Relations Between Biology And Culture Sample College Essay

Introduction

There are many thoughts on the origins of human beings. A lot of people believe that they were created by God or some other spiritual form. However, the scientific approach usually recognizes humans as one of the biological species that obey the same laws of nature. Darwin’s theory offers an idea that all people have developed from a common ancestor with all other living creatures. Thus, biology affects our behavior and decisions. Nevertheless, most people act regarding their cultural background. While biology has much to do with our choices, the social environment shapes them to fit the community’s expectations.

Children and Household Roles

Looking back at history, it is easy to understand why patriarchal societies were the most popular model in the past. It was extremely difficult for a pregnant woman to protect herself, find food, and build a shelter in the prehistoric era. Early people developed a system where males were ensuring security and food, while women stayed at home and took care of the community. This model is still popular nowadays, especially in emerging states where the income of women does not exceed the benefits they could offer while maintaining households.

The matter of reproduction among the cavemen was also determined by the biological side of people. Like many other mammal species, human males tried to conceive as many children as possible, disregarding the number of female partners. There is a theory that modern marriage has appeared as a result of this practice since a lot of weaker men could not get their chance to mate. Thus, people have created a system where they form a couple instead of many women raising children from one male. This model has economic benefits and serves as a source of genetic variation.

Modern Marriage

It may seem that our model of behaving in a family is predetermined by our culture. While it is partially true, there is some portion of the biological reasoning for our actions. For instance, despite the benefits of marriage between two people, divorce rates are very high. Often, they are reasoned by cases when one of the spouses finds another person he or she finds attractive. Many psychologists explain it in a way that human biology does not accept such limits to the variety of partners. While in the past centuries divorce was rare mostly due to religious reasons, it is currently a common practice in the West since there are hardly any social limitations.

The religion of Islam is a peculiar case of an attempt to combine biology and culture. It is a fact that it allows men to have up to four wives, yet only if he has the means to support all of them equally. Some imams say that in ancient times, men took as many wives as they wanted. Islamic prophets decided not to limit their number to one female and chose four as an optimal value. This is a good example of how the biological interests of men were integrated into the local culture.

Conclusion

As the world slowly becomes free from prejudice, people start to make decisions based on their feelings and beliefs. While culture strongly affects them, biology has much to do with unconscious choices. A family is a part of the social institution that is important to people as biological species.

An Indian History Of The American West By Dee Brown

Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee: An Indian History of the American West is the book that covers the historical events the Western Americans had to survive and describes the betrayals and conflicts of people. The peculiar feature of this book is the language and style chosen by the author, Dee Brown. The reader could easily understand the goals of the book and learn the history of the Native Americans and their attempts to prove their rights to the American soldiers. In this paper, the evaluation of three important claims of the book will be given to explain how Brown investigated the history of Native Americans and their impact on the lives of white men and proved that historical injustice should not be forgotten or neglected even nowadays.

It is wrong to believe that Dee Brown has one message to discuss in his Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee. There are a number of ideas that could become serious lessons for readers. Among the existing variety of points and suggestions mentioned in the book, it is possible to underline three key claims that will be examined in this paper. First, it is necessary to remember that any story has a number of sides, and the history of the Native Americans is not an exception. The author underlines that the lives of Native Americans were changed dramatically because of the deceptive treaties offered by white men so that the worth of white-Indian relations and even the abilities of Native Americans to prove and protect their rights could be put under a question. Then, Brown wants to explain his sympathy for the Indians on the basis of the violence and egoism demonstrated by the American soldiers and their intentions to gain as many benefits as possible even at the expense of someone’s lives. Finally, the author explains that white people could give as many promises as they want but they are not obliged to keep all of them but just those they find beneficial and valuable for them.

Each claim has its evidence and support in the text. For example, the idea of violence and egoism of white men through the evaluations given by Native Americans is impressive indeed. The Indians were trapped by the activities of the soldiers but cannot give offensive comparisons and blames. Their comparisons remain to be tolerant and strong: “We were like deer. They were like grizzly bears… We were contented to let things remain as the Great Spirit made them. They were not, and would change the rivers and mountains if they did not suit them” (Brown 370). As for the treaties developed by white men, Native Americans could not help but feel frustration about each promise given by the Whites they tried to believe in. They “tried to keep the promises in the treaty, but after the soldiers came and burdened… hogans” (Brown 24), they “fought battle after battle, and signed treaty after treaty” (Brown 4), they “promised to keep the treaty… promised four times to do so” (Brown 50). Besides, it is hard to count how many times the word “promise” is mentioned in the book: “promise me a home”, “promise me today” (Brown 267), or “make possible a final promise which never would be broken again” (Brown 9). Such enumeration proves Native Americans were sick and tired of promises so that they became angry with white men, their promises, empty intentions to keep their treaties, and unclear future they could never have.

The explanations of claims are powerful indeed because Brown uses dates and real life examples and explanations. 1795, 1863, 1865, 1869, etc. are the years when treaties between the white Americans and Native Americans were signed. Each time the name of the treaty was changed so that white men could prove their choices, explain their activities, and use the abilities to change the conditions of treaties. White people were not constant. They could change their decisions in a short period of time. Native Americans could not get used to such speed and the necessity to keep an eye on their invaders. Promises given by white men varied considerably because “the white men are foxes and peace cannot be brought about with them; the only thing the Indians can do is fight” (Brown 95).

