Representing Childhood – Children’s Rights Essay Example

“The right of the child” was envisioned by Swedish feminist Ellen Key in her best-known work, “The Century of the Child (1900) as the central concern of modern society”. There were already similar initiatives to facilitate children in previous decades before 1900. Many people struggle with categorizing, managing, and safeguarding the ephemeral “Child.”

Child labor was outlawed or severely restricted almost everywhere in Western nations by 1900. The United States was a few years ahead of Britain when laws ended child labor, but this didn’t happen until 1918. Margaret McMillan was one of the most vociferous champions for reforms to enhance the quality of life for every child.

Since its establishment in the early twentieth century, the “National Child Labor Committee” in the United States has faced resistance in state compliance. Meanwhile, a slew of organizations in the U.S. and U.K. focused on various other facets of children’s welfare, from increasing the obligatory school age to teaching parents about proper cleanliness and child-rearing.

Because of advances in research and a heightened focus on maternal and child health throughout the first two decades of the twenty-first century, decreasing infant mortality rates showed that such initiatives on behalf of the child were having an impact. Unfortunately, further issues arose due to the deteriorating economic climate and the growing liberties enjoyed by women and children. It was difficult for the child’s family to provide for him now that he was alive but not working. This question sparked a lively discussion. On the other hand, many who relied on their children to make a livelihood during the Great Depression, which lasted for nearly ten years until the outbreak of WWII, were among those opposed to child labor laws (M. Campbell,). They contended that the state had no jurisdiction to stop youngsters from supporting their families in the manner they had traditionally done.

“True parental love” could only thrive if “the kid was characterized purely as an object of feeling and not an agent of production,” proponents of child labor laws contended. Children were long regarded as an economic asset and should thus be permitted to drain family resources instead of contributing to their survival. Increased demand for educated professionals and stronger compulsory education legislation contributed to the reality that more and more youngsters were receiving extensive schooling.

When women gained the right to vote in the 1920s, they brought new ideas about marriage and parenthood. The husband-dominated Victorian home gave way to a more egalitarian model known as “companionate family.” Immigrant couples, particularly those who could afford to marry, began to emphasize love as a factor in their decision-making.

In the 1930s, many families were forced to incorporate extended family members, fostering a sense of closeness and allowing children to have many adult caregivers at home. Many families were also forced to put their children in labor or care for their younger siblings during WWII, which made things more difficult. New problems and worries arose as more and more outside the house-shaped children’s personalities.

Juvenile courts are primarily a product of American law, a reaction to “adult worries about the hazards presented by the very teenage peer cultures that public policy’s division of children into age-specific categories encouraged” (Sealander 20). By the 1930s, parents were already concerned about their children’s moral growth because of a lack of parental monitoring. Because of this danger, the law expanded the concept of childhood following age-based responsibility and punishment.

More and more of America’s jail population was made up of people under the age of eighteen as the century wore on, particularly in states where gun ownership is less tightly regulated than in the United Kingdom (M. Campbell,). In the mid-century, the incidence of detention for teens dropped, even though adults’ concerns about their conduct increased even when the law began to differentiate between children as well as adults in relations to punishment. The controversy over whether a teenager should be tried as an adult remains to rage today.

The “Baby Boom” generation was born in the mid-1940s when the birth rate in the United States reached an all-time high. Parents might lavish their children with material goods with greater money and devote more time and attention to their children’s emotional and cognitive requirements. Educational programming grew significantly during the 1960s and 1970s, making period spent in front of “the tube” more productive.

Parenting in the twentieth century was marked by irrational fear, as per Peter N. Stearns. Even though the number of children who died or were orphaned was far lower than in previous centuries, parental worry rose throughout this period. Children were significantly more likely to be molested by their own families than by strangers.

Even after segregation was abolished, many low-income and minority kids are still forced to attend underfunded and underperforming schools. Millions of children are affected by poverty and insufficient health care. Many young people worldwide are dying from hunger, AIDS, or other avoidable illnesses. Political discussions on whether video games encourage violence seem particularly ludicrous in the face of such serious challenges.

