Relationship Between A Male And Female In “The Crucible” Homework Essay Sample

‘The Crucible’ written by Arthur Miller is a play which contains a relationship between a male and female character that changes throughout the course of the play. This relationship would be the relationship of John and Elizabeth Procter. This relationship changes from being hostile and awkward at the start and changes to a loving and caring one by the end of the play. This illuminates the central idea in the play of forgiveness. The Crucible is set in Salem, Massachusetts during the witch trials where a group of girls goes dancing within the forest. While the girls are dancing in the forest they were caught by Reverend Parris. Parris’s daughter Betty, who was amongst the group in the forest, falls into a coma-like state. Parris questions Abigail Williams – the girl’s ringleader and Parris’s niece – about the events that took place in the forest, she admits to doing nothing other than dancing. Parris sends for Reverend Hale, an expert on witchcraft, after jumping to the conclusion that witchcraft caused Betty’s state. When Betty wakes up she and the other girls shout out names of townsfolk that they claimed to have seen with the devil.

Mary Warren returns from Salem with news that Elizabeth has been accused of witchcraft but the court did not pursue the accusation. Soon later Elizabeth gets taken by the officers of the court. Procter urges Mary to go to the court and confess that everything is a pretend. Mary confesses to the court that the girls are lying, the girls are brought in and they turn the tables by accusing Mary of bewitching them. Procter gets furious and confesses to his affair with Abigail and accuses her of being motivated by being jealous of his wife. Procter’s wife was brought in to test his claim, she denies it. Abigail and the other girls continue to pretend that Mary is bewitching them, and Mary breaks down and starts to accuse Procter of being a witch. Procter gets arrested after out-breaking in rage against the court and Abigail. Abigail runs away and takes all of Parris’s money with her leaving him pennyless. Hale begs the accused witches to confess falsely in order to save their lives but the all refuse. Danforth asks Elizabeth to talk to john into confessing, john agrees to confess but refuse to blame anyone else. The court insist that the confession is to be made public, Proctor tears it up as he doesn’t want his named to be blackened in the town then Proctor and the accused witches all hang. The relationship between John and Elizabeth Proctor in Act 2, where Elizabeth is first introduced, begins with them being hostile and awkward towards each other. Act 2 is set in the Procter household so you see a lot of cracks in their relationship during this act.

“He gets up, goes to her, kiss’s her. She receives it, with a certain disappointment” This quote shows that when John kisses Elizabeth she receives but for Johns benefit she acts like nothing is wrong and that the kiss pleased her. Although in the mind of Elizabeth she still hasn’t truly forgiven John for having an affair with their old maid, Abigail. At this point Elizabeth still doesn’t believe that John’s heart still lies completely with Elizabeth. Elizabeth still has doubts about John’s faithfulness. With this in mind it shows that Elizabeth acts quite awkward around john especially when he kiss’s her. In Act 2 Elizabeth loses all faith in John when he confesses to her that he met alone with Abigail in Parris’s house next to Betty’s bed while everyone else had left the room. Here John struggles to hold himself back from Abigail tempting him into seducing her. “Quietly she has suddenly lost all faith in him”

Here John is being honest to Elizabeth, by telling her that he has been alone with Abigail, trying his best to please her and make her forgive him. “Quietly she has lost all faith in him” suggests that Elizabeth tried to hide the fact that she wasn’t pleased with John being with Abigail alone which makes her question his loyalty to her once again. John making one mistake makes Elizabeth suddenly lose faith in him which shows that she has trouble believing in him and has difficulty keeping faith that he will stop seeing Abigail. In Act 3 of The Crucible Elizabeth has been accused and has been arrested, while Procter is in the court trying to talk sense into Judge Danforth and is trying to get the court to set the wives of friends, Giles Corey, Francis Nurse and his own free. “Why I …… I would free my wife”

Here John Procter is trying to free his wife as he believes she is not guilty of being a witch. John shows that he does want to be with Elizabeth as he is trying hard to free her from jail, and stopping her from being hanged. This shows that John cares enough for Elizabeth that he is willing to stand and argue with the court so that his wife can be free. Also in Act 3 John Proctor confesses, to the court, about his affair with Abigail. The court then brings in Elizabeth to back up Proctors confession to see if proctor is telling the truth about Abigail so Judge Danforth asks Elizabeth if her husband, John Procter, was a lecher and she replied saying that he wasn’t one. “[faintly] No, sir.”

