Report: International Terms Of Trade


In the unique universe of worldwide trade, the agreements under which goods and services are traded between nations assume a significant part in forming worldwide monetary connections. This report digs into the many-sided domain of worldwide terms of trade, zeroing in on unambiguous points shrouded in the last option part of the course. As we venture through this report, we will disentangle the intricacies encompassing worldwide economic accords, near benefit, and exchange obstructions, revealing insight into their importance and more extensive ramifications for the worldwide economy (Ahn, 2020). The idea of worldwide terms of trade typifies a considerable swath of game plans, guidelines, and understandings that direct the standards of commitment in the worldwide commercial center. By looking at critical parts of this topic, we develop how we might interpret how countries interface, participate, and contend on the global stage. This investigation fills in as a scaffold between hypothetical systems and certifiable applications, permitting us to get a handle on the complexities underlying labor and product development across borders (Baley et al., 2020). All through this report, we will set out on an excursion of investigation and examination, uncovering experiences that shed light on the intricacies of global trade. The resulting segments will dig into significant subjects inside this space, each offering a one-of-a-kind point of view on how countries explore the difficulties and open doors introduced by the worldwide trade scene. From the standards of similar benefit to the different exhibits of the global economic alliance and the hindrances that impede consistent trade streams to the basis of encouraging impartial financial development – we will navigate a scene that holds significant ramifications for economies, businesses, and people worldwide. The globalized idea of present-day economies has highlighted the significance of worldwide trade cultivating success and cooperation (Barrie & Schröder, 2022). By enlightening the critical fundamentals of global terms of trade, this report means to add to a more profound perception of the complex elements that characterize our interconnected world.

The Concept of Comparative Advantage

The idea of comparative advantage remains a foundation in global trade, offering a solid structure for understanding how countries can expand their productivity and accomplish shared gains through specialization. At its center, comparative advantage proposes that nations should zero in on creating labor and products that have general effectiveness or benefit contrasted with different countries (Prystupa et al., 2019). This essential distribution of assets frames the reason for agreeable exchange connections and highlights the association of worldwide economies. Financial analyst David Ricardo first expressed the hypothesis of comparative advantage in the mid-nineteenth century (Ahn, 2020). Ricardo’s understanding tested the common thought of outright benefit, which placed that a nation should spend significant time delivering products it can create more effectively than some other country. While outright benefit is sometimes substantial, relative benefit presents a more nuanced point of view. Instead of exclusively inspecting outright efficiency, relative benefit considers the opportunity cost of creating one fantastic over another (Baley et al., 2020). This guideline becomes clearer through a theoretical model. Envision two nations, A and B, creating two products: wheat and PCs. Country A can create both wheat and PCs more proficiently than Country B in outright terms.

Notwithstanding, if country A has a higher opportunity cost for creating PCs (meaning it surrenders more wheat creation to deliver PCs), while country B has a lower opportunity cost for PC creation, it is commonly valuable for country A to have some expertise in wheat creation and country B in PC creation. By zeroing in on their particular areas of similar benefit and participating in trade, the two nations can achieve more elevated levels of utilization than if they endeavored to create the two merchandise alone. The functional ramifications of relative benefit are broad. Countries can upgrade their financial government assistance by designating assets to businesses where they succeed, prompting expanded creation and utilization prospects. This specialization brings about proficient asset designation, higher efficiency, and development inside those areas. Also, similar benefit empowers collaboration and relationship, as nations depend on one another for the labor and products where they need effectiveness (Barrie & Schröder, 2022).

Nonetheless, it is essential to recognize that the idea of comparative advantage does not recommend that nations ought to exclusively depend on their assets. Instead, it stresses that nations ought to spend significant time in regions where they enjoy an overall benefit while as yet captivating in exchange for different labor and products. This approach cultivates a worldwide monetary environment that flourishes with cooperation and shared thriving.