Many children’s lives were bettered as a consequence of the “civil rights as well as women’s rights movements of the 1960s and 1970s.” Changes in children’s literature as well as culture reflected these breakthroughs. A period commenced with “Beatrix Potter’s The Tale of Peter Rabbit (1900), L. Frank Baum’s The Wizard of Oz (1900), L.M. Montgomery’s Anne of Green Gables (1908), and P.L. Travers’ Mary Poppins (1934) gave birth to the following: Maurice Sendak’s Where the Wild Things Are (1963), Judy Blume’s Are You There God, It’s Me, Margaret (1970), Mildred Taylor’s Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry (1976), and, of course, J.K. Rowling’s stories of the boy wizard, Harry Potter.”

Pocahontas (1995) & Mulan (2000), two films by Walt Disney, are famed for reimagining old folktales into musicals. When children of color began to see themselves depicted in ways other than traditional or condescending ways, gender norms became less oppressive for everyone. Writers explored new approaches to language, character development, and narrative structure. “Roald Dahl, Virginia Hamilton, Jon Scieszka, and Lemony Snicket” pushed the boundaries with their sarcastic, dark, as well as literature books.

Ellen Key’s forecasts of a “Century of the Child” have come to fruition, if not quite as she had hoped, in that the majority of people now support programs to improve the lives of children and assist them in becoming successful content adults. But despite decades of attempts to define and safeguard youth, the border between children and adults remains incredibly hazy. Children in today’s society are being encouraged to behave like adults too early, whether wearing makeup and high-heels to participate in beauty pageants or performing educationally at a young age while balancing several additional activities. Even as teenagers and young adults strive to look their best in our youth-obsessed world, adults resort to drastic methods like cosmetic surgery and anorexia. In what year does childhood end? What are the characteristics of a typical family? Our romantic forebears defined infancy as a time of innocence. The state should adequately protect child rights worldwide and in the United States. Regardless of how far we’ve progressed, these issues still need to be addressed.

Works Cited

Mintz, Steven and Susan Kellogg. Domestic Revolutions: A Social History of American Family Life. New York: The Free Press/Collier Macmillan, 1988.

M. Campbell, Lori. “Historical Essays: The Twentieth-Century Child.”,

Steedman, Carolyn. Childhood, Culture, and Class in Britain: Margaret McMillan, 1860-1931. London: Virago, 1990.

Seiter, Ellen. Sold Separately: Children and Parents in Consumer Culture. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1993.

Sealander, Judith. The Failed Century of the Child: Governing America’s Young in the Twentieth Century. New York: Cambridge UP, 2003.

Stearns, Peter N. Anxious Parents: A History of Modern Child-rearing in America. New York: New York UP, 2003.

Zelizer, Viviana A. Pricing the Priceless Child: The Changing Social Value of Children. New York: HarperCollins, 1985.

Research Matrix And Literature Synthesis: Dementia Free Essay

The prevalence of dementia and its effect has made it a global problem and a significant concern. In this regard, medical researchers have committed to seeking better research-based interventions that provide more effective solutions to dementia. This study examines seven research-based articles that analyze and recommend research-based interventions to deal with dementia.

The clinical problem under examination in the matrix is dementia among the aged. Dementia is defined as a disease that impairs one’s ability to think, remember, make decisions or perform everyday tasks and activities. Dementia primarily affects the aged and may, in some cases, be so severe that it may cause headaches. In most cases, dementia may be associated with other diseases and conditions. Globally, over 55 million people have dementia, while 60% live in low and middle-income countries. Among people over 65, 7.1% have dementia, which is equivalent to 1 in every 14 people. Clinical outcomes on interventions range in the level of improvement depicted by people who have dementia. These include; music therapy, pharmacological or drug interventions, cognitive stimulation therapy, reminiscence therapy, validation therapy, reality orientation, physical exercise, and also multisensory stimulation. However the focus of this study is mainly in regard to the evidence-based approaches and interventions.