This shows that even though John has done his wrong Elizabeth is still willing to defend him which shows that she does still care for him. “Faintly” suggests to me that Elizabeth really didn’t want to deny the fact that Proctor had the affair and that she is sick of trying to deny to herself that it happened. She also seems to care about John and their relationship as she tried to protect John by denying the confession so that johns name didn’t get blackened in the town nor that he didn’t go to jail and be in the same place as her at that moment in time. In Act 4 of the crucible you start to see John’s and Elizabeth’s relationship evolve into more of a loving and forgiving relationship. Act 4 is where john is now in jail and has been condemned to be a witch and will hang for it, Elizabeth has been set free as she is pregnant and John starts to ask for forgiveness of Elizabeth. “……Forgive me, forgive me, john – I never knew such goodness in the world! [she covers her face weeping]”

This quote occurs after John asks Elizabeth for forgiveness but just before john agrees to confess to witchcraft. Here Elizabeth starts to care for Proctor more now that he is about to hanged and she starts to see the goodness in John for what he is doing. “she covers her face weeping” suggests that she doesn’t want john seeing her cry and that Elizabeth has truly begun to forgive him for all his sins that he has committed. Elizabeth also asks for John’s forgiveness, to forgive her for thinking so lowly of john and that it took her this long to forgive him. In conclusion Arthur Miller’s play the crucible has successfully created a relationship that changes significantly between two characters, John and Elizabeth Procter, throughout the play from a hostile and awkward relationship to a caring and loving one .This relationship between the two characters illuminate the central idea of forgiveness.

Book Report On Blink By Malcolm Gladwell

In the #1 national bestseller Blink, Malcolm Gladwell analyzes the way we think. Specifically, he explains the workings of the unconscious mind in making snap judgments and decisions. He proves that more information is not always a good thing, and some of the best decisions come from gut instinct. In the first chapter, Malcolm introduces the idea of thin-slicing, our unconscious ability to determine what is important in a very short period of time. In more basic terms, thin-slicing is our gut instinct. The more you train your brain, the more accurate the thin-slicing will be. We frequently make decisions in the blink of an eye without even noticing. Gladwell talks about an interesting experiment by John Gottman, who is well known for his work on marital relationships. In the study, Gottman had couples discuss a minor issue in their marriage together for about fifteen minutes. He videotaped both members and reviewed their facial expressions, tone of voice, and overall attitude. Gottman created a different code for each type of expression or feeling, such as contempt, jealousy, or defensiveness. With ninety-five percent accuracy,

Gottman can predict which couples will still be married in fifteen years. Even non-experts could predict the divorce rate with eighty percent accuracy if they were given a list of behaviors for which to look. It is quite remarkable that we have this unknown talent and, with a little practice, can improve our judgment in certain situations. Our ability to thin-slice can be corrupted by prejudices and stereotypes, though. In a study done by Harvard University, researchers led participants through a series of Implicit Association Tests.

These tests are meant to prove that we make associations between things much more quickly if they are previously connected in our minds. The most common IAT involves the connection between males and career and females and family. Participants are given a word from one of the categories and must sort it in the correct place as quickly as possible. For example, if male and career are on the left and female and family on the right, they would sort the word marriage on the right. Participants could make this connection with ease. However, it took the participants about three-hundred milliseconds longer to sort the words when male and family were on the left and female and career on the right. Even though we do not consciously create these prejudices, our unconscious mind does. I went online and took the test myself, thinking that I would be educated enough to beat it.

Of course, I was unsuccessful, and the data revealed that I moderately associate males with career and females with family. The results are even more frightening in the IAT that shows the association between African-Americans and evil and Europeans and good. Interestingly, when making a split-second decision, we are more likely to be swayed one way or another by our prejudices and stereotypes, regardless of whether we support them or not. Thin-slicing is very effective in making medical decisions. Many doctors experience what is called “analysis paralysis,” information overload that causes them to misjudge a situation and misdiagnose patients. Gladwell claims that better judgments can be made with simpler information. Excess information can clog their thinking and is usually irrelevant to the diagnosis anyway. Rarely does more information actually make a doctor’s judgment more accurate. In certain situations, thin-slicing can have disastrous effects.