Types of International Trade Agreements

The global trade scene is formed by the standards of similar benefits, a horde of arrangements, and coordinated efforts among countries. These arrangements, on the whole, known as global economic deals, assume a significant part in characterizing the terms, rules, and guidelines that oversee cross-line trade. They are instrumental in working with the progression of labor and products while additionally tending to likely difficulties and aberrations. In this segment, we will dig into the different sorts of worldwide economic deals and their importance in advancing worldwide monetary coordination (Ahn, 2020). Free Trade Agreements (FTAs): International alliances are among the most pervasive sorts of global economic deals. FTAs are intended to diminish or kill taxes, standards, and other exchange hindrances between part nations. This way, they cultivate a climate of expanded exchange and monetary participation. FTAs are driven by the possibility that nations can more readily use similar benefits by eliminating boundaries and setting out opportunities for improved efficiency and development. An illustration of an FTA is the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which was subsequently supplanted by the US-Mexico-Canada Arrangement (USMCA). These arrangements, among others, represent the force of FTAs in animating cross-line trade streams. Customs Associations: Expanding upon the groundwork of FTAs, customs associations make joining a stride further by killing trade boundaries among part nations and taking on a typical outer duty towards non-part nations (Ahn, 2020). This approach encourages a bound-together trade strategy that guarantees consistent exchange relations with outside elements. The European Union (EU) remains a great representation of a tradition’s association, where part nations share a typical outside levy and take part in profound monetary reconciliation (Barrie & Schröder, 2022).

Customs associations build up the advantages of FTAs while making a more organized system for trade guidelines. Provincial Trade Coalitions: notwithstanding reciprocal arrangements like FTAs and customs associations, territorial exchange coalitions include a more extensive way to deal with the monetary mix (Baley et al., 2020). These coalitions include nations inside a particular geographic locale meeting to improve participation and monetary ties. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) are examples of local trade coalitions that look to fit guidelines, decrease trade hindrances, and work with intra-territorial trade. Such coalitions mean to pool assets and make more extensive business sectors, which can prompt more prominent bartering power on the worldwide stage. Multilateral Arrangements: While respective and local arrangements are pivotal, multilateral arrangements hold a unique spot in global trade. Maybe the most unmistakable model is the World Trade Organization (WTO), which encourages worldwide trade rules and talks (Prystupa et al., 2019). The WTO gives nations a stage to participate in conversations, resolve questions, and arrange arrangements that advance fair and open exchange rehearses. The Doha Round was meant to resolve issues, such as farming sponsorships, and to protect innovation freedoms worldwide.

Trade Barriers and Their Implications

In the multifaceted embroidery of global trade, the idea of trade hindrances winds around a perplexing example that can fundamentally affect the development of labor and products across borders. Trade boundaries envelop a scope of strategies, guidelines, and practices that impede the free progression of exchange between countries. While certain obstructions are executed for authentic reasons, others can contort trade examples and breaking-point monetary proficiency. In this part, we will investigate the different kinds of trade boundaries and dive into their suggestions for international trade.

Tariffs: Tariffs, frequently alluded to as import obligations, are charges imposed on products as they enter a country. Tariffs can be promotion valorem (rate-based) or explicit (fixed sum per unit). While duties create income for states, they raise the expense of imported merchandise, making them less competitive than locally delivered products (Ahn, 2020). This can prompt marked-down buyer decisions and more exorbitant costs for shoppers.

Quotas: Quotas are mathematical cutoff points forced on the amount of explicit merchandise that can be imported within a predetermined period. Quotas are frequently executed to safeguard homegrown enterprises from unfamiliar rivalry or to guarantee public safety. Nonetheless, standards can bring about a counterfeit shortage, driving up costs and decreasing shopper government assistance (Ahn, 2020). They can likewise boost pirating and bootleg market exercises.

Non-Tariff Barriers: Non-tax hindrances incorporate many guidelines, norms, and managerial methods that can hinder trade. These boundaries incorporate item principles, permitting prerequisites, specialized guidelines, and sterile and phytosanitary measures (Baley et al., 2020). While some non-levy obstructions fill authentic needs, for example, guaranteeing buyer security and safeguarding the climate, they can likewise be utilized as protectionist instruments, making pointless impediments for unfamiliar makers.