The purpose of this paper is to seek non-pharmacologicalnon-pharmacological interventions that have been proven as effective in treating dementia. The non-pharmacologicalnon-pharmacological interventions are more effective as they focus on reducing pain stress, encouraging positive changes in behavior, reducing depression, and increasing self and environmental awareness. While searching for the article to best use in my research, the Key terms I used were “Non-pharmacological,” “dementia,” “evidence based interventions,” and also ” the aged” However. This gave results that were more ambiguous and in large numbers. I also, at times, joined these words into phrases for easier searching using Pubmed, CINHAL Excerpt Medical Database (EMBASE), Cochrane, and Science direct. I mostly prefer using Google scholar as it provides access to all these databases and more. It also had more effective filters. Also when I was unable to quickly find an article, I would add more of the keywords to the search tab.

The seven articles test I chose to use in the research varied significantly in terms of the recommended interventions, their criteria for analyzing interventions, the research techniques, and the methods. Most of the articles I used employed secondary data analysis or archival study techniques. This method was referred to as the systematic research technique. However, some qualitative and quantitative studies involved participants and employed participant observation and interviews for clarification. The articles also examined several evidence-based interventions that have been validated as effective in dealing with people with dementia. These include reality orientation, physical exercises, validation therapy, reminiscence therapy, and multisensory stimulation. These interventions are best enforced by the people around the patients daily. The repetitive nature of these activities helps boost their memory and functioning cognitive sense and eliminate instances of disruptive behaviors. They shape the behaviors of the people suffering so that they can remember more and consequently eliminate the symptoms of dementia.

After examining all these seven articles in my study, I noticed that while the quantitative and qualitative studies provided adequate solutions, their scope was limited. They recommended a limited range of interventions that they saw as effective as the research listed them. However, the systematic approach studies proved to be more effective, had more comprehensive coverage, and provided a more in-depth analysis of the interventions covered. They provided a more thorough and adequate analysis of the interventions they recommended from various databases and research works by other researchers. However, they too lacked the validation of being primary sources as the research works were only accepted due to several independent types of research. This effect might be detrimental such that a single error in research by one author is quickly passed on as an actual research conclusion or finding by the next. Also, their research lacks some accuracy as the systematic reviews provided information regarding articles that had even been researched on over ten years ago hence presenting a difficulty in cases that have changed. A particular intervention is no longer practical or applicable to more recent cases.

Overly, the study has effectively depicted how evidence-based interventions in dealing with dementia are applicable. Despite their little use, these interventions provide practical ways to deal with dementia and have little to no side effects as a result. They also focus on different aspects depending on the recommended use. Some focus on behavioral change, others on cognitive functioning, while others seek to reduce various symptoms and boost brain regeneration. The research has also effectively shown how to conduct searches of articles and filter out irrelevant information. While there are many medical databases and spruces of information, they have varying degrees of credibility, and also the level of approval required varies from one to another. This study has effectively shown this and how developments can be made to ensure better research in the future.


Ballard, C., Corbett, A., Orrell, M., Williams, G., Moniz-Cook, E., Romeo, R., … & Fossey, J. (2018). Impact of person-centered care training and person-centred activities on quality of life, agitation, and antipsychotic use in people with dementia living in nursing homes: A cluster-randomized controlled trial. PLoS medicine15(2), e1002500.

Ballard, C., Orrell, M., Sun, Y., Moniz‐Cook, E., Stafford, J., Whitaker, R., … & Fossey, J. (2017). Impact of antipsychotic review and non-pharmacological-pharmacological intervention on health‐related quality of life in people with dementia living in care homes: WHELD—a factorial cluster randomized controlled trial. International journal of geriatric psychiatry32(10), 1094-1103.

Dyer, S. M., Harrison, S. L., Laver, K., Whitehead, C., & Crotty, M. (2018). An overview of systematic reviews of pharmacological and non-pharmacologicalnon-pharmacological interventions for treating behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. International psychogeriatrics30(3), 295-309.

Moreno-Morales, C., Calero, R., Moreno-Morales, P., & Pintado, C. (2020). Music therapy in the treatment of dementia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Frontiers in medicine7, 160.

Scales, K., Zimmerman, S., & Miller, S. J. (2018). Evidence-based non-pharmacologicalnon-pharmacological practices to address behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. The Gerontologist58(suppl_1), S88-S102.