One of the most extreme cases of thin-slicing gone wrong is the shooting of Amadou Diallo by four police officers. Diallo, a young African-American man, was standing on the stoop of his apartment building when the police officers drove by. They were concerned about what he might be doing, so they called out to him. Diallo ran inside, probably out of fright, and two of the policemen chased him. He tried to grab the door knob while turning sideways, reaching into his pocket for something that the police officers could not see. They later claimed that they thought it was a gun. As he began to slide the object out of his pocket, one of the police officers shot at him. Over twenty-five shots were fired at Diallo. After he fell down, the officers went to grab his gun and were distraught when they realized he did not have one. Instead he was holding a black wallet; Diallo thought they were trying to rob him, which is pretty common in his rough neighborhood. The officers assumed that he was dangerous merely on the basis of his race, which can explain why many African Americans are wrongly accused of crimes. Law enforcement officers may not be intentionally trying to use stereotypes, but their unconscious mind uses them to make quick, life-or-death decisions. Gladwell brings up the effect of people’s appearance on our decision-making.

His prime example is Warren Harding, a tall, handsome man that was elected President of the United States. Harry Daugherty encouraged Harding, a former senator, to run for office. Harding was not too intelligent and definitely unsuited for the job. However, people perceived him to be a great authority figure because of his looks. The idea of appearance affecting judgment is also mentioned in Cialdini’s book under the liking theory of persuasion. People are more likely to buy something from a physically attractive person. Attractive candidates in the Canadian federal elections received two and a half times more votes than unattractive ones. Voters claimed that appearance had no influence on their votes.

This is true to a certain extent. Their conscious minds were not voting based on appearance, but their unconscious mind was leading them towards the more attractive candidate. Another interesting connection to Cialdini’s book is the relationship between height and power. Cialdini explains that you rarely see CEO’s that are short. People unconsciously perceive taller people to be better authority figures. Thus, they usually rise up the food chain faster. In the experiment with the Cambridge visitor at another university, they told each classroom a different occupation for the visitor. Then, they asked them to estimate his height.

The students who thought he was a professor estimated that he was two and a half inches taller than those who thought he was just a student. Gladwell brilliantly explains thin-slicing and our ability to make decisions or judgments without even thinking. He provides both advantages and disadvantages of thin-slicing. Thin-slicing is actually very useful in certain situations, such as medical diagnosis, speed dating, advertising, sales, music, and even marital relationships. It can be a problem when prejudices and stereotypes corrupt our ability to judge. Even though we might not support or believe these stereotypes, our unconscious has a mind of its own. Literally.

Zara Operations Strategy Matrix Analysis

The objective of this paper is to analyze and evaluate the operations strategy of Zara. To do this, it will be used the operation strategy matrix, that defines on the vertical side the performance objectives of the company and on the horizontal side the different areas in which decisions can be made. The intersection of both will show which the critical areas of Zara’s operations are. In order to reach a deep level of analysis, it is very important the task of defining both the performance objectives and the decision areas. These will be the first part of this paper.

PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES

1.QUALITY:

The quality of its products is one of the reasons for Zara’s success. These are the main characteristics when talking about the specifications of Zara’s offer: a.Offering fashionable clothes: products are thought to be modern and according to the more recent market trends. On this sense, it is an important added value the fact that product models are changed almost every two weeks. b.High standard materials quality: Zara selects good materials when producing the clothes and has developed some expertise in areas such as colouring fibres. c.Consistent and measured quality of products: many controls are made during the production chain to assure that products have a homogeneous quality. Also the stores are designed and managed in a very similar way all around the world. d.Good buyer experience: the company pays special attention in create a good atmosphere in its stores, propitious for attract customers inside them. e.Good location of stores: another advantage for customers is that they will find Zara’s stores in the most famous streets and commercial areas.

2.SPEED:

The short time that passes between when the design process start and when the product is available to the public is one important point of Zara’s model. Two features should be emphasized: a.Fast process between idea creation (designing) and production: all the different steps between design and commercialization are so well engaged that it is possible to put in the market clothes with the latest style trend. b.Quick order-to-delivery: the company has established schedule to deliver all of their stores twice a week in a really short time since the order is made by the store managers (2 or 3 days depending on geographical areas)

3.DEPENDABILITY:

Zara has been able to set a regular schedule of deliveries to their shops in order to make it easy to commercialize the most recent models as soon as possible. This objective can be explained in two ways: a.Be on time to meet the fashion trends: the times are very measured to synchronise the different phases since the designing of new models. b.Delivering products in accordance to the stores timing demands: the store managers know perfectly the moment at which they have to do an order if they want to receive it on a specific day.