Subsidies and Dumping: Endowments are monetary help given by state-run administrations to homegrown ventures, frequently determined to support creation and commodities. While sponsorships can uphold ventures, they can likewise twist contests and lead to overproduction, adversely influencing worldwide costs (Ahn, 2020). Moreover, unloading happens when merchandise is sold in unfamiliar business sectors at costs lower than their expense of creation. This training can hurt homegrown ventures bringing in the nation and lead to trade pressures.

Trade Barriers’ Implications

The ramifications of trade obstructions are sweeping and diverse. On a microeconomic level, exchange obstructions mutilate asset distribution, keeping assets from streaming to their most practical purposes. This shortcoming can prompt diminished efficiency and, in general, monetary development. At a macroeconomic level, trade obstructions can disturb worldwide worth chains and prevent the smooth working of global business sectors (Baley et al., 2020). Moreover, trade hindrances frequently bring about counter from trading accomplices, growing into trade wars that can hurt economies worldwide. Trade obstructions additionally have social and distributive ramifications (Ahn, 2020). They can increment pay disparity by safeguarding explicit businesses and permitting them to catch a more significant amount of financial advantages.

Moreover, trade boundaries lopsidedly influence lower-pay shoppers who spend a more significant part of their pay on traded merchandise. Tending to the ramifications of trade hindrances requires a reasonable methodology. While safeguarding specific ventures and public interests is significant, urgent to work out some harmony that guarantees fair contest, buyer decision, and financial development. Global associations like the World Trade Organization participate in intervening exchange questions and empowering countries to embrace straightforward and non-prejudicial trade rehearses.


In the mind-boggling dance of worldwide business, the comprehension of global terms of trade arises as an imperative compass directing countries through the intricacies of monetary collaboration. The excursion through this report has revealed insight into critical ideas that highlight the elements of global exchange – from the guideline of relative benefit to the different embroidered artwork of worldwide economic accords and the difficulties presented regarding professional career obstructions. Aggregately, these components shape the texture of present-day economies, manufacturing pathways for collaboration, specialization, and shared thriving. The idea of relative benefit helps us remember the force of specialization – the thought that zeroing in on what a country does best can upgrade asset distribution and enhance general effectiveness. Relative benefit shows the potential for cooperation and common advantage, dispersing the lost thought of exchange. Global economic alliances, spreading over the range from FTAs to customs associations and territorial exchange coalitions, grandstand the responsibility of countries to cultivate interconnectedness and extend monetary ties. These arrangements cultivate a climate where the development of labor and products streams with more noteworthy smoothness, permitting nations to exploit their novel assets. The presence of exchange boundaries highlights the difficulties that can obstruct the consistent trade of labor and products. Levies, standards, non-duty obstructions, and endowment rehearses cast shadows on the scene of worldwide exchange, misshaping markets, and preventing the acknowledgment of worldwide monetary potential. Perceiving the ramifications of these ideas is principal. By embracing the standards of relative benefit and participating in arrangements that advance open exchange, countries can get rolling a chain response that prods financial development, advancement, and improved expectations for everyday comforts. Tending to the difficulties presented by professional obstructions requires a reasonable methodology that shields homegrown interests while cultivating a climate of fair contest and shared benefits. As we explore the steadily developing scene of global exchange, we must recollect that today’s choices resonate across borders, forming the course of economies and social orders. The many-sided interchange between relative benefit, economic deals, and exchange obstructions demonstrates the intricacy of the worldwide financial framework. By extending how we interpret global terms of exchange, we outfit ourselves with the information to fashion a way toward a more interconnected, impartial, and prosperous world. Every country assumes an unmistakable part in the incredible ensemble of worldwide exchange, adding to the amicable crescendo of worldwide monetary advancement. The bits of knowledge gathered from this investigation aid policymakers, organizations, and people looking to explore the difficulties and immediately jump all over the changes introduced by the worldwide exchange scene. As we progress with our excursion, may our obligation to collaboration, development, and a shared vision drive us toward a future where the advantages of global exchange are bridled for the prosperity of all.