Resistance To Digital Transformation Change Free Writing Sample


Digital transformation may fail even if a business, industry, or environment can integrate technological tools, operations, and capability at every level and function. The intentional and prioritized transformation of business and organization processes, capacities, and models to maximize the value of digital technology’s changing and increasing effects on society now and in the future, is what we mean by “digital transformation” (Vaska et al., 2021). Resistance to digital transformation change is the main contributor to why digital transformation fails. The incorporation and acceptance of change have played a significant role in the organization’s current operations. Dissatisfaction among the company’s top executives, management staff, and transformational managers may be exacerbated by a lack of competency in these groups’ attitudes and leadership styles. Scholars have found out that the lack of communication by the company’s management at all stages of its change contributes to employee resistance to digital transformation change.

Regardless of how logical the change may be, individuals may fear losing essential things if they embrace it. For example, individuals may oppose change if they believe it will cost them a lot of time and effort. As a result of a lack of trust, a scenario like this might occur throughout the transformation process leading to digital transformation failure. Various publications are devoted to figuring out the underlying causes of each person’s resistance. In addition, there are several literature reviews on the development of management counsel on how to tackle these challenges (Scholkmann, 2021). Also, some of these studies examines resistance as a human trait or attitude that contributes to the failure of digital transformation. Organizational resistance or antagonism to the desired change may be explained by various factors, including people’s values, motives, emotions, and cognitive conceptions. In this literature review, the challenge of overcoming the reluctance of employees to digital transformation Change as the key reason for failure in digital transformations is studied in depth.

Employee Resistance to Digital Transformation Change

To remain competitive in the digital economy, businesses must make rapid changes to stay current. Companies must convert themselves into trustworthy business transformation partners and respond quickly to market shifts and client expectations to remain at pace with their competition. Scholars demonstrate that organizational barriers to change are a significant reason for the failure or poor progress of the majority of these transformation endeavors. Breaking past these obstacles is tough because individuals and businesses have different reactions to change. As a result of decades of study, several theories, and models, managing change successfully has become a critical ability in most businesses. According to (Kapur 2018), enterprises that follow a deliberate strategy transform progress from one state to the next. However, a significant obstacle that organizations encounter when they go through transitions is the presence of resistance (Solis, 2017). There will always be a degree of reluctance to embrace new ideas and ways of doing things. Organizational resistance may be a sign that employees are skeptical about whether or not the proposed changes will be adopted and impact their day-to-day lives. As an alternative to dismissing criticism, firms should quickly identify and address these problems (Kostakis & Kargas, 2021).

While an industry is expanding, it is vital to have a strong idea of how resistance develops and effects individual attitudes. There are several ways in which the organization’s opposition manifests itself. First, people are disturbed by change, whether favorable or bad, since they need stability (Das et al., 2020). Individuals are averse to change since it necessitates altering their work habits, job descriptions, authority structures, and personal habits. It was observed that resistance from workers was the most common hurdle to substantial transitions in firms studied by (Repovš et al., 2019). Furthermore, the authors claim that management must pay equal attention to the human aspects and the technological aspects.

Resistance as a Psychological Feature or Disposition

As an organization’s opposition to embracing digital transformation grows, its difficulty in overcoming these obstacles (Solis, 2017). According to Kotter (n.d.), an organization’s environment is a barrier to change because of resistance. Lewin argues that there will constantly be forces opposing and urging change, and that this resistance must be dealt with. (Burnes & Bargal, 2017). As a follow-up to Lewin’s work, Kotter and Schlesinger (2013) examined a few more reasons for resistance to change. There are various reasons for this, including habit, fear of the unknown, concern about the influence on the economy, a belief that change would only bring about bad things, and a general aversion to it. To put it another way, resistance to change might be motivated by the fear of losing something valuable or significant (Eliot partnership, 2022). All of these factors must be considered when formulating sound change management methods.

There is a substantial body of research on the unfavorable attitudes of employees regarding the execution of a transformation program. Systemic (cognitive) and behavioral (emotional) resistance may be categorized, where systemic refers to a lack of information, skills, knowledge, or management capabilities, while behavioral refers to preconceptions, perceptions, and responses. Employees aren’t the only ones who show opposition; bosses afraid of the unknown and the status quo also offer resistance (Llopis, 2017; Issah, 2018). Mosadeghrad & Ansarian (2014) found that top management’s inability to support and commit to change is the most severe impediment. It has been suggested that if the criticism is regularly communicated implicitly and passively, it might slow the rate at which transformative projects advance (Iasbech and Lavarda, 2018).