4.FLEXIBILITY:

This is probably the strongest point of Zara’s business model, as they have been able to introduce a high degree of adapting capacity to their offer and processes, in an industry that was traditionally considered to have just two different designing periods on the year. The main points of their flexible operations are: a.Product range changes: the clothes are not different just between summer and winter collections, but inside these collections the models are adapted to the trends observed from the market, providing a higher adaptation to the customers tastes. b.High autonomy of stores managers to adapt to their customers: every store manager has a high level of freedom to decide which clothes of the entire collection he or she wants to sell on its store, again with the view of adapting to the customers preferences (of the area where the store is), c.Local adaptation: even if there are stores in the five continents, the company is able to adapt its offer to the different countries climate and cultural traditions. d.Flexible on production and distribution: both factories and warehouses are always prepared to undertake additional orders from the stores. e.Design flexibility: new designs are made every week in accordance to the information received from the customer preferences and from the products performance in the stores.

5.COST:

Another key part of Zara’s business model is to maintain lower costs in order to offer affordable prices to their clients. This is achieved through different ways: a.Low inventory cost: stores have a reduced product stock, so they can maximise their selling area and spend less money in managing their inventory. It permits also to reduce the number of unsold items. b.Low production cost: they optimise the production process to reach economies of scale and maintain costs enough low to reach a profitable return with the standard of quality. c.Optimised distributions costs: d.Low promotional costs: Zara’s promotion and advertising budget is almost

nonexistent, especially if we compare it compare it to their competitors’.

DECISION AREAS

1.CAPACITY:

the operational capacity of Zara can be measured according to these factors: a.22 production factories b.Large designers staff: the around 100 designers makes it possible to introduce new models every week to respond to the market preferences. c.Location and size of the distribution centres: the main one in La Coruña has enough capacity for current demand and they have plans of expand it. They also have other warehouses around the world to support the deliveries to this areas. d.Centralized distribution system: all the deliveries leave from La Coruña headquarters, which increase the control they have over them and their efficiency. e.Size of the stores and location: stores are usually located in hot commercial areas (attractive points from the customers point of view) and their size is usually big (in comparison with other clothing retailers) f.Number of stores: 507 stores in 33 countries, which makes it an important commercial network. g.Franchising and joint ventures structure: this partnership strategy helps Zara to increase its sale capacity reducing risks and financial investments.

2.SUPPLY NETWORK:

even if Zara makes directly the majority of the operations, they have also some of them externalised. These are the key factors: a.The majority of materials are manufactured and supplied internally: this fact reduces the dependence on external suppliers and some possible delays. b.Exclusiveness of suppliers: many of the suppliers have Zara as their only or major client, so they are totally dedicated to it and so, they will follow the instructions given form it. c.Outsourcing of sewing process: this task of the production is externalised but assuring the synchronisation with the general planning. This is possible because the outsourcing is diversified and the suppliers are physically near from Zara headquarters and they are totally dedicated to this task.

3.PROCESS TECHNOLOGY:

the company uses technological tools to improve its operations. These influence can be observed on the following areas: a.CAD system in design and production phases: it indicates the profitability of new product designs and also permits to optimise the use of materials during production. b.Digital device to exchange market data: it is very useful for the company as it permits to quickly detect the market tendencies and anticipate to them. c.Distribution centre automated system: it is used to improve efficiency on this task, saving money and time

4.DEVELOPMENT AND ORGANIZATION:

Zara is every trying to identify the market needs and tastes through many ways. In addition, they also try to promote the customers satisfaction. Specific initiatives such as the followings are implemented: a.Use of “trend-hunters” and young designers to identify newest market trends b.Use of cross-functional teams during the designing phase: composed of market analysts, buyers and designers, to give a complete perspective of the appropriateness and viability of each model. c.Market analysts are responsible of regional stores: it makes possible to have a good and open communication between the headquarters and the stores. On the stores level they identify the trends of the market and from the headquarters they help the stores on the implementation of the company’s strategy. d.Centralized decision making about marketing and price: it assures a unified strategy on these areas. e.High decision power is given to store managers: they are thought to improve the store performance according to the objective public they serve. In this sense, they receive a lot of training. f.Rewarding system: based on the store performance.

