her side acknowledges that she has to deal with racism, which makes her angry sometimes. The two interviewees concurred that feminism is a key element that must be incorporated with racial equality. The conversation is inspired by the desire to have positive regard for people of color and women’s empowerment.


DuVernay, A. (2016). 13th [Film]. United States of America; Kandoo Films.

Cervical Ectropion Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, And Treatment


K. W. is a 26-year-old female who complains of vaginal discharge, painful intercourse, and irregular bleeding between menstrual periods during the last month. The young woman is single, no children, and she takes tests for gonorrhea and chlamydia annually. She was diagnosed with chlamydia (positive urethral swab) two years ago and treated with azithromycin (one week). Now, she is diagnosed with cervical erosion – a Pap test is normal, and a physical exam reveals several glandular cells growing on the cervix.


The cervix is located in the lower part of the uterus and consists of the endocervix (proximal portion) and the ectocervix (distal portion). The development of erosion is explained by stratified squamous cells being changed and becoming columnar epithelium due to high estrogen levels (Ortiz-de la Tabla and Gutiérrez 662). There are mucus-secreting glands in the columnar epithelium, which explains increased vaginal discharge and bleeding.


Cervical erosion may stay asymptomatic for a long period and has no significant impact on the patient’s life. Women continue living with this condition and learn about it only after a pelvic examination. When glandular cells are delicate, such problems as painful urination and sexual intercourse, vaginal discharge, and bleeding challenge individuals. The patient addresses a healthcare expert to relieve pain and stabilize her sexual life.


It is important to normalize the cervix condition, relieve pain, and treat the infection. Several medications are recommended, along with nursing implications (Ortiz-de la Tabla and Gutiérrez 666):

  • azithromycin, 1 g orally in a single dose (diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and nausea);
  • moxifloxacin, 400 mg/day for a week (vomiting, nausea, sore throat, weakness, and yellow skin)
  • doxycycline, 100 mg orally, twice a day for a week (anaphylaxis, chest tightness, wheezing, or rash).

Diagnosis and Procedure

Clinical diagnosis of cervicitis is based on a pelvic examination and the findings of cervical secretion. Ortiz-de la Tabla and Gutiérrez recommend the etiological diagnosis by studying endocervical exudates sample (665). Nucleic acid amplification techniques help identify the type of bacteria that causes metaplastic changes in the cervix. A colposcopy is also an effective method for evaluating the condition of the cervix and choosing the right intervention. If antibiotics are ineffective, cryotherapy (to freeze the cells) or laser therapy (to destroy the epithelium) are offered under local anesthesia.

Lab Tests

The abnormal lab results proved the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis, the source of infection in the patient’s cervix. A reduced number of T-lymphocytes will explain low cell immunity. Blood testing is required to exclude cervical cancer and the presence of other threats. K.W. has low iron and hemoglobin levels in the blood, which indicates iron deficiency anemia due to external bleeding between menstrual periods. Normal lab ranges for a woman of her age are 12-15 g/dL (hemoglobin), 60-170 mcg/dL (iron), and no bacteria or infections in a Pap smear.

Interprofessional Collaboration

The assessment, treatment, and follow-up depend on how well the patient understands her disease and adheres to recommendations. Interprofessional collaboration between a physician, a gynecologist, a nutritionist, and a nurse is required. A physician checks the patient’s overall condition, while a gynecologist provides her with effective treatment. A nurse focuses on the patient’s education, and a nutritionist suggests a diet to increase the hemoglobin level.

Services Required

K. W. is sent back home with oral and written instructions on how to monitor her sexual life and avoid cervicitis-related complications. No physical exercises during a week and one-day bed-rest are required. Following a new diet and using safe sex devices to protect her health are the main lifelong recommendations. It is necessary to give the cervix some time to heal, meaning no sexual intercourse during the next month.

Learning Objectives

The main learning objective is to consider the patient’s medical history, the pathophysiology of the disease, and their impact on the development of the current condition. Attention was paid to the previous chlamydia diagnosis and the presence of a bacterium in the cervix. I compared the past and recent tests and decided to use the recommendations of several specialists to help the woman promote her well-being.

Work Cited

Ortiz-de la Tabla, Victoria, and Felix Gutiérrez. “Cervicitis: Etiology, Diagnosis and Treatment.” Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiologia Clinica, vol. 37, no. 10, 2019, pp. 661-667.