Resistance Due To Employee’s Perceptions of Fairness and Justice

Rehman et al. (2021) offered a comprehensive analysis of people’s resistance to transformation. The amount of resistance to change varies across workers, depending on how the change is handled. The first step in ensuring that employees are ready for change is to assess the potential effect the change will have on their current norms, expectations, and values, and then consider how best to manage and prepare for it psychologically (Burnes, 2015). Change procedures that impact employee views of fairness and justice and promote healthy supervisor-employee relationships should be given greater attention, according to some research, since they might lead to either supportive or counterproductive responses to change from workers. (Georgalis et al., 2015).

Failure of the Transformation Project to Make Sense at the Initiation Phase

In order to prepare for the change, it is necessary to determine the goal, effectively articulate an objective for increased employee participation, and make preparations the transition. An organization’s ability to successfully undertake an extensive transformation program rests heavily on its ability to anticipate, recognize, and accept the change that is taking place. The commencement of a transformation effort must make sense. Many studies have shown that employees’ willingness to accept change is impacted by the message sent by management (Parsells, 2017). Effective communication is essential during the “change implementation” phase, as defined by Lewin’s paradigm. Communication that emphasizes the main message for change is necessary for change to occur, as stated by (Workeneh and Abebe, 2019). The ability to effectively convey a change’s vision and rationale are critical. Before implementing the modification, it is necessary to clarify the procedure.

According to Venkatraman (2017), firms can no longer rely on their current market positions in the future market because they must develop purpose-driven objectives and strategy manifestations that clearly define the reason for the transition. It’s essential for every board of directors to clearly understand its mission and vision for change (Carlisi et al., 2017). As businesses and teams undergo many transitions, change must be communicated to inspire and lead employees. A lack of clarity or effective communication about changes might lead to a lack of staff buy-in. Valentine emphasizes the necessity of a strong executive monitoring. According to him, improved cooperation across businesses, more consumer involvement, staff creativity and efficiency, and precise data extraction are all benefits of digital transformation that may help your company grow and prosper. There’s a high opportunity for your firm to succeed even under difficult circumstances because of it Leaders must be mindful of the disturbance caused by the shift. An executive’s capacity to assess and interpret the change in light of the organizations past, present, and underlying culture cannot be overstated. (Mallon 2020; By, Armenakis, and Burnes, 2015), in their research, claim that neglecting to recognize the underlying values and beliefs might have detrimental effects for all stakeholders. People’s anxiety and uncertainty may be lessened by implementing changes consistent with the current corporate culture (Erdurmazli, 2020).

Resistance Due To Misunderstanding the Significance of Change Management

According to a recent research, digitization should be handled in a complete manner (Parviainen et al., 2017). Managerial conflicts, project group method, and expertise are all taken into consideration in this author’s research. Change management is also examined after the company’s initial defining of its position, expectations, and sense of direction. Middle management is also mentioned in the literature as a critical component of a successful transition. During this transition phase or implementation, the previously identified influential individuals or change leaders will be driving the transformation process. According to the research, many businesses expect middle managers to lead the change since they don’t understand the relevance of change management. Research by Kapur (2018) found that workers’ attitudes might be severely impacted if middle management was not well trained to handle this transition. Change agents, according to research, need to be equipped with a particular set of skills to be successful. Some writers have suggested that workers who want greater openness, inclusion, and extensive communication are more likely to reject directives to effect change. They must be able to pay attention, engage, and comprehend from the rest of the organisation in intended to assist them in their transition into new roles (Solis, 2017). They must be able to persuade their coworkers and address their worries in order to succeed in implementing this change. There were a number of change leadership attributes discovered by (Akpoveta 2019) that were centered on coaching and building the team.