Ahn, J. (2020). A theory of domestic and international trade finance. Emerging market finance: New challenges and opportunities (Vol. 21, pp. 203-229). Emerald Publishing Limited.

Baley, I., Veldkamp, L., & Waugh, M. (2020). Can global uncertainty promote international trade? Journal of International Economics, 126, 103347.

Barrie, J., & Schröder, P. (2022). Circular economy and international trade: a systematic literature review. Circular Economy and Sustainability, 2(2), 447-471.

Pancsira, J. (2022). International Coffee Trade: a literature review. Journal of Agricultural Informatics, 13(1).

Prystupa, L., Koval, V., Kvach, I., & Hrymalyuk, A. (2019, September). Transformation of cycles of state regulation in international trade. In 6th International Conference on Strategies, Models, and Technologies of Economic Systems Management (SMTESM 2019) (pp. 277-280). Atlantis Press.

Sustainability-Oriented Innovation Strategy


The manufacturing industry stands at a crossroads in today’s world, engaging with pressing sustainability challenges like climate change and plastic pollution. The imperative to innovate sustainably is no longer a choice but a necessity. This report presents a comprehensive sustainability-oriented innovation strategy tailored for a manufacturing organization operating in this sector. The system seeks to identify avenues that mitigate environmental harm and pave the way for a net positive impact. With an increasingly eco-conscious consumer base and tightening regulations, the manufacturing industry must embrace a paradigm shift (Bessant & Tidd, 2014). Integrating sustainable practices into innovation processes can drive competitiveness, enhance brand reputation, and contribute to a greener future. This report demonstrates how this strategy can be actualized, focusing on a specific course of action from idea generation to market commercialization.

However, pursuing sustainability-driven innovation within the manufacturing sector is riddled with intricate challenges. These challenges span three critical dimensions: organizational, commercial, and technological. The organization’s climate stance, leadership style, and existing capabilities significantly influence the feasibility and execution of sustainability-oriented innovations (Hansen & Grosse-Dunker, 2012). Commercially, intellectual property management, identifying the right target market, and a compelling value proposition are pivotal to successful market adoption. Moreover, navigating the technological landscape, striking a balance between new and mature technologies, addressing network externalities, and understanding path dependence further constrain decision-making and implementation (Kalay & Gary, 2015). In the following sections, this report gets into the formulation and implementation of the sustainability-oriented innovation strategy of the manufacturing industry.

strategic management innovation

Main Body

One concrete approach to implementing the sustainability-oriented innovation strategy in the manufacturing sector is focusing on developing eco-friendly materials for product manufacturing. This course of action aligns with the strategy’s core principles of reducing environmental harm and creating a net positive impact.

Idea Generation

The voyage commences at the inception of ideas within the realm of imagination. Here, diverse teams spanning functions unite to conjure and explore fresh materials characterized by reduced ecological impact. Echoing the wisdom of nature, this approach unfurls avenues for mimicking natural systems to bolster sustainability (Martin-Rios et al., 2020). Insights from the natural world inspire, guiding the quest to unearth materials that emulate its efficiency. Anchored in this ethos, collaborative brainstorming sessions, workshops, and synergistic partnerships with external experts converge to kindle the flames of innovation (Kasemsap, 2017). Through this harmonious symphony of minds, the stage is set for a fertile exchange of ideas, cultivating novel concepts that bear the potential to reshape the course of progress. Thus, the seeds of transformation are sown, promising a tapestry of ingenious possibilities woven from the threads of collective ingenuity.

Research and Development

Upon identifying a promising eco-friendly material, the organization can embark on a dedicated path of Research and Development (R&D) (Ergunova et al., 2017). A steadfast investment in comprehensive exploration characterizes this pivotal stage. Rigorous testing ensues, evaluating the material’s feasibility, robustness, and harmonious integration with established manufacturing procedures. Synergizing efforts with research institutions or universities can expedite this phase, ensuring alignment with stringent industry benchmarks and a steadfast commitment to sustainability objectives. By capitalizing on external expertise, the organization harnesses a collective pool of knowledge to refine the material’s attributes. This collaborative pursuit bolsters the material’s potential for adoption and ensures its seamless transition into real-world applications. As the crucible of innovation, the R&D phase crystallizes the material’s promise, fostering a foundation upon which the edifice of sustainable progress can securely stand (Siqueira & Pitassi, 2016).