“Gone Baby Gone” Moral Issue

Gone Baby Gone is a movie about kidnapping a girl Amanda and investigating this crime by the young detective Patrick. At the end of the story, the man realizes that the police officer Doyle kidnapped the girl to save her from her neglectful mother involved in the drug business. This main final action represents the moral issue of choosing between the socially appropriate behavior of informing the police and leaving the girl with Doyle without revealing her whereabouts to her mother. The application of Kant’s philosophy might help to understand whether man acts morally correct. According to Kant’s maxims and contrasting concepts, Patrick behaves morally appropriately, making the right choice, respecting Amanda, reacting according to the universal laws, choosing duty, autonomy, and categorical reasoning in his main final action.

According to the first Kant’s premise, the detective’s decision can be regarded as morally correct because he decides to make the right choice rather than beneficial to someone. Kant believes that people’s morality is associated with their preferences (Sandel 65). These choices are based on the general interpretation of the actions rather than the analysis of the consequences of such solutions. This perception of morality explains that Patrick’s intention is not based on the analysis of a girl’s living conditions and well-being. On the contrary, he prefers to act according to the general concept of right. In this case, calling the police is the right choice because it is what people are supposed to do in such situations.

The man also behaves morally correctly when he informs the police about the girl’s whereabouts because he considers her dignity. The second Kant’s maxim states that humans act morally appropriately when they regard individuals as the main concept in the situations rather than a means (Sandel 65). This idea implies the necessity to focus on the value of a human being in ethical decisions. Considering this philosopher’s idea, Patrick behaves morally suitable since he respects the girl’s life. In particular, he does not allow the police officer to manipulate Amanda’s life, even though she might feel good staying with him.

The third Kant’s premise supports the morality of Patrick’s act because the man calls the police, understanding that this is morally acceptable behavior of any citizen. The philosopher explains that people should follow the universality of the opinions of the society regarding the specific issues (Sandel 65). They should understand how the other individuals evaluate this situation and how they are expected to behave according to the general law. In addition, an individual might analyze whether most citizens would accept this decision considering it morally appropriate. Since Patrick realizes that the universal solution for this dilemma would be to follow the law, he acts according to the instructions of the police.

Applying the contrast of duty and inclination demonstrates that Patrick acts ethically suitable because he chooses duty over inclination. Sandel explains that Kant opposes such motives as acting according to one’s duty, interests, and preferences (69). The analysis of the man’s behavior displays that he hesitates about the correctness of his decision, assuming that Amanda’s staying with the police officer might benefit her future. However, his understanding of his duty as a responsible citizen makes him choose to return the girl to her mother. This decision is associated with his intention to follow the rules and ignore the doubts and feelings that might distract any person from the objective situation’s examination and perception.

Patrick behaves freely because he disregards Doyle’s attempts to convince him of the necessity to leave the girl with the man. Sandel’s contrast between acting autonomously and heteronomously concerns identifying the source of people’s actions (61). Mainly, when people behave according to their reasoning, they are autonomous. On the other hand, when their actions result from the decisions of others, their conduct is heteronomous. Dayle explains to the detective that Amanda feels better staying with him than with the mother involved in the drug business. He introduces his reasons and justifications for this decision. Nevertheless, Patrick decides to call the police, choosing his reasons over the explanations and ideas of the police officer.

The detective reasons categorically rather than hypothetically because he does not apply any explanation to justify his solution. Sandel describes the contrast between categorical versus hypothetical imperatives, explaining that while the first implies that the action is good in itself, the second presents the specific reference to something else (64). Dayle’s attempts to persuade the man can be regarded as hypothetical reasoning because they include particular causes and justifications. Patrick ignores them, preferring to focus on the rightness of calling the police because it is morally acceptable and correct.

Thus, according to Kant’s moral philosophy, Patrick’s behavior is ethical because he acts according to the philosopher’s premises and chooses duty, autonomy, and categorical imperatives in deciding to report about the girl’s location. The young detective’s decision to choose right over the good, focus on Amanda’s personality, and follow the universal laws proves the moral correctness of his intention. Moreover, he prefers duty to interests, autonomy to heteronomy in his decision, and categorical concepts to hypothetical in his reasoning. All these facts prove that his behavior is morally justified, and he makes the right choice.


Sandel, Michael J. Justice: What’s The Right Thing To Do?. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2010.

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