When determining the company’s future, (Parviainen and associates, 2017) recommend analyzing the company’s digitalization implications. An understanding of ongoing and prospective digitalization trends and the dynamic capabilities of the organization are required to achieve this. Similarly, Lee and Edmondson, (2017) ascertain that, decentralization of management and the creation of self-managing groups have been underlined by several experts during the last few decades. In the same way, Roghé and other authors believe that by doing so, the organization will be able to reduce communication gaps, improve employee morale and become more agile, all of which will lead to faster project completion times. Management and change managers must guarantee that the business and IT strategies of the firm remain in sync even when the company is transitioning. (Manca et al., 2018). (Roghé et al., 2019) and (Walsh & Volini, 2017) show that existing organizational design has to be improved (literally).

Research conducted by Deloitte found that when companies and functions are delayed, leaders driving change can make deeper links with frontline people, allowing them to respond rapidly to change and foster a climate of collaboration. According to the views of Lambert and Rosen (2018), a lack of cross-functionality and insufficient size among the change teams might be a problem. Workers avoid adopting agile approaches because they are afraid of being questioned. Teams and organizations might hit a snag if they have such agile failures. We need to work together more in order to grow and acquire new talents, says Venkatraman, a researcher in the field. Teams and employees would be empowered and energized to respond quickly to changes in the environment if this strategy were implemented.

Pressure on the Employee to Change

According to research by (Parry et al., 2014), this transition period might be stressful for workers since they are being asked to do too much in a short amount of time. Leaders who are responsible for driving change must maintain momentum by focusing on short-term accomplishments and victories, according to Kotter’s study. Enthusiasm and change leaders’ help is considered crucial at this time. Many individuals abandon up throughout the change process if they don’t see short-term successes that instill urgency and show progress. Another significant finding from Kotter’s analysis of diverse firms was that management proclaims victory when things are going well prematurely. There is essentially no momentum left in the process, and this step’s resistors take control and bring the change to a standstill.

When new methods, approaches, and techniques are introduced, managers must take conscious steps to demonstrate how they might boost productivity. For a company’s workforce to thrive, it must provide both intrinsic and extrinsic motivations that foster a feeling of belonging and community, as well as opportunities for growth and development (Goler et al., 2018). Inadequate performance and incentive systems in the workplace may have many adverse effects. One size does not fit all; however, studies have pointed out that rewards and incentives must be aligned with the organization’s strategic aims. Rather than being a simply administrative function, human resources is increasingly taking on the role of a mentor for both managers and employees. By providing ongoing encouragement and support, it elevates the status of middle managers. For this reason, it is crucial to make use of all available resources to ensure that the right individuals are brought in and that the organization’s leaders develop their leadership skills. (Vaska et al., 2021).


In conclusion, researchers and scholars like Venkatraman (2017) and Kotter, Lewin, and Solis (2017) have already noted that organizational impediments to digitalization and the various stages of the change process are consistent with this study’s results. Further, these studies have helped fill in other gaps with additional impediments observed throughout the years. Digital turnarounds may be severely hindered by organizations being too cautious about the obstacles they face. When it comes to implementing change, it might be challenging for staff. This includes discussions on change by senior management and other leaders. Firms must invest in their workers’ training and prepare them for the digital future to avoid becoming a hindrance. Traditional leadership approaches give a more incredible difficulty in dealing with competition’s complexity and rapid growth. It’s time for managers to adopt new approaches like taking chances, embracing ambiguity, and making decisions on the fly. Leaders often focus on the aims and ambitions of a particular department while providing information, which is rare. The whole transition process may be held if there isn’t a unified management front. There must be alignment between business and IT executives from multiple departments and increased engagement with teams and support teams for transformation to be effective.

Many large and small enterprises, both large and small, face both a danger and an opportunity from new digital technologies, which were developed in the pre-digital age. As their sectors become more digital, these businesses will be left behind. In order to accomplish their digital visions, firms must quickly adapt to new procedures, implement agile approaches, and teach their workers to operate in new ways. According to Lewin’s model, many obstacles contribute to resistance, which causes changes to be delayed or fail. Based on our results, we may infer that hurdles and resistance originate at the company’s top and spread down the chain, influencing everyone else. Transforming a company may be difficult if the organization, the project team, and the organization’s agility aren’t aligned. If the company’s transformation vision and objective aren’t clearly stated, it might be challenging to achieve.


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