Prototyping and Testing

Once a promising eco-friendly material is identified, the next pivotal step is the creation of prototypes for thorough testing and validation. These prototypes undergo meticulous evaluations to ascertain their adherence to stringent quality standards and alignment with sustainability benchmarks. The iterative process involves garnering user insights and subjecting the prototypes to real-world trials (Mead et al., 2020). This comprehensive approach allows for the refinement of prototypes, ensuring they resonate with customers and uphold environmental considerations. This phase is a crucible of innovation, where the tangible embodiment of the eco-friendly material takes shape and is subjected to rigorous scrutiny. Quality assurance protocols are rigorously applied to measure performance and durability, validating the material’s efficacy in real-world scenarios (Goodman, 2013). Concurrently, sustainability metrics are meticulously assessed to confirm that the prototypes align with the intended environmental goals. In summary, the prototyping and testing phase encapsulates the essence of innovation in action. By subjecting eco-friendly material prototypes to robust evaluations, involving users in the process, and refining based on real-world experiences, manufacturing organizations can usher in a new era of sustainable products that harmonize customer needs with environmental consciousness.

Intellectual Property Management

As the innovation journey advances, adept Intellectual Property (IP) management becomes paramount. The organization’s imperative lies in securing patents or trademarks for the novel material and its diverse applications. This safeguarding strategy serves a dual purpose: shielding the invested efforts and preserving a distinctive competitive advantage. In a dynamic landscape where imitation can erode uniqueness, diligently managing IP ensures that the organization maintains its pioneering position (Drejer, 2006). By navigating legal intricacies and proactively securing intellectual property rights, the organization fortifies its innovative foundation, creating a fortified bulwark against potential encroachments. This strategic approach bolsters the long-term viability of eco-friendly innovation, ensuring that the ingenuity behind the new material is perpetually safeguarded and the organization’s distinctive edge remains resilient amidst the currents of change.

Market Commercialization

To capture value, the organization must create a compelling value proposition that resonates with eco-conscious consumers. Marketing efforts should highlight the eco-friendly nature of the material, its benefits for the environment, and the positive impact on customers’ lives (Altenburg & Pegels, 2017). Collaborations with retailers, sustainability certifications, and partnerships with environmental organizations can amplify the market penetration of these products. However, several factors can constrain this course of action. Organizational factors, such as the company’s commitment to sustainability and the willingness to allocate resources, influence the extent of implementation. Commercially, identifying the right target market, effectively communicating the value proposition, and pricing the eco-friendly products competitively are challenges to address. Technologically, striking a balance between innovation and compatibility with existing manufacturing processes and addressing potential network externalities in adoption are crucial considerations. Pursuing eco-friendly material development illustrates the application of the sustainability-oriented innovation strategy (Markides, 1997). By navigating organizational, commercial, and technological constraints, the manufacturing sector can achieve a transformative shift towards sustainability while capturing value in a competitive market landscape.

The organizational, commercial and technological factors

Organizational Factors

In the field of sustainability-oriented innovation within the manufacturing sector, the organizational context plays a pivotal role. Consider the example of Tesla, a real-world company renowned for its electric vehicles and commitment to sustainable practices. A resolute dedication to environmental responsibility marks Tesla’s internal climate. This climate empowers the company to steer resources toward sustainable innovation, including developing advanced battery technologies and renewable energy solutions. However, this approach may be unique. Some manufacturing organizations might need help embracing such a shift due to entrenched traditional practices or a lack of top-level endorsement. Leadership style also influences the trajectory of sustainability-oriented innovation (Talke et al., 2011). In Tesla’s case, the visionary leadership of Elon Musk propels the company’s endeavours.


