Relationship Of The History Of The Western Civilization II Timeline To Historiography Homework Essay Sample

The main relationship of the history of the Western Civilization II timeline to historiography is rooted in the fact that the former focuses on western history since the Renaissance. It also provides an in-depth analysis of various political, economic, military, philosophical, and technological advancements made by the West. However, historiography is a study of methodological frameworks utilized by experts to study history, which means it is not limited to the West, and thus, the relationship is tied since historiography is an integral part of the Western Civilization II timeline.

The identified wars that occurred during the early periods of the Western Civilization II timeline are The Seven Years’ War, the Russo-Turkish War, and The War of the First Coalition with Austria. The Seven Years’ War was a conflict between France and Great Britain in a struggle for dominance over Europe. Russo-Turkish War took place in 1828-1829 between Russia and Ottoman Empire (Davies, 2016).

The Napoleonic Wars were comprised of a series of conflicts, which revolved around a wide range of European countries. The War of the First Coalition took place in 1792–1797 between France and the coalition of Austria and Prussian as well as other nations (Müller & Strom, 2000). Napoleon was successful at deterring the enemy forces and achieving victory.

A primary source for the first war is George Washington’s letter to Royal Governor Dinwiddie, March 7, 1754 (“Seven Years’ War Primary Source Set,” n.d.). A secondary source is a book by Marston (2001), and a tertiary source is an online educational website (“The Seven Years’ War,” n.d.). A primary source for the second war is Russian archives available on Gale website (“Russian Archives: The Russo-Turkish War, 1877-1878,” n.d.), a secondary source is a book by Davies (2016), and the tertiary source is an online website (“The Wars of Nicholas I,” n.d.). A primary source for the third war is Arthur H. and Mary Marden Dean Lafayette Collection, 1520-1973 (“Arthur H. and Mary Marden Dean Lafayette Collection, 1520-1973,” n.d.). A secondary source is a book by Müller and Strom (2000), and the tertiary source is an online educational website (“Early Wars with Austria and Britain,” n.d.).

References

Arthur H. and Mary Marden Dean Lafayette Collection, 1520-1973. (n.d.). Web.

Davies, B. L. (2016). The Russo-Turkish War, 1768-1774: Catherine II and the Ottoman Empire. Bloomsbury.

Early Wars with Austria and Britain. (n.d.). Web.

Marston, D. (2001). The Seven Years’ War. Osprey Publishing.

Müller, W., & Strom, K. (2000). Coalition Governments in Western Europe. Oxford University Press.

Russian Archives: The Russo-Turkish War, 1877-1878. (n.d.). Web.

Seven Years’ War Primary Source Set. (n.d.). Web.

The Seven Years’ War. (n.d.). Web.

The Wars of Nicholas I. (n.d.). Web.

Consideration In The Law Of Contract

Introduction

In the epoch of Capitalism, the law of contract is widely used in political, social, and economic aspects of life. The purpose of contracts is to establish legal relations between the parties involved in the process. Consequently, their actions are supposed to be aligned to the conditions and duties pointed out. Pivoting from obligations is common, especially if the wording of contracts is vague and ambiguous or lacks details. The solution to this problem is the usage of promises that are affirmed by consideration because, apart from some exceptions, only they are completely enforceable.

The Evidence of Consideration’s Efficiency

In the law of contract, the only enforceable promises are those that are supported by consideration except for several cases. To this, first, the exact definitions of a contract, contract law, and consideration should be designated. Second, the way consideration influences the performance of obligations is to be labeled. Third, the exceptions are to be defined and enumerated.

Contract and Contract Law

A contract is legally defined as a promise or a set of promises that must be performed following the agreement protected by law. According to Passarelli (2019), the agreement is to include specific terms between parties with circumstances and complexities taken into consideration. Then, a contract requires a mutually accepted offer, a promise to perform with the time or event, including terms and conditions for this performance. Contract law is a law that systematizes and legalizes agreements between physical people or companies. In case an agreement is not fulfilled, the breach of contract is noted, and the case can be taken to court.

Consideration

Consideration can be defined as a legally required element of a contract, included to let the parties involved disclaim some legally marked promises for some valuable actions or resources in return. These actions and sources must be marked as a legal detriment, which is always a legal benefit to one of the parties. Passarelli (2019) claims that consideration consists of two key elements, the first is whether the promisee has incurred a legal detriment, and the second element is whether the legal detriment was bargained for. Importantly, consideration should have legal sufficiency which means that the exchange of a legal detriment and a legal benefit is present in the contract.

There are three kinds of consideration: executory, executed, and past consideration. Executory consideration means that some kind of a promise is given for another promise. For example, two companies have agreed on a cross-marketing collaboration with one of the companies advertising the other online and the other presenting the first at a conference. Nobody has already done anything, but the cooperation and its conditions have been discussed.

Executed consideration means a performance of an act in return for a promise. For example, a person has lost an important document and now offers a reward for its return. Another person has found the loss and now is returning it to the owner. According to Ayres and Klass (2017), this is the exact point when the promise has become binding. Meanwhile, the latest is not obliged to pay anything because the act has not been legally described. Past consideration is not a promise to bind because the promisor gives a moral obligation without getting anything in exchange, as he or she has it before the promise is made.

Considerations’ Effects on Contracts

Consideration enforces promises because, to make a contract valid, the obligation must be mutual. The consideration set as the core of this mutuality, for example, a rental contract may include a promise of the landlord to return the pawn to the renter when he or she leaves the accommodation. The full pawn is to be returned if this accommodation stays in the same condition it has been before the renter moved in. Meanwhile, there is a consideration included with a list of assets the landlord is especially worried about. Each of them with its price that will be charged from the renter’s pawn in case he or she damages it. Consequently, both parties are mutually obliged, and, with promises made legally binding, the contract is valid.

Promises Binding Without Consideration

Though in contract law binding promises are those that are supported by consideration, there are some exceptions enforceable by the court. For example, promissory estoppel prevents the promisor from claiming that there the contract had no consideration. This is the legal principle, according to which a promise is enforceable by law if the action or forbearance is taken, and the only way to avoid injustice is to enforce it. This type includes promises to pay for the benefits received or the past debt. Another example of promises binding without consideration, as mentioned by Passarelli (2019), involves modifications to contracts for the sale of goods. According to the statement, the Uniform Commercial Code allows modification of written contracts, as long as this modification is for the good faith

Conclusion

The usage of consideration is the main way of enforcing promises in the law of contract because it enforces the two parties to be mutually obliged with the conditions of the agreement claimed. Then, consideration is the key way to make promises binding, except for the past consideration. Meanwhile, some promises are mandatory without consideration with promissory estoppel or modifications applied.

References

Ayres, I., & Klass, G. (2017). Studies in contract law (9th ed.). Foundation Press.

Passarelli, G. (2019). Contract law in contemporary international commerce: Considerations on the complex relationship between legal process and market process in the new era of globalisation. Nomos Verlag.

Approaches And Methods Of Solving Mathematical Problems

Background

Five high school mathematics students were invited to complete this assignment. The students’ identities remain anonymous, but it should be said that each of them was over the age of 14 and had never taken a MA 105 course. The students voiced no discontent about math while also being uninspired by the discipline; in other words, they were ordinarily high school students. All respondents were asked to solve three uncomplicated problems and explain their methodology.

Reflecting Subtraction Tasks

The first problem in this project was a problem on subtraction skills: students were asked to solve Examples 107-68. The choice of these numbers was not accidental since a more profound knowledge using short-term memory is needed to perform subtraction competently in this case. Interestingly, each of the students produced the correct answer, with only three (1, 2, and 3) completing the entire assignment, while the others ignored the first part, focusing on the second. The first student divides the numbers into components: 107 turns into 100+7, and 68 turns into 70-2. In one case, the first student uses an additional format to represent a whole number and a subtraction format in the other, but it does not seem systematic. For 107, the number 110 (107+3) is much closer, but for this student, the number 100 is probably easier to perceive than 110. Using the complex method, the student arrives at the correct solution and then successfully checks himself by subtracting the column’s target numbers and even using notations. The second student also uses the column and also marks that he has solved the problem several times, getting the same answer. Among these solutions is a complex decomposition of the problem into four different steps, which complicates the procedure and leads to errors. The third and fourth students also use columns, but the fourth student uses a more detailed sequential notation, while the third student does parallel calculations and crosses out the numbers when they are no longer needed. The fifth student chooses an evaluative comparison strategy in which the most specific closest possible number is chosen for each number to simplify the subtraction procedure. Thus, the fifth student uses the analogy of 110-70=40, calling it rounding. In addition, the student shows his calculations using column subtraction but does not provide any additional strokes or marks: it can be concluded that the basic calculations are implemented in mind.

Reflecting on the Multiplication Problem

Students were asked to solve the 14×15 example for the multiplication task and explain the solution. It is noteworthy that the first and second students performed the problem identically, column by individual digits, and their solutions are indistinguishable. However, the fifth student seemed to think more comprehensively and, using the column, multiplied not digit by digit but a number by digit. This method may not always lead to accurate results because multiplying a number by a digit is not always straightforward; hence, the fifth student takes a bit of a risk by ignoring the procedures for multiplying by digits. The fourth student also uses a column like 1 and 2 but divides it into three parts, explaining each step in passing. This is the most detailed solution and takes the longest. It is interesting to highlight the third student’s answer: it is also correct, but it gives the impression that a calculator was used because there is no solution process. It is unlikely that this student could have solved the example in his mind, so it seems that either third-party drafts or a calculator were used. Again, only 1,2, and 3 students answered the first part using different degrees of comparison with round numbers chosen by personal preference.

Reflecting on the Percentage Task

In this part, students were asked to find 75% of the number 12 using either method. Students 1 and 2 showed a similar process using column multiplication but slightly different procedures. Student 1 multiplied the full 12 by each of the numbers 75 as 12×5+12×70 and then separated the decimal point. This seems not always straightforward since multiplying by digits of a number can lead to arithmetic error more often than multiplying a digit by a digit. Student 2 multiplied 12 by each of the digits of 75 but did the calculations according to the principle 12×5+12×7. Student 5, on the other hand, multiplied 75 by the number 12, so his calculations were different, and again used the method of multiplying a number by a digit. This time, the third and fourth students seem to have both used additional tools, as no calculations were shown. Again, only 1,2, and 3 students answered the first part.

General Comparison

The students showed strong dynamics in their methods, but some of the patterns were detectable. The third student was the most likely to walk away from more complicated problems, probably using a calculator. The first two students and the fifth used similar techniques, but the fifth always used them uniquely, sometimes reversing the problem. The fourth student seemed tired toward the end or unable to solve the percentage problem, so only at the end did he turn to a calculator (probably). In general, the columnar solution was always used by students, but 3, 4, and 5 required written steps or problem statements more often than others. To emphasize the overall bottom line, not only did the solution strategies differ between students, but they were also used differently by each student. They all ended up with correct answers, but the task performed showed how differentially the problem could be approached.

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