Considering the claims and explanations of those claims, it is possible to say that Brown succeeded in the creation of the book about the history of the Indians, their challenges, and the importance to co-exist with white men, who did not want to give way and share the land they could conquer. The book as a whole is a powerful and logical interpretation of the events that occurred between the middle of the 1700s and the end of the 1800s. The lives of Indians were changed by American soldiers, and Brown described how the former developed their attitudes to the latter.

In general, Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee is not only the story of the Indians. It is the story of hope and the abilities to forgive, about the mistake and empty expectations, about promises and the unwillingness to keep them. The book is a significant contribution to the American history and the relation of people who considered the land of the United States as their home.

Works Cited

Brown, Dee Alexander. Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee: An Indian History of the American West, New York: Sterling Publishing Co. Inc, 2009. Print.

Bolivian Secondary Education And Final Exams

At the moment, the Bolivian education system is far from ideal as numerous obstacles prevent individuals from acquiring knowledge. There are four years devoted to secondary education which is a non-compulsory. It means that numerous people might refuse to study and improve their understanding of basic concepts needed for enhanced careers or some other activities. Less than 25% of citizens engage in secondary education (“Education system in Bolivia,” n.d.). Additionally, educational establishments that provide secondary education are either private or religious ones (“Education system in Bolivia,” n.d.). Under these conditions, many young Bolivians are deprived of an opportunity to acquire needed knowledge. In this regard, the radical alteration of the sphere is needed to increase its efficiency and coverage. First, education should be compulsory to create a human capital that will serve as the basis for the further rise of the sphere (Carnoy & Levin, 1985).

It will also result in significant alterations in peoples mentalities and their improved understanding of the significance of education. The next generation will engage in secondary education voluntarily because of the benefits it might provide to them (Carnoy & Levin, 1985). Second, education is one of the factors that shape peoples mentalities and provide new capabilities for them (Carnoy & Levin, 1985). In this regard, the national program to improve secondary education in Bolivia should include enhanced freedom of expression for teachers and students for them to be able to engage in social disputes related to the state of human rights in the state and opportunities available for educated youth (Carnoy & Levin, 1985). Finally, secondary education should be focused on the further development of an individual and his/her career growth. In its turn, it will create new capabilities for students and cultivate the evolution of the educational system of the state.

Education for Refugees in Jordan

At the moment, about 630,000 registered Syrians live in Jordan as refugees (Ghazal, 2017). The migration started in the first stages of the crisis in 2011. Today, this mass of people live in difficult conditions. However, what is even more important is that children who have arrived with their parents are deprived of an opportunity to get an education. One should realize that these young people should be taught to avoid significant problems in the future. The fact is that uneducated individuals comprise the risk group that might engage in illegal activities or joins terrorist forces because of the lack of options. On the contrary, intelligent young people are one of the central forces that drive positive changes and promote the rise of the economy (UNESCO, 2016).

Additionally, literacy is one of the fundamental aspects of early childhood development which means that it is crucial to help children to evolve it to avoid harsh complications. For this reason, we should create a specific environment that will cultivate knowledge and ensure their transition to children who will later become the main contributors to state development. The suggested program is focused on children forced to move from their homes and living in complicated conditions of a refugee camp. One should remember that it is a specific environment that might include such aspects as the lack of space, water, food, and other essentials needed to guarantee the comprehensive development of a child. For this reason, the grant money should be spent on the creation of the setting. Children should be provided with textbooks, exercise books, stationery, etc. These all are crucial to guarantee enhanced outcomes and educate children. Moreover, teachers should also be encouraged to work in such a difficult setting which means that a specific rewarding policy should be introduced.

Barriers a Female Teacher Faces in Cambodia

Modern Cambodia still experiences numerous problems in the sphere of education, especially regarding girls’ involvement. By the statistics, only 22% of women living in the country can read and write at least at the veraow level (Kelsperry, 2009). Therefore, the situation is even more complicated in rural areas as the majority of girls living there are deprived of an opportunity to attend school, and the number of literate women is much lower. It could be considered the first challenge a female primary school teacher might face in Cambodia. The overwhelming majority of girls are not educated, and the gap between rural and urban populatpopulationsnificant. For this reason, working in rural areas, the teacher will face incomprehension and disapproval.

Therefore, one of the main causes for this treatment is extremely powerful traditions that consider women to be a house responsible for domestic housework and children (Unterhalter et al., 2004). Under these conditions, communities do not understand the need for education for women. These beliefs are especially strong in poor rural areas where the majority of people are not educated and perform some traditional activities. That is why, the female teacher will have to struggle against the biased attitude to educated women. Moreover, trying to engage young girls living in the area, she will suffer from parents resistance because of the lack of understanding of a critical role education plays (Kendall, 2007). Finally, discriminative patterns are stating that only males should be educated because of their dominant position. In this regard, the female teacher will have to struggle against social disapproval and mistrust based on gender issues.

References

Carnoy, M., & Levin, H. (1985). Schooling and work in the democratic state. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.

Education system in Bolivia. (n.d.).

Ghazal, M. (2017). Jordan hosts 657,000 registered Syrian refugees. The Jordan Times.

Kelsperry. (2009). Girls’ education in Cambodia.

Kendall, N. (2007). Parental and community participation in improving educational quality in Africa: Current practices and future possibilities. International Review of Education, 53, 701-708.

UNESCO. (2016). Education for people and planet: Creating a sustainable futures for all.

Unterhalter, E., North, A., Arnot, M., Lloyd, C., Moletsane, L., Murhpy-Graham, E.,… Saito, M. (2004). Girls education and gender equality.

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