Musk’s audacious goals and passion for sustainability motivate the workforce and drive innovation. Contrarily, conservative leadership styles might prioritize short-term financial gains over long-term sustainability investments. This can hinder resource allocation and dampen the enthusiasm required for transformative innovation. Capabilities constitute another organizational factor. Tesla’s cutting-edge technology and research capabilities enable them to create revolutionary products (Sammut‐Bonnici & Paroutis, 2013). However, a manufacturing company lacking expertise in sustainable materials might encounter difficulties researching and developing eco-friendly alternatives. Overcoming this limitation necessitates investment in training and partnerships with academic institutions or research organizations.

tesla vehicle sales

Commercial Factors

Turning our attention to the commercial realm, Intellectual Property (IP) management presents a complex challenge. Tesla’s aggressive stance on open-sourcing patents for electric vehicle technology showcases an unconventional approach to IP (Klewitz & Hansen, 2014). While this fosters collaboration and industry growth, it might only be viable for some companies. Others might grapple with protecting proprietary eco-friendly material formulas while navigating legal intricacies. Tesla’s target market comprises environmentally-conscious consumers who value sustainability and cutting-edge technology. However, determining the right target market for eco-friendly products remains challenging for many manufacturing organizations. For instance, if the target market is narrow enough, reducing production might become challenging due to limited demand.

On the other hand, broader markets might necessitate adjustments to pricing and messaging to attract diverse customer segments. Crafting a compelling value proposition is essential. Tesla’s value proposition stems from its ability to merge sustainability with high performance. However, not all companies possess the cachet of the Tesla brand. Communicating the benefits of eco-friendly products effectively, especially when these products might come at a premium, requires innovative marketing strategies.

tesla annual revenue

Technological Factors

Tesla’s embrace of new technology is integral to its success. The company thrives by pushing the boundaries of electric vehicles and energy storage technology. However, for many manufacturing organizations, transitioning to new technology entails risks. The challenge lies in reconciling the need for innovation with maintaining compatibility with existing manufacturing processes (Adams et al., 2016). Adopting an entirely new eco-friendly material might necessitate changes to machinery, potentially leading to disruptions in production and increased costs. Network externalities also shape the innovation landscape. Tesla’s expansive Supercharger network supports electric vehicle adoption.

Nevertheless, there is a dilemma in sectors where multiple companies need to adopt similar innovations to create a network effect. If other manufacturers follow suit in developing and adopting eco-friendly materials, the market might be willing to embrace the change. This reluctance arises from concerns over product compatibility and availability.

tesla production

Path dependence is another technological constraint. Tesla’s relatively young existence allows it to operate with limited path dependence. In contrast, long-established manufacturing companies might be anchored to existing materials and processes, reluctant to invest in unfamiliar directions. Breaking free from path dependence requires balancing honouring tradition and embracing progress. Organizational, commercial, and technological factors profoundly influence the journey from sustainability-oriented idea generation to market commercialization in manufacturing (Rubio-Andrés & Abril, 2023). These factors are interwoven and dynamic, shaping organizations’ strategies and choices. Drawing inspiration from real-world exemplars like Tesla, we can discern that the commitment to sustainability, visionary leadership, organizational capabilities, IP management, target market identification, value proposition articulation, technological compatibility, network effects, and path dependence considerations collectively shape the path toward innovation. By navigating these constraints, manufacturing companies can leverage sustainability-driven innovation to create a positive environmental impact while capturing value in an ever-evolving marketplace.

tesla in ludicrous mode


In a world beset by sustainability challenges, the imperative for innovation within the manufacturing sector stands as a beacon of hope. As exemplified by companies like Tesla, the successful realization of a sustainability-oriented innovation strategy requires a delicate dance among organizational, commercial, and technological dimensions. The journey begins within the organization itself. The climate of commitment to sustainability, driven by visionary leadership, becomes the bedrock upon which transformative ideas are nurtured (Neutzling et al., 2018). Tesla’s audacity to challenge conventions and open-source patents demonstrates the potential of leadership to reshape the commercial landscape. However, the path has hurdles. Organizational capabilities, the ability to evolve while navigating the constraints of tradition, and reskilling the workforce to embrace eco-friendly innovation are imperatives.