The intersection areas with the highest relevance are marked with a star grading system. These are the reasons to say that they are important: 3-star intersections:

•Quality + Capacity: the high number of the designers is one of the keys of the cutting edge consideration of Zara’s products, adding the essential value for customers.

•Flexibility + Development and Organization: the internal structure of the company permits a high level of communication and information transfer between different levels and departments, and this is essential for checking the products performance and identify the customer needs.

•Cost + Process technology: the different technological tools used, especially in production and distribution phases, are very important on the company’s low costs strategy. 2-star intersections:

•Quality + Development and Organization: the customer experience is very important for the company, and its internal organization permits to focus on the achievement of this objective.

•Speed + Supply network: the high level of control over the suppliers and the low dependence from them make this intersection a competitive advantage for the company. •Flexibility + Supply network: the outsourcing of the sewing process helps considerably on giving extra flexibility to the company’s productive process.

1-star intersections:

•Dependability + Capacity: the fact that both the production and the distribution areas are very centralized considerably reduces the risk of delays on deliveries. •Dependability + Process Technology: the advanced technology used in the distribution tasks highly increases the regularity of the deliveries.

•Flexibility + Capacity: with the 21 factories the company has, it is easier to adapt the production to the changes that are all time being incorporated. The same happens with the quick distribution system.

Then, is the moment to do the 4C’s analysis of the matrix. First analysis is the one related with how comprehensive is the matrix in general. It tries to measure how equilibrate are the different elements in the matrix and if there is any special gap or weakness. In this case it is rapidly observable that there is a good balance between the importance of the decision areas and their effects on the performance objectives. The second concept to consider is about the coherence of the decisions taken on the different areas. In general terms it is possible to say that there is a quite high coherence along the decision areas. In fact, it is possible to observe that the process technology area is instrumentally used by the other three areas.

There is also good coherence between decisions made about capacity and supply network, as the high rate of internally developed tasks is being reflected on the numerous facilities that the company has. If one objection should be made, it would be in the relation between organization and development and capacity, because even if the company has stores in many different countries, the internal structure is very centralised in Spain, so the company risks to lose some market focus from other markets. Thirs analysis is about correspondence between performance objectives. Once again, the conclusion is positive, because even in the difficult relation between quality and costs the company is able to manage both aspects to optimise the final result. In fact, what consumers value from Zara is the possibility of buying fashionable clothes at an affordable price. There is also a high positive relation between speed, dependability and flexibility, as the speed production process and the high regular distribution system enables the company to be flexible in introducing new models and increase the stock of the successful products.

Finally, the fourth step is the analysis of the criticalities. The critical intersections were already analysed when the star grading system was used. It shows which the most important tasks are in the operational scale of the company, and as a consequence, the ones where most of the resources and efforts are put. In this case it is possible to say that the decisions are giving priority to three performance objectives: quality, flexibility and cost.

EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

According to all the previous analysis, we can obtain the general conclusion that Zara has a good operations strategy. During its years of existence, it developed many useful initiatives to reach a high efficient productive and distribution system, developing at the same time an attractive product. Even the challenges that arose with the international expansion were unable to slow the growth and the good performance of the company. The strategy of brand diversification can be considered also successfully, as all the know-how that was been using in Zara was also applied to the new chains, permitting the company to cover new segments of the market. In the moment were the case was written the company was building a new distribution centre in Zaragoza. It can be considered as a very wise decision, firstly because of the location of Zaragoza, almost in the middle of the Iberian Peninsula, where the company a great part of its store, and nearer to the rest of Europe than La Coruña, and another important reason is that it has better infrastructures to connect with other parts of the world.

However, I would like to know how have they managed the fact of having two different distribution centres and if the new one involved to add one more phase to the distribution channel. Without any doubt, one of the biggest challenges that Zara will face in the future is if they will be able to continue managing effectively the regular and quick deliver at low cost to remote countries (I am thinking specially in Asia). When the number of stores in that continent will reach a considerable dimension, new facilities will be needed in that area and maybe also in other regions, and this will involve some decentralization of the current structure, with the respective risks of cost increasing and loosing of efficiency. Finally, the distribution through internet would be an option to consider, that should not probably involve a high complexity and may add some extra sales to their incomes account, while increasing the brand image and notoriety as a global high-quality and low-price fashion retailer.

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