In the commercial realm, the strategic choices are equally profound. Identifying a target market that resonates with the sustainability ethos requires an astute understanding of customer values. Articulating a value proposition that communicates eco-friendly products’ ecological and societal benefits becomes the conduit to market acceptance. When supported by a thoughtful pricing strategy, this narrative has the potential to bridge the chasm between premium offerings and consumer wallets. Technological prowess completes the triumvirate of success. Embracing new technologies while mitigating disruptions to existing processes is a delicate balancing act. The interplay of network effects and path dependence further underscores the intricacies (Inigo et al., 2020). Achieving network effects hinges on industry-wide collaboration, a testament to the collective impact of sustainability-oriented innovation. Navigating path dependence, though challenging, is essential to liberating manufacturing companies from historical shackles and forging new pathways.

As I conclude this exploration, the synthesis of organizational commitment, shrewd commercial acumen, and adept technological navigation is the key to unlocking the transformative potential of sustainability-oriented innovation in the manufacturing sector. The experiences of real-world exemplars like Tesla serve as guideposts, illuminating the path forward.


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The Major Police-Related Offices And Their Functions During The Early English And Colonial Periods.

Policing in colonial America was crucial in American law enforcement history as it defined the present law and order enforcement system. As the European settlers crossed the Atlantic Ocean and decided to settle permanently in America during the 14th to 16th century, most of them, mainly the British, needed help settling in the new lands. The difficulties experienced in labor and resistance from indigenous people prompted the colonialists to develop policing units to enforce law and order. There were four major policing-related offices during this colonial and early English period that is the constables, slave patrols, the watches, and sheriffs.

Slave patrols were crucial policing entities during the Colonial and Early English periods designed to control the laborers, mostly those enslaved. After the colonialists were settled, the economy of partitioned colonies continued to grow, prompting the need for laborers. This led to the genesis of slavery, and enslaved Africans were relocated from Africa to the colonies to provide free labor. The number of enslaved Africans continued to outgrow due to births. Slave patrols were then established to enforce the law and control this number of enslaved Africans. The law required all landowners ( majorly white enslavers) to participate and serve in the slave patrol policing unit. The slave patrol policing unit was tasked to patrol roads and ensure that any enslaved person away from the plantation had a valid pass (Hawkins et al., 2018). Also, slave patrol policing units were to look out for illegal slave gatherings for religious purposes and lockout materials that could make enslaved people literate. Most members of this policing unit had the authority to enter plantations and slave quarters to search for weapons, runaway slaves, or any stolen items. The peak of this policing unit was during the civil war, as they became more active in preventing any slave-related insurgency.

The sheriff was another essential policing unit during the Colonial and Early English periods. This policing unit was a version of the English policing Unit known as the “Shire.” The sheriff got their appointment from the colony governor and worked in less populated areas. The sheriff was responsible for apprehending criminals, collecting taxes, supervising elections, and maintaining peace and justice (Hawkins et al., 2018). Even after the independence of America, the sheriff policing unit remained an integral unit as they continued to apprehend criminals and other violent societal threats. Presently the sheriff policing unit continues to enforce law and order, conduct investigations, and arrest offenders, mostly in less populous towns.

The final policing unit during the Colonial and Early English periods were the constables and watch. These two policing units got treated as different policing entities, each with distinct responsibilities. The constables were the law enforcers among the colonialist societies, and their duties varied depending on the size and population of the society. The constables were responsible for minor to major duties like controlling rogue children, enforcing church attendance, and supervising the watch policing unit (Hawkins et al., 2018). On the other hand, the watch policing entity consisted of only men responsible for watching over the town, mostly during the night. They looked out for fires or any other suspicious persons or activities, and each unit consisted of one constable and six watch persons. The watch used whistles or rattles to warn other men or townspeople of danger.

In conclusion, the policing unit during the colonial and Early English periods was quite organized though it could have been more sophisticated. Each of the four policing units had a distinct and crucial policing role to play that aided the established colonies in achieving law and order enforcement even during challenging periods like the Civil War. Furthermore, these policing units defined the American policing structure we